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A-Teens (stylized as A*Teens) were a Swedish pop music group from Stockholm, Sweden, formed by Niklas Berg in 1998 as an ABBA tribute band called ABBA Teens and later renamed A-Teens.
ABBA are a Swedish pop group, formed in Stockholm in 1972 by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad.
Ace of Base was a Swedish pop group, originally consisting of Ulf Ekberg and three siblings: Jonas Berggren, Linn Berggren and Jenny Berggren.
Acne Studios is a multidisciplinary luxury fashion house based in Stockholm, Sweden.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Aftonbladet is a Swedish evening newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
AGA AB, previously AB Gasaccumulator and AB Svenska Gasaccumulator, was a Swedish industrial gas company founded in 1904.
Agenda is a Swedish TV program broadcast on Sveriges Television dealing with current events.
Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
Akvavit or aquavit (also akevitt in Norwegian) is a distilled spirit that is principally produced in Scandinavia, where it has been produced since the 15th century.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.
The Allerød oscillation (Allerødtiden) was a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred c.13,900 to 12,900 BP, nearly at the end of the last glacial period.
The Alliance (Alliansen), formerly the Alliance for Sweden (Allians för Sverige), is a centre-right political alliance in Sweden.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Amon Amarth is a Swedish melodic death metal band from Tumba, formed in 1992.
Anders Celsius (27 November 170125 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician.
Anders Leonard Zorn (18 February 1860 – 22 August 1920) was one of Sweden's foremost artists.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anja Sofia Tess Pärson (born 25 April 1981) is a Swedish former alpine skier.
Annika Sörenstam (born 9 October 1970) is a retired Swedish professional golfer.
Saint Ansgar (8 September 801 – 3 February 865), also known as Anskar or Saint Anschar, was a Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen – a northern part of the Kingdom of the East Franks.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arboga is a locality and the seat of Arboga Municipality in Västmanland County, Sweden with 10,330 inhabitants in 2010.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
This is a list of countries and territories in Europe by population density.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
On Friday, 28 February 1986, at 23:21 CET (22:21 UTC), Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden, was fatally wounded by a single gunshot while walking home from a cinema with his wife Lisbet Palme on the central Stockholm street Sveavägen.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren (born Ericsson;; 14 November 1907 – 28 January 2002) was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atlas Copco is a Swedish industrial company that was founded in 1873.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The automatic identification system (AIS) is an automatic tracking system used on ships and by vessel traffic services (VTS).
Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna af Södermöre (1583–1654), Count of Södermöre, was a Swedish statesman.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.
Øresund or Öresund (Øresund,; Öresund), commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden).
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen,; Öresundsbron,; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark.
Świnoujście (Swinemünde, both names meaning Świna mouth) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland.
In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.
The Backstreet Boys (often abbreviated as BSB) are an American vocal group, formed in Orlando, Florida in 1993.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.
Bathory were an extreme metal band formed in Vällingby, Sweden, in 1983 named after Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory.
The Battle of Kircholm (27 September 1605, or 17 September in the Old Style calendar then in use in Protestant countries) was one of the major battles in the Polish–Swedish War.
The Battle of Kliszów (Klissow) (Klezow) took place on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19, 1702 (Gregorian calendar) near Kliszów, Poland-Lithuania, during the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Lützen (16 November 1632) was one of the most important battles of the Thirty Years' War, which began with the Second Defenestration of Prague in 1618 and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Narva (Битва при Нарве; Slaget vid Narva) on (20 November in the Swedish transitional calendar) was an early battle in the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Nördlingen (Schlacht bei Nördlingen; Batalla de Nördlingen; Slaget vid Nördlingen) was fought in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August (Julian calendar) or 6 September (Gregorian calendar).
The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Björn Rune Borg (born 6 June 1956) is a Swedish former world No. 1 tennis player widely considered to be one of the greatest in the history of the sport.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.
Borgholm Castle (Borgholms slott) in Borgholm, Sweden, is today only a ruin of the fortress that was first built in the second half of the 13th century and rebuilt many times in later centuries.
Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is an American singer, dancer, and actress.
The Bromme culture (Brommekultur) is a late Upper Paleolithic culture dated to c. 11 600 to 9 800 cal BC, which corresponds to the second half of the Allerød Oscillation.
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
Cabinet collective responsibility, also known as collective ministerial responsibility, is a constitutional convention in Parliamentary systems that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Nils Daniel Carl Bildt (born 15 July 1949) is a conservative Swedish politician and diplomat who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994.
Carl Larsson (28 May 1853 – 22 January 1919) was a Swedish painter representative of the Arts and Crafts movement.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carl Michael Bellman (4 February 1740 – 11 February 1795) was a Swedish songwriter, composer, musician, poet and entertainer.
Carl Milles (23 June 1875 – 19 September 1955) was a Swedish sculptor.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
Carolina Evelyn Klüft (born 2 February 1983) is a retired Swedish track and field athlete who competed in the heptathlon, triple jump, long jump, and pentathlon.
Sara Caroline Seger (born 19 March 1985) is a Swedish footballer who plays as a midfielder for the Sweden women's national football team and FC Rosengård of the Swedish Damallsvenskan.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catalina affair (Catalinaaffären) was a military confrontation and Cold War-era diplomatic crisis in June 1952, in which Soviet Air Force fighter jets shot down two Swedish aircraft over international waters in the Baltic Sea.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centre Party (Centerpartiet, abbreviated C) is a liberal and agrarian political party in Sweden.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Charles XIII & II also Carl, Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.
Marina Charlotte Kalla (born 22 July 1987) is a Swedish cross-country skier who has been competing at international level since the 2003–04 season.
Cheap Monday is a Swedish clothing label.
Cheiron Studios was a recording studio located in the Kungsholmen district of Stockholm, Sweden.
The Children's Food Trust (formerly the School Food Trust, renamed in 2012) was a charity in the United Kingdom that sought to promote healthy eating for children.
The Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna, KD) is a Christian democratic political party in Sweden.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian II (1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden.
City commission government is a form of local government in the United States.
Civil registration is the system by which a government records the vital events (births, marriages, and deaths) of its citizens and residents.
The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an annual publication by Germanwatch and Climate Action Network Europe.
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sweden (Sveriges riksvapen) has a lesser and a greater version.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft.
The consolidation of Sweden involved an extensive process during which the loosely organized social system consolidated under the power of the king.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed on 14 August 1814 between the Swedish King and the Norwegian government.
Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup (Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup) is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, the entire Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden (not only Scania).
Copenhagen Malmö Port AB (CMP) operates the ports in Denmark's capital Copenhagen and in Sweden's third largest city, Malmö.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornus sanguinea, the common dogwood, is a species of dogwood native to most of Europe and western Asia, from England and central Scotland east to the Caspian Sea.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Corylus avellana, the common hazel, is a species of hazel native to Europe and western Asia, from the British Isles south to Iberia, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, north to central Scandinavia, and east to the central Ural Mountains, the Caucasus, and northwestern Iran.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council on Legislation (Lagrådet) is a Swedish Government Agency composed of current and former justices of the Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
The counties of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges län) are the top-level geographic subdivisions of Sweden.
A county administrative board (länsstyrelse) is a Swedish Government Agency in each of the counties of Sweden, led by a Governor (landshövding) appointed by the government for a term of six years.
A county council (landsting) is a self-governing local authority and one of the principal administrative subdivisions of Sweden.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
A crayfish party is a traditional summertime eating and drinking celebration in the Nordic countries.
Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
There are several methods for measuring the prevalence of crime.
Crispbread (knäckebröd, hårt bröd, hårdbröd, spisbröd, knäcke, knækbrød, knekkebrød, näkkileipä, näkileib, hrökkbrauð, knekkbreyð, 'Knäckebrot' or 'Knäcke', Knackbrood, knäckebröd) is a flat and dry type of bread or cracker, containing mostly rye flour.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Dagen H (H day), today usually called "Högertrafikomläggningen" ("The right-hand traffic diversion"), was the day on 3 September 1967, in which the traffic in Sweden switched from driving on the left-hand side of the road to the right.
Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Dalby is a locality and short-lived (11th century) former Latin Catholic diocese situated in Lund Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 6464 inhabitants in 2017.
Dalsland is a Swedish traditional province, or landskap, situated in Götaland in southern Sweden.
Danderyd Municipality (Danderyds kommun) is a municipality north of Stockholm in Stockholm County in east central Sweden.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Danish cuisine (det danske køkken) originated from the peasant population's own local produce and was enhanced by cooking techniques developed in the late 19th century and the wider availability of goods after the Industrial Revolution.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dag Krister “Dagge” Volle (26 April 1963 – 30 August 1998), better known as Denniz Pop (stylized Denniz PoP), was a Swedish DJ, music producer and songwriter.
The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion, participation and exercise and other disease prevention activities.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Digital terrestrial television was launched in Sweden in 1999.
Diplomatic correspondence is correspondence between one state and another, usually – though not exclusively – of a formal character.
The Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion is a Directorate-General of the European Commission.
The dissolution of the union (Unionsoppløsningen; Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: Unionsoppløysingi; Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Norwegian Parliament (the Storting) on 7 June 1905.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
A domestic partnership is an interpersonal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are not married (to each other or to anyone else), but they receive a lot of benefits that guarantee rights of survivor ship, hospital visitation and others.
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner with tailwheel-type landing gear.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
The Drottningholm Palace (Drottningholms slott) is the private residence of the Swedish royal family.
DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways), is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia.
"Du gamla, du fria" is the de facto national anthem of Sweden.
Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus or Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Econ Journal Watch is a triannual peer-reviewed electronic journal established in 2004.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
The economy of Sweden is a developed export-oriented economy aided by timber, hydropower, and iron ore.
The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index every year, which consists of the Education index, GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index.
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
Eketorp is an Iron Age fort in southeastern Öland, Sweden, which was extensively reconstructed and enlarged in the Middle Ages.
The Swedish Election Authority (Valmyndigheten), is a Government agency responsible for organizing national elections and referendums in Sweden.
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years.
Electrolux AB (commonly known as Electrolux) is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Stockholm.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emil of Lönneberga (from Swedish: Emil i Lönneberga) is a series of children's novels by Astrid Lindgren.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An energy tax is a tax that increases the price of energy (Fisher et al., 1996, p. 416).
The Enforcement Authority (Kronofogdemyndigheten; literally: The Crown Bailiff Authority) is a government agency handling debt collection, distraint and evictions in Sweden.
The England runestones (Swedish: Englandsstenarna) is a group of about 30 runestones that refer to Viking Age voyages to England.
Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
The equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics were held in Stockholm due to the Australian quarantine regulations and included dressage, eventing, and show jumping.
The Eric Chronicle (Swedish: Erikskrönikan) is the oldest surviving Swedish chronicle.
Eric IX of Sweden, (Swedish: Erik Jedvardsson; Erik den helige; died 18 May 1160), also called Eric the Lawgiver, Erik the Saint, Eric the Holy, and, in Sweden, Sankt Erik, meaning Saint Eric, was a Swedish king c. 1156-60.
Eric the Victorious (Old Norse: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish: Erik Segersäll; about 945? – about 995) was a Swedish monarch as of around 970.
Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.
Erik Wallenberg (25 December 1915 – 18 October 1999) was a Swedish engineer.
Esaias Tegnér (Värmland –, Växjö, Småland), was a Swedish writer, professor of Greek language, and bishop.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Euonymus europaeus (spindle, European spindle, common spindle) is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
Europe is a Swedish rock band formed in Upplands Väsby in 1979,http://www.dn.se/arkiv/teater/hardrock-tog-priset-enkopingsband-vann-rock-sm/ by vocalist Joey Tempest, guitarist John Norum, bass guitarist Peter Olsson, and drummer Tony Reno.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Parliament election of 2004 in Sweden was the election of MEP representing Sweden constituency for the 2004-2009 term of the European Parliament.
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Sweden was held on 7 June 2009 and determined the makeup of the Swedish delegation to the European Parliament.
European Parliament elections in Sweden took place on 25 May 2014.
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research facility based on what will be the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
In England, local authorities are required to adopt one of three types of executive arrangements, which govern how decisions will be made within the council.
Expressen ("The Express") is one of two nationwide evening newspapers in Sweden, the other being Aftonbladet.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Vetenskap och Folkbildning (Swedish: Science and Popular Enlightenment) or The Swedish Skeptics' Association, abbreviated as VoF, is a Swedish skeptics' association.
Feminist Initiative (Feministiskt initiativ, abbreviated FI, Fi or F!) is a radical feminist political party in Sweden.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.
Filippa K is a Swedish clothing company.
Financialization is a term sometimes used to describe the development of financial capitalism during the period from 1980 until 2010, in which debt-to-equity ratios increased and financial services accounted for an increasing share of national income relative to other sectors.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finns proper (from Swedish Finnar or egentliga Finnar, Varsinaissuomalaiset) are a historic people and a modern subgroup (heimo) of the Finnish people.
First grade (called Year 2 in the UK) is the first grade in elementary school.
The First Swedish Crusade was a mythical military expedition in 1150s to Southwest Finland by Swedish King Eric IX and English Bishop Henry of Uppsala.
By an ordinance issued by the Government of Sweden, a number of days of the calendar year are designated as official flag days.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team.
Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg (2 January 1895 – 17 September 1948) was a Swedish diplomat and nobleman.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war.
Frangula alnus, commonly known as the alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, or breaking buckthorn, is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae.
Franz Adolf Berwald (23 July 1796 – 3 April 1868) was a Swedish Romantic composer.
Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.
Karl Fredrik "Freddie" Ljungberg (born 16 April 1977 in Vittsjö, Sweden) is a Swedish former footballer who played as a winger and is the head coach of the Arsenal U23 team.
Frederikshavn is a Danish town in Frederikshavn municipality, Region Nordjylland, on the northeast coast of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark.
Fredriksten is a fortress in the city of Halden in Norway.
A "free church" is a Christian denomination or independent church that is intrinsically separate from government (as opposed to a theocracy, or an "established" or state church).
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.
Gant, stylized as GANT, is an international clothing brand headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden.
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County.
The Göta älv (River of the Geats) is a river that drains lake Vänern into the Kattegat, at the city of Gothenburg, on the western coast of Sweden.
The Göta Canal (Göta kanal) is a Swedish canal constructed in the early 19th century.
Götaland (also Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland or Gautland) is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten provinces.
Göteborg Landvetter Airport is an international airport serving the Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg) region in Sweden.
Göteborgs-Posten, abbreviated GP, is a major Swedish language daily newspaper published in Gothenburg, Sweden.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Geats (gēatas; gautar; götar), sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited italic ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Georg Stiernhielm (August 7, 1598 – April 22, 1672) was a Swedish civil servant, linguist and poet.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
The Ghent system is the name given to an arrangement in some countries whereby the main responsibility for welfare payments, especially unemployment benefits, is held by trade/labor unions, rather than a government agency.
Ghost is a Swedish rock band that was formed in Linköping, Sweden in 2006.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The Gutes or the Gotlanders (in Swedish gutar) are the population of the island of Gotland.
The government agencies in Sweden are state-controlled organizations who act independently to carry out the policies of the Government of Sweden.
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709,.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Greater Copenhagen (formally called the Øresund Region, Øresundsregionen; Öresundsregionen) is a metropolitan region that comprises eastern Denmark and Skåne in southern Sweden.
The Greece runestones (Swedish: Greklandsstenarna, Greek: Ρουνικές λίθοι Ελλάδας) are about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire.
Green Cargo AB is a Swedish logistics company transporting various types of goods by train.
The Green Party (Miljöpartiet de gröna, literally "Environment Party the Greens", commonly referred to in Swedish as "Miljöpartiet" or MP) is a political party in Sweden based upon green politics.
Grenaa (or Grenå) is a Danish town and seaport on the east coast of the Jutlandic peninsula.
Greta Garbo (born Greta Lovisa Gustafsson; 18 September 1905 – 15 April 1990) was a Swedish film actress during the 1920s and 1930s.
Gripsholm Castle (Gripsholms slott) is a castle in Mariefred, Södermanland, Sweden.
The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gunde Svan (born 12 January 1962 in Dala-Järna, Dalarna County) is a former Swedish cross-country skier and auto racing driver.
Johan Gunnar Gren (31 October 1920 – 10 November 1991) was a Swedish football player and coach.
Nils Gunnar Nordahl (19 October 1921 – 15 September 1995) was a Swedish football player.
Nils Gustaf Dalén (30 November 1869 – 9 December 1937) was a Swedish Nobel Laureate and industrialist, the founder of the AGA company and inventor of the AGA cooker and the Dalén light.
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The Gustav Vasa Bible (Gustav Vasas bibel) is the common name of the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women, teenagers and children.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.
Halltorp is one of the earliest manor houses on the island of Öland, Sweden, dating from the 11th century AD.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harry Martinson (6May 190411February 1978) was a Swedish author, poet and former sailor.
Anders Håkan Lans (born 2 November 1947 in Enskede) is a Swedish inventor.
Höganäs is a locality and the seat of Höganäs Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 14,107 inhabitants in 2010.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Heavyweight is a weight class in combat sports.
Hedera helix, the common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or just ivy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, native to most of Europe and western Asia.
Rut Hedvig Lindahl (born 29 April 1983) is a Swedish professional football goalkeeper who plays for Chelsea Ladies.
Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark.
Helsingborg (spelled Hälsingborg between 1912 and 1970) is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Scania, Sweden.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Henning Georg Mankell (3February 19485October 2015) was a Swedish crime writer, children's author, and dramatist, best known for a series of mystery novels starring his most noted creation, Inspector Kurt Wallander.
Henrik Edward Larsson (born 20 September 1971) is a Swedish professional football manager and former player.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The HH Ferry route (About the name: Helsingør - Helsingborg; Helsingør is Danish for Elsinore) is a very old shipping route which connects Helsingør at Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund.
During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included what is today Finland.
The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.
Lake Hjälmaren is Sweden's fourth largest lake.
Hofors Municipality (Hofors kommun) is a municipality in Gävleborg County, east central Sweden.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Hyllie Station (Hyllie station) is a railway station south of central Malmö, Sweden.
I Am Curious (Yellow) (meaning "I Am Curious: A Film in Yellow") is a 1967 Swedish drama film written and directed by Vilgot Sjöman, starring Sjöman and Lena Nyman.
ICA Gruppen AB (publ) ("ICA Group"; Inköpscentralernas aktiebolag, lit. the Purchasing Centres' Corporation) is a Swedish retailer with a focus on food and health.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
The men's ice hockey tournament at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, was the 18th Olympic Championship.
Ice hockey at the 2006 Winter Olympics was held at the Torino Palasport Olimpico and the Torino Esposizioni in Turin, Italy.
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group, that designs and sells, kitchen appliances and home accessories.
Ilex aquifolium (holly, common holly, English holly, European holly, or occasionally Christmas holly), is a species of holly native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Immigration to Sweden is the process by which people migrate to Sweden to reside in the country.
Sweden enjoys a relatively low income inequality and a high standard of living, unemployment as of 2017 is estimated to be 6.6% by the CIA World Fact Book, which is relatively low compared to other EU countries, and the Nordic Model employed by Sweden has often been considered a success story in Europe in relation to other failing European economies.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Individual ministerial responsibility is a constitutional convention in governments using the Westminster System that a cabinet minister bears the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their ministry or department.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Jens Ingemar "Ingo" Johansson (22 September 1932 – 30 January 2009) was a Swedish professional boxer who competed from 1952 to 1963.
Jan Ingemar Stenmark (born 18 March 1956 in Joesjö, Sweden) is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Sweden.
Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio.
Ingrid Bergman (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films.
The Ingvar Runestones (Ingvarstenarna) is the name of c. 26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Virginia g expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled.
Ingvar the Far-Travelled (Old Norse: Yngvarr víðförli, Swedish: Ingvar Vittfarne) led an unsuccessful large Viking attack against Persia in 1036–1042.
Swedish Inheritance Fund (Allmänna arvsfonden) is a Swedish State fund, established in 1928 when the Riksdag decided to abolish the right of inheritance for cousins and more distant relatives.
The Inland Line (Inlandsbanan) is a railway line between Kristinehamn and Gällivare in Sweden.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame, located in Canastota, New York, United States, honors boxers, trainers and other contributors to the sport worldwide.
The International Federation of Match Poker (IFMP) is a non-profit organization whose stated purpose is to "serve as the global governing body for Match Poker".
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Invest Sweden (Myndigheten för utländska investeringar i Sverige), a.k.a. Invest in Sweden Agency (Delegationen för Utländska Investeringar i Sverige) 1995-2010, was a Swedish government agency organised under the Minister for Foreign Affairs, promoting business and investment opportunities in Sweden to foreign investors.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
A 2014 report estimated there were 150,000 to 200,000 Muslims in Sweden practicing their religion regularly.
J.Lindeberg is a Swedish clothing company.
Jan Kenneth Eliasson (born 17 September 1940) is a Swedish diplomat who was Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations from July 2012 to December 2016.
Jan Oskar Sverre Lucien Henri Guillou (born 17 January 1944) is a French-Swedish author and journalist.
Jan-Ove Waldner (born 3 October 1965). Swedish Table Tennis Federation is a Swedish former table tennis player.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751 – 20 April 1795) was a Swedish poet and critic.
Johan Tobias Sergel (7 September 1740 in Stockholm – 26 February 1814 in Stockholm) was a Swedish neoclassical sculptor.
A joik (also spelled yoik), luohti, vuolle, leu'dd, or juoiggus is a traditional form of song of the Sami people of the Nordic countries and Kola peninsula of Russia.
Jonas Wenström (born August 4, 1855 in Hällefors, died December 22, 1893 in Västerås) was a Swedish engineer and inventor.
Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
The judicial system of Sweden consists of the law of Sweden and a number of government agencies tasked with upholding security and rule of law within the country.
The June List (Junilistan, jl) is a Swedish, Eurosceptic political party.
Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae.
Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
Kanal 5 (Channel 5) is a Swedish commercial television channel established in 1989.
Karelians (karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.
Karlshamn is a locality and the seat of Karlshamn Municipality in Blekinge County, Sweden.
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010.
The Karlskrona naval base (Karlskrona örlogsbas) is the largest naval base of the Swedish Navy. Located in Blekinge in southern Sweden, the base has close ties with the city of Karlskrona. It has an exceptionally well-sheltered location: arcs of islands provide a strong defense not only from the sea but also from land attacks. Two of Sweden's three naval warfare flotillas are based there. It contains the Marinmuseum and the Ropewalk, the longest wooden building in the country.
The Kattegat (Kattegatt) is a sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east.
Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson (born October 25, 1984), known professionally as Katy Perry, is an American singer, songwriter, and television judge.
Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi, "Cauldron Crest") is the highest mountain in Sweden.
Kelly Brianne Clarkson (born April 24, 1982) is an American singer and songwriter.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The title of King of the Goths (Götes konung, Goternes konge, gothorum rex) was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of Denmark, denoting sovereignty or claimed sovereignty over the ancient people of the Goths, an east Germanic people.
The title of King of the Wends (Vendes Konung; Rex Vandalorum) denoted sovereignty, lordship, or claims over once-Western Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg, Holstein and Pomerania, and was used from the 12th century to 1972 by Kings of Denmark and from ca 1540 to 1973 by the Kings of Sweden.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kristianstad (older spelling Christianstad) is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 40,145 inhabitants in 2016.
Kungssången (The King's Song) is the Swedish royal anthem.
Kvarken (Swedish Kvarken or Norra Kvarken (as opposed to South Kvarken), Finnish Merenkurkku lit. "throat of the sea") is the narrow region in the Gulf of Bothnia separating the Bothnian Bay (the inner part of the gulf) from the Bothnian Sea.
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta (born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is a research unit of Columbia University located on a campus in Palisades, N.Y., north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.
The lands of Sweden (Sveriges landsdelar) are three traditional parts, each consisting of several provinces, in Sweden.
Landskrona is a late medieval town in Scania province, Sweden, located at the shores of Øresund, founded at the location of the former Danish fishing village Sønder Sæby in the province of Scania by king Erik VII of Pomerania early in the 15th century.
Swedish is the official language of Sweden and is spoken by the vast majority of the 10 million inhabitants of the country.
Larix decidua, the European larch, is a species of larch native to the mountains of central Europe, in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains as well as the Pyrenees, with disjunct lowland populations in northern Poland and southern Lithuania.
Lars Magnus Ericsson (5 May 1846 – 17 December 1926) was a Swedish inventor, entrepreneur and founder of telephone equipment manufacturer Ericsson (incorporated as Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson).
Lars Sven "Lasse" Hallström (born 2 June 1946) is a Swedish film director.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Law enforcement in Sweden is carried out by several government agencies, under the guidance of the Government of Sweden.
The cabinet of Stefan Löfven is the present Government of Sweden.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet, V) is a socialist and feminist political party in Sweden.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
The Liberals (Liberalerna, L) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Lindex is a Finnish owned fashion chain within the Stockmann Group.
Lingonberry jam (lingonsylt, tyttebærsyltetøy, tyttebærsyltetøj, pohlamoos, puolukkahillo, Preiselbeermarmelade, brūkleņu ievārījums, bruknių džemas) is a staple food in Northern European cuisine.
Linköping (p) is a city in southern Sweden, with 153,000 inhabitants as of 2016.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
This list includes music artists with claims of 75 million or more record sales.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
The GDP (PPP) per hour worked is a measure of the productivity of a country when not taking into account unemployment or hours worked per week.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
This is a list of islands of Sweden.
This is a list of vegetables which are grown or harvested primarily for the consumption of their leafy parts, either raw or cooked.
The legendary kings of Sweden are the Swedish mythological kings who preceded Eric the Victorious, according to sources such as the Norse Sagas, Beowulf, Rimbert, Adam of Bremen and Saxo Grammaticus, but who are of disputed historicity because the sources are more or less unreliable, and sometimes contradictory.
Sweden has a fairly limited system of motorways (motorväg in Swedish).
Since acceding to the throne of Sweden in 1973, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden has made a number of state and official visits.
This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, including regents and viceroys of the Kalmar Union, up to the present time.
This list of universities in Sweden is based on the Higher Education Ordinance of 1993 (as amended until January 2006).
There are 1,956 urban areas in Sweden as defined by Statistics Sweden on 31 December 2010.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is an interactive benchmarking tool created by the World Bank to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance.
Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
Lonicera xylosteum, commonly known as fly honeysuckle, European fly honeysuckle, dwarf honeysuckle or fly woodbine is a deciduous shrub.
The Lord High Chancellor (Rikskansler), literally Chancellor of the Realm, was a prominent and influential office in Sweden, from 1538 until 1799, excluding periods when the office was out of use.
Charlotta Eva "Lotta" Schelin (born 27 February 1984) is a Swedish professional footballer who plays as a striker for FC Rosengård of the Damallsvenskan.
The term "low church" refers to churches which give relatively little emphasis to ritual, sacraments and the authority of clergy.
Karl Frederik Lukas Moodysson (born 17 January 1969) is a Swedish novelist, short story writer and film director.
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden.
The Lund Cathedral (Lunds domkyrka) is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Scania, Sweden.
Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.
A lur, also lure or lurr, is a long natural blowing horn without finger holes that is played by embouchure.
Lutefisk (Norwegian) or lutfisk (Swedish) (pronounced in Northern and Central Norway, in Southern Norway, in Sweden and in Finland (lipeäkala)) is a traditional dish of some Nordic countries.
Lutheran orthodoxy was an era in the history of Lutheranism, which began in 1580 from the writing of the Book of Concord and ended at the Age of Enlightenment.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Magnus IV (April or May 1316 – 1 December 1374; Swedish Magnus Eriksson) was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII (including Iceland and Greenland) from 1319 to 1343, and ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360.
Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Carl Marcus Joakim Hellner (born 25 November 1985) is a Swedish cross-country skier who has been competing since 2003.
Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margareta Valdemarsdotter, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir; 15 March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was queen consort of Norway (1363–1380) and Sweden (1363–1364) and later ruler in her own right of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from which later period there are ambiguities regarding her specific titles.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Mats Wilander (born 22 August 1964) is a former World No. 1 tennis player from Sweden.
Mauritz Stiller (born Moshe Stiller, 17 July 1883 – 18 November 1928) was a Finnish-Swedish film director, best known for discovering Greta Garbo and bringing her to America.
MAX IV is the next-generation synchrotron radiation facility in Lund, Sweden.
Martin Sandberg (born 26 February 1971), known professionally as Max Martin, is a Swedish songwriter, record producer and singer.
Max von Sydow (born Carl Adolf von Sydow, 10 April 1929) is a Swedish actor.
Mälaren, historically referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden (after Vänern and Vättern).
Målilla is a locality situated in Hultsfred Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 1,524 inhabitants in 2010.
Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden along the valley of the Torne River.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Metro International is a Swedish global media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995.http://hugin.info/132142/R/1125327/208539.pdf It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through the Mats Qviberg owned investment company Custos. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-15; USAF/DoD designation: Type 14; NATO reporting name: Fagot) is a jet fighter aircraft developed by Mikoyan-Gurevich for the Soviet Union.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
The Million Programme (Miljonprogrammet) is the common name for an ambitious public housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 by the governing Swedish Social Democratic Party to make sure everyone could have a home at a reasonable price.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
Ministerial rule (ministerstyre) is the informal term for when a public authority in Sweden — including the Riksdag, or a decision-making body of a municipality — tries to influence how an administrative authority (förvaltningsmyndighet) decides in a particular case relating to the exercise of public authority vis-à-vis an individual or a local authority, or the application of legislation.
The Ministry of Defence (Försvarsdepartementet) is a Swedish government ministry responsible for the national defence policy.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
The Moderate Party (Moderata samlingspartiet, M: "Moderate Unity Party", commonly referred to in Swedish as Moderaterna: "Moderates") is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
A municipal council (Kommunfullmäktige) is the decision-making body governing each of the 290 municipalities of Sweden.
The municipalities of Sweden (Sveriges kommuner) are its lower-level local government entities.
The Music of Sweden shares the tradition of Nordic folk dance music with its neighboring countries in northern Europe, including polka, schottische, waltz, polska and mazurka.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nakkna is a Swedish fashion label based in Stockholm, Sweden.
This is the old Swedish name day calendar, sanctioned by the Swedish Academy in 1901, with official status until 1972.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe is a trade name of NASDAQ OMX Oslo ASA, the single financial energy market for Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland.
National Day of Sweden (Sveriges nationaldag) is a national holiday observed in Sweden on 6 June every year.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Library of Sweden (Kungliga biblioteket, KB, meaning "the Royal Library") is the national library of Sweden.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The National Task Force (Nationella insatsstyrkan, NI), formerly known as the National Task Force of the Swedish Civilian Police (Ordningspolisens nationella insatsstyrka), is a special operations unit within the National Operations Department of the Swedish Police Authority.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Neoclassical metal is a subgenre of heavy metal that is heavily influenced by classical music and usually features very technical playing,Stephan Forté, "Metal néoclassique" in Guitarist Magazine Pedago, Hors Série #29, "Les secrets du metal- Etudes de Style", March 2009, pp.14–15.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
New Democracy (Ny Demokrati, NyD) was a political party in Sweden, founded in 1991 and elected into the Riksdag in its first election, falling equally fast out again in 1994.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
Nils Erik Liedholm (8 October 1922 – 5 November 2007) was a Swedish football midfielder and coach.
Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Nord Pool AS runs the largest market for electrical energy in Europe, measured in volume traded (TWh) and in market share.
Nordea Bank AB, commonly referred to as Nordea, is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Nordic electricity market is a common market for electricity in the Nordic countries.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
Nordstjernan is a Swedish investment company.
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm.
Norrland ("Northland", originally Norrlanden or "the Northlands") is the northernmost, largest, least populated and least densely populated of the three traditional lands of Sweden, consisting of nine provinces.
Norrland terrain (Norrlandsterräng) is a geomorphic unit covering the bulk of Norrland and the northwestern half Svealand.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian cuisine in its traditional form is based largely on the raw materials readily available in Norway and its mountains, wilderness, and coast.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
NSYNC (sometimes stylized as *NSYNC, N*SYNC or 'N Sync) was an American boy band formed in Orlando, Florida in 1995 and launched in Germany by BMG Ariola Munich.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Nyköping is a locality and the seat of Nyköping Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 29,891 inhabitants as of 2010.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Odd Molly International AB is a Swedish clothing company founded 25 March, 2002.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
In 1999, the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five official minority languages: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish).
Olof Persson, sometimes Petersson (6 January 1493 – 19 April 1552), better known under the Latin form of his name, Olaus Petri (or less commonly, Olavus Petri), was a clergyman, writer, judge and major contributor to the Protestant Reformation in Sweden.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Sven Olof Joachim Palme (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish Social Democratic politician and statesman.
Olof Skötkonung (c. 980–1022) was King of Sweden, son of Eric the Victorious and, according to Icelandic sources, Sigrid the Haughty.
Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.
Opeth is a Swedish heavy metal band from Stockholm, formed in 1989.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oskarshamn is a coastal city and the seat of Oskarshamn Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 17,258 inhabitants in 2010.
The Oslofjord (Oslo Fjord) is an inlet in the south-east of Norway, stretching from an imaginary line between the Torbjørnskjær and Færder lighthouses and down to Langesund in the south to Oslo in the north.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sweden: Sweden – Scandinavian country in Northern Europe, situated between Norway and Finland.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Parishes of the Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkans församlingar) are subdivisions within the Church of Sweden that historically were called socken but nowadays are called församling.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Paviken is a lake in Västergarn on the western side of the island of Gotland.
Payroll taxes are taxes imposed on employers or employees, and are usually calculated as a percentage of the salaries that employers pay their staff.
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist (23 May 1891 – 11 July 1974) was a Swedish author who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1951.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Pernilla Wiberg (born 15 October 1970) is a Swedish former alpine ski racer and businesswoman, She competed on the World Cup circuit between 1990 and 2002, where she became one of the few all-event winners.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Philip "Phil" Zuckerman (born June 26, 1969 in Los Angeles, California) is a professor of sociology and secular studies at Pitzer College in Claremont, California.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Alecia Beth Moore (born September 8, 1979), known professionally as Pink (stylized as), is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress.
Pippi Longstocking (Swedish: Pippi Långstrump) is the main character in an eponymous series of children's books by the Swedish author Astrid Lindgren.
The Pirate Party (Piratpartiet) is a political party in Sweden founded in 2006.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Swedish popular music, also called Swedish pop music, or just Swedish pop, refers to music that has swept the Swedish mainstream at any given point in time.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British IslesJames Kilkelly east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan.
The municipally-owned Port of Gothenburg (Göteborgs hamn) is the largest port in the Nordic countries, with over 11,000 ship visits per year from over 140 destinations worldwide.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Preem is a Swedish petroleum corporation owned by billionaire Mohammed Hussein Al-Amoudi, that owns 530 petrol stations in Sweden.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.
The prow is the forward-most part of a ship's bow that cuts through the water.
Prunus avium, commonly called wild cherry, sweet cherry, or gean, is a species of cherry, a flowering plant in the rose family, Rosaceae.
Prunus padus, known as bird cherry, hackberry, hagberry, or Mayday tree, is a flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae.
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn, or sloe) is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (born 4 August 1912, death date unknown)He is presumed to have died in 1947, although the circumstances of his death are not clear and this date has been disputed.
The Rök Runestone (Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone.
Nadir Khayat (نادر الخياط), better known by stage name RedOne, (born 9 April 1972) is a Moroccan-Swedish-American international record producer, singer, songwriter and businessman and record executive.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Refresher training is a form of updating military knowledge of the reservist troops.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark during World War II.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Richard L. Florida (born November 26, 1957, in Newark, New Jersey) is an American urban studies theorist focusing on social and economic theory.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Riksdag of the Estates (formally Riksens ständer; informally Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled.
Robin Miriam Carlsson (born 12 June 1979), known as Robyn, is a Swedish singer, songwriter and record producer.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Rosenbad (lit. rosen bath) is a building in central Stockholm, precinct of Norrmalm.
Roslagen is the name of the coastal areas of Uppland province in Sweden, which also constitutes the northern part of the Stockholm archipelago.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Roxette are a Swedish pop rock duo, consisting of Marie Fredriksson (vocals and keyboards) and Per Gessle (vocals and guitar).
The Royal Court of Sweden (Kungliga Hovstaterna) is the official name for the organisation (royal households) that supports the monarch, and the royal house.
The royal motto of the Swedish monarch is a Swedish royal tradition stemming from the early 16th century.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
Claes Olle Ruben Östlund (born 13 April 1974) is a Swedish film director and screenwriter.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also known as Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia (Sancta Lucia), was a Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salix caprea (goat willow, also known as the pussy willow or great sallow) is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sambucus nigra is a species complex of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae native to most of Europe and North America.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Sandvik is a global company founded in 1862 by Göran Fredrik Göransson in Sandviken, Sweden.
Sassnitz (before 1993 in Saßnitz) is a town on the Jasmund peninsula, Rügen Island, in the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Svenska Cellulosa AB (SCA, English: Swedish Cellulose Company) is a Swedish timber, pulp and paper manufacturer with headquarters in Sundsvall.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
The Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes described Scandza as a "great island" in his work Getica, written in Constantinople around 551 AD.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Scania AB, formerly AB Scania-Vabis, is a major Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles – specifically heavy trucks and buses.
Scanian is a closely related group of South Swedish dialects spoken in the province of Scania in southern Sweden.
A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Sea of Åland (Ahvenanmeri; Ålands hav) is a waterway in the southern Gulf of Bothnia, between the Åland islands and Sweden.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
The Second Swedish Crusade was a 13th century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Securitas AB is a security services (security guarding and mobile patrolling), monitoring, consulting and investigation group, based in Stockholm, Sweden.
Security policy is a definition of what it means to be secure for a system, organization or other entity.
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (20 November 1858 – 16 March 1940) was a Swedish author and teacher.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
In Old Norse sources, such as sagas and runestones, Særkland or Serkland was the name of the Abbasid Caliphate and probably some neighbouring Muslim regions.
The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and subsequently, the wider world, from the 1960s to the 1980s.
Show Me Love is the English-language distribution name of the Swedish film Fucking Åmål, which was released to cinemas in Sweden on 23 October 1998 and directed by Lukas Moodysson.
SJ (formally SJ AB) is a government-owned passenger train operator in Sweden.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
Skanska AB is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden.
Skara Cathedral (Skara domkyrka) is a church in the Swedish town of Skara.
Skåneland (Swedish) or Skånelandene (Danish) is a region on the southern Scandinavian peninsula.
AB SKF (Swedish: Swedish ball bearing factory AB), later AB SKF, is a leading bearing and seal manufacturing company founded in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1907.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden.
Smörgåsbord is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table.
Snaps is a Swedish and Danish word for a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
Sony Mobile Communications Inc. is a multinational telecommunications company founded on October 1, 2001 as a joint venture between Sony and Ericsson, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan and wholly owned by Sony.
Sorbus aucuparia, commonly called rowan and mountain-ash, is a species of deciduous tree or shrub in the rose family.
Sorbus intermedia, the Swedish whitebeam, is a species of whitebeam found in southern Sweden, with scattered occurrences in easternmost Denmark (Bornholm), the far southwest of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and northern Poland.
Soviet submarine S-363 was a Soviet Navy of the Baltic Fleet, which became famous under the designation U 137 when it ran aground on 27 October 1981 on the south coast of Sweden, approximately from Karlskrona, one of the larger Swedish naval bases.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The speaker of the Riksdag (Riksdagens talman) is the presiding officer of the national unicameral legislature in Sweden.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB) is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden.
Stefan Bengt Edberg (born 19 January 1966) is a Swedish former world No. 1 professional tennis player (in both singles and doubles).
Stefan Christian Holm (born 25 May 1976) is a retired Swedish high jumper.
Kjell Stefan Löfven (born 21 July 1957) is a Swedish politician serving as the 33rd and current Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014 and Leader of the Social Democrats since 2012.
Karl Stig-Erland "Stieg" Larsson (15 August 1954 – 9 November 2004) was a Swedish journalist and writer.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stockholm Arlanda Airport, is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, north of Stockholm and nearly south-east of Uppsala.
The Stockholm Bloodbath (Swedish: Stockholms blodbad, Danish: Det Stockholmske Blodbad) was a trial that led to a series of executions in Stockholm between the 7th and 9th of November, 1520.
The Stockholm metro (Stockholms tunnelbana, literally: Stockholm's Tunnel Rail) is a metro system in Stockholm, Sweden.
Stockholm Skavsta Airport (Swedish: Stockholm Skavsta flygplats), or Nyköping Airport is an international airport near Nyköping, Sweden, northwest of its urban area and approximately southwest of Stockholm.
Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet) is a public university in Stockholm, Sweden, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960.
Stora Drammen is the westernmost point of Sweden.
Strömstad is a locality and the seat of Strömstad Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden with 6,288 inhabitants in 2010.
Studentlitteratur is an academic publishing company based in Sweden and publishing mostly in Swedish.
Sture was the name of three influential families in Sweden from the late 14th century to the early 16th century.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.
Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika) is a 1953 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman, based on Per Anders Fogelström's 1951 novel of the same title.
A sun valve (Swedish: solventil, "solar valve") is a form of flow control valve, notable because it earned its inventor Gustaf Dalén the 1912 Nobel Prize in Physics.
The Supreme Commander (Överbefälhavaren; acronym: ÖB) is the highest ranked professional military officer in the Swedish Armed Forces, and is by NATO terminology the Swedish chief of defence equivalent.
The Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta domstolen, abbreviated HD) is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden.
Surströmming (Swedish for "sour herring") is a type of fermented Baltic Sea herring.
Svartsoppa ("Black soup") is a soup consumed traditionally and mostly in the province of Scania in Southern Sweden.
Svealand, Swealand or (rarely or historically) Sweden proper is the historical core region of Sweden.
Svenska Dagbladet ("The Swedish Daily News"), abbreviated SvD, is a daily newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Sveriges Radio AB ("Swedish Radio") is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster.
Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.
SVT is the Swedish national public TV broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets, and set by the Riksdag.
SVT2 (usually referred to as Tvåan), is one of the two main television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden.
In the United States, a SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics.
Sweden Democrats or Swedish Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD) is a nationalist political party in Sweden that was founded in 1988.
Sweden Finns (ruotsinsuomalaiset, sverigefinnar) are a Finnish-speaking national minority in Sweden consisting of Finns historically residing in Sweden as well as Finnish immigrants to Sweden.
Sweden has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 58 times since making its debut in 1958, missing only three contests since then (1964, 1970 and 1976).
The Sweden men's national ice hockey team (Sveriges herrlandslag i ishockey), nicknamed Tre Kronor (Three Crowns in Swedish), as it is called in Sweden, is one of the most successful ice hockey teams in the world.
The Sweden national football team (svenska fotbollslandslaget) represents Sweden in association football and is controlled by the Swedish Football Association, the governing body for football in Sweden.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand ("land of the Swedes") in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. The first author who wrote about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Suetidi. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).
The 1810 Act of Succession (1810 års successionsordning; in English literally The 1810 order of succession) is one of four Fundamental Laws of the Realm (rikets grundlagar) and thus forms part of the Swedish Constitution.
The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth (Tillväxtverket) is a Swedish government agency organized under the Ministry of Enterprise, tasked to be promote entrepreneurship and regional growth, and to implement structural funds programmes.
The Swedish Air Force (Svenska flygvapnet) is the air force branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
Swedish Americans (Svenskamerikaner) are an American ethnic group of people who have ancestral roots from Sweden.
The Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten, literally “Defense Force”) is the government agency that forms the military forces of Sweden, and which is tasked with defence of the country, as well as promoting Sweden's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid.
The Swedish Army (Armén) is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces in which its main responsibility is land operations.
Swedish Canadians (Svenskkanadensare) are Canadian citizens of Swedish ancestry or Swedes who emigrated to and reside in Canada.
The Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations (Sveriges Akademikers Centralorganisation, SACO) is a confederation of 26 independent professional associations in Sweden.
The Swedish East India Company (Svenska Ostindiska Companiet or SOIC) was founded in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1731 for the purpose of conducting trade with the Far East.
During the Swedish emigration to the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, about 1.3 million Swedes left Sweden for the United States.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
A non-binding referendum on introduction of the euro was held in Sweden on 14 September 2003.
A non-binding referendum on membership for the European Union was held in Sweden on 13 November 1994.
General elections were held in Sweden on 19 September 1976.
General elections were held in Sweden on 16 September 1979.
General elections were held in Sweden on 18 September 1988.
General elections were held in Sweden on 15 September 1991.
General elections were held in Sweden on 18 September 1994.
General elections were held in Sweden on 15 September 2002,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1858 alongside municipal and county council elections.
A general election was held in Sweden on 17 September 2006, to elect members to the Riksdag, the Swedish national legislature.
A general election to the Riksdag, the parliament of Sweden, was held on.
General elections were held in Sweden on 14 September 2014 to elect the Riksdag, all 21 county councils, and 290 municipal assemblies.
Swedish iron ore was an important economic factor in the European theatre of World War II.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the primary regulatory body for the advancement and cultivation of the Swedish language.
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, abbreviated SMHI) is a Government agency in Sweden and operates under the Ministry of the Environment.
The Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket; previous English name: Swedish Migration Board), is a Swedish government agency.
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet, abbreviated Brå) is a Swedish government agency organized under the Ministry of Justice, and acts as a center for research and development within the judicial system.
The Swedish National Courts Administration (SNCA) (Domstolsverket) is a Swedish administrative authority organized under the Ministry of Justice.
The Swedish Royal Navy (Svenska marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
Swedish neutrality refers to Sweden's former policy of neutrality in armed conflicts, which was in effect from the early 19th century, until 2009, when Sweden entered into various mutual defence treaties with the EU, and other Nordic countries.
The Swedish nobility (Adeln) has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse (a derivation from Old Swedish meaning free neck).
The Swedish Police Authority (Polismyndigheten) is the central administrative authority for the police in Sweden, responsible for law enforcement, general social order and public safety within the country.
Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern; Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland.
The Swedish royal family (Svenska kungafamiljen) since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte, closely related to the King of Sweden.
The Swedish Security Service (Säkerhetspolisen, abbreviated Säpo, until 1989 Rikspolisstyrelsens säkerhetsavdelning abbreviated RPS/Säk) is a Swedish government agency organised under the Ministry of Justice.
Swedish Sign Language (Svenskt teckenspråk or STS) is the sign language used in Sweden.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP; literally, "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden"), contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna ('The Workers' Party – The Social Democrats'), usually referred to just as the 'Social Democrats' (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden.
The Swedish Tax Agency (Skatteverket) is a government agency in Sweden responsible for national tax collection and administering the population registration.
The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen i Sverige, literally "National Organisation in Sweden"), commonly referred to as LO, is a national trade union centre, an umbrella organisation for fourteen Swedish trade unions that organise mainly "blue-collar" workers.
The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) is a government agency in Sweden, controlled by the Riksdag and the Government of Sweden.
The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.
The Swedish-Geatish wars refer to semi-legendary 6th century battles between Swedes and Geats that are described in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.
The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway (Fälttåget mot Norge), War with Sweden 1814 (Krigen med Sverige 1814), or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten, generally known simply as Sydsvenskan (The South Swedish), is a daily newspaper published in Scania in Sweden.
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tavastians (Hämäläiset, tavaster, Емь, Yem, Yam) are a historic people and a modern subgroup (heimo) of the Finnish people.
The tax wedge is the deviation from the equilibrium price/quantity (P^* and Q^*, respectively) as a result of the taxation of a good.
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
Tågkompaniet or Svenska Tågkompaniet AB (The Swedish Train Company) is a Swedish railway company that operates franchises in Northern Sweden and Greater Stockholm.
A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.
In Sweden, the area codes are, including the leading 0, two, three or four digits long, with larger towns and cities having shorter area codes permitting a larger number of telephone numbers in the eight to ten digits used (including the leading '0').
Telia Company AB is a Swedish dominant telephone company and mobile network operator present in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Baltic States.
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Temple at Uppsala was a religious center in the ancient Norse religion once located at what is now Gamla Uppsala (Swedish "Old Uppsala"), Sweden attested in Adam of Bremen's 11th-century work Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum and in Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging and processing sub-company of Tetra Laval, with head offices in Lund, Sweden, and Lausanne, Switzerland.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Cardigans are a Swedish rock band formed in Jönköping, Sweden, in 1992, by guitarist Peter Svensson, bassist Magnus Sveningsson, drummer Bengt Lagerberg, keyboardist Lars-Olof Johansson and lead singer Nina Persson, with the line-up remaining unchanged to this day.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hives are a Swedish rock band that rose to prominence in the early 2000s during the garage rock revival.
The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Soundtrack of Our Lives, often abbreviated T.S.O.O.L., was a Swedish rock band that formed in Gothenburg in 1995 and disbanded in 2012.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theophilos (Θεόφιλος; sometimes Latinized or Anglicized as Theophilus; 800-805 20 January 842 AD) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842.
The Third Swedish Crusade to Finland was a Swedish military expedition against the pagan Karelians in 1293.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Lars Wassberg (born 27 March 1956) is a Swedish former cross-country skier.
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
Three Crowns (tre kronor) is a national emblem of Sweden, present in the coat of arms of Sweden, and composed of three yellow or gilded coronets ordered two above and one below, placed on a blue background.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.
The Thuringii or Toringi, were a Germanic tribe that appeared late during the Migration Period in the Harz Mountains of central Germania, still called Thuringia.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country.
Travemünde is a borough of Lübeck, Germany, located at the mouth of the river Trave in Lübeck Bay.
The Treaty of Kiel (Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
TV3 is a television channel targeted at a Swedish language audience and owned by Viasat (MTG).
TV4 is a Swedish television network.
The 1992 UEFA European Football Championship was hosted by Sweden between 10 and 26 June 1992.
The 2013 UEFA Women's Championship, commonly referred to as Women's Euro 2013, was the 11th European Championship for women's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Uumaja, Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Ubmi) is a city in north east Sweden.
Umeå University (Umeå universitet) is a university in Umeå in the mid-northern region of Sweden.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its amicable and peaceful dissolution in 1905.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Regional Information Centre (UNRIC) is one of 63 United Nations Information Centres (UNICs) around the world.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Gothenburg (Göteborgs universitet) is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.
Uppsala Cathedral (Uppsala domkyrka) is a cathedral located between the Uppsala University Main Building and the River Fyris in the centre of Uppsala, Sweden.
The Uppsala Synod in 1593 was the most important synod of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Urban Christian Ahlin (born 13 November 1964) is a Swedish Social Democratic Party politician who has served as Speaker of the Riksdag since September 2014.
Vaasa (Vasa) is a city on the west coast of Finland.
Vadstena is a locality and the seat of Vadstena Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden, with 5,613 inhabitants in 2010.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
The Varangian Runestones are runestones in Scandinavia that talk of eastward voyages such as the Gardarike runestones, Greece Runestones, Italy Runestones, and inscriptions left by the Varangian Guard.
Varberg is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 27,602 inhabitants in 2010.
Vattenfall is a Swedish power company, wholly owned by the Swedish government.
Vänern is the largest lake in Sweden, the largest lake in the European Union and the third-largest lake entirely in Europe after Ladoga and Onega in Russia.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Vättern (is the second largest lake (by surface area) in Sweden, after Vänern and the sixth largest lake in Europe. It is a long, finger-shaped body of fresh water in south central Sweden to the southeast of Vänern pointing at the tip of Scandinavia.
Ven (Hven, older Swedish spelling Hven) is a small Swedish island in the Øresund strait, between Scania and Zealand (Denmark).
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
Veolia Transport (formerly Connex and CGEA Transport) was the international transport services division of the French-based multinational company Veolia Environnement until the 2011 merger that gave rise to Veolia Transdev.
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (6 July 1859 – 20 May 1940) was a Swedish poet, novelist and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1916.
Victor David Sjöström (in the United States sometimes known as Victor Seastrom; 20 September 1879 – 3 January 1960) was a pioneering Swedish film director, screenwriter, and actor.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve (Vindelfjällens naturreservat) is a nature reserve located in the municipalities of Sorsele and Storuman in Västerbotten County of Swedish Lapland.
Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.
Visby City Wall (Visby ringmur, sometimes Visby stadsmur) is a medieval defensive wall surrounding the Swedish town of Visby on the island of Gotland.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volvo Group (Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo) (stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg.
Volvo Cars (Volvo personvagnar), stylized as VOLVO in the logo, is a Swedish vehicle manufacturer established in 1927.
Walpurgis Night, an abbreviation of Saint Walpurgis Night (from the German Sankt Walpurgisnacht), also known as Saint Walpurga's Eve (alternatively spelled Saint Walburga's Eve), is the eve of the Christian feast day of Saint Walpurga, an 8th-century abbess in Francia, and is celebrated on the night of 30 April and the day of 1 May.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
WeSC (short for "We are the Superlative Conspiracy") is a Swedish clothing brand that is primarily influenced by skateboarding and snowboarding.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Whiskey-class submarines (known in the Soviet Union as Projects 613, 644, and 665) are a class of naval submarines that the Soviet Union built in the early Cold War period.
The "White Buses" (Vita bussarna) was an operation undertaken by the Swedish Red Cross and the Danish government in the spring of 1945 to rescue concentration camp inmates in areas under Nazi control and transport them to Sweden, a neutral country.
The White Guard or Civil Guard (lit. protection corps) was a voluntary militia that emerged victorious over the socialist Red Guard as a part of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War of 1918.
The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
Wismar is a port and Hanseatic city in Northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Golf Hall of Fame is located at World Golf Village near St. Augustine, Florida, in the United States, and it is unusual among sports halls of fame in that a single site honors both men and women.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yngwie Johan Malmsteen (born Lars Johan Yngve Lannerbäck; 30 June 1963) is a Swedish guitarist and bandleader.
Ystad is a town, and the seat of Ystad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 18,350 inhabitants in 2010.
Zlatan Ibrahimović (born 3 October 1981) is a Swedish professional footballer who plays as a forward for LA Galaxy.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.se is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sweden (Sverige).
The meridian 11° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1912), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup.
The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from 8 to 29 June.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).
The 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup, the second edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in Sweden and won by Norway.
The 5th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held at the Ullevi Stadium, Gothenburg, Sweden on 5–13 August 1995.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
On 19 May 2013, violent disturbances broke out in Husby, a suburb dominated by immigrants and second-generation immigrant residents, including a substantial number from Somalia, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq, in northern Stockholm, Sweden.
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
The 55th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 70th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 70 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.
Climate of Sweden, Etymology of Sweden, ISO 3166-1:SE, Kingdom of Sweden, Konungariket Sverige, Mainland Sweden, Ruotsi, SWEDEN, Schweden, Sveden, Sverige, Sveringes, Svithiod, Swea Region, Swedish climate, Swedish origin, Swedish realm, Swedish sin, Zweden.