284 relations: A, Académie française, Accusative case, Acute accent, Adjective, Adpositional phrase, Adverb, Alphabet, Alveolar consonant, Antiqua (typeface class), Approximant consonant, Archipelago, Article (grammar), Aspås, At sign, August Strindberg, Autonomous administrative division, Auxiliary verb, Ä, Älvdalen, Å, Åland Islands, Årstad, Falkenberg Municipality, Ö, Östergötland, Överkalix, Baltic Sea, Bible, Bible translations, Bilabial consonant, Blackletter, Blekinge, Bohuslän, Burträsk, Calque, Capitalization, Catholic Church, Clause, Clitic, Close vowel, Code of law, Colon (punctuation), Conversion (word formation), Cultural assimilation, Dagens Industri, Dagens Nyheter, Dalarna, Dalsland, Danish dialects, Danish language, ..., Dative case, Definiteness, Demonstrative, Denmark, Dental consonant, Dependent clause, Determiner, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dialect continuum, Diphthong, Dover Publications, Dragsfjärd, Du-reformen, Eastern Uusimaa, Elder Futhark, Elfdalian, English language, Estonian Swedes, European Commission, European Union, Faroese language, Färila, Finland, Finland Swedish, Finnish language, Finnish War, First language, Floby, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gammalsvenskby, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Glottal consonant, Gothenburg, Gotland, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Gräsö, Greek language, Gustaf Fröding, Gustav I of Sweden, Gustav Vasa Bible, Gutnish, Guttural R, Halland, Hanseatic League, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Head (linguistics), Heberg, Hiiumaa, Icelandic language, Idiom, Imperative mood, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Inflection, Institute for the Languages of Finland, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Isogloss, Jämshög, Jämtland, Labiodental consonant, Languages of Finland, Languages of Sweden, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Laurentius Andreae, Laurentius Petri, Lingua franca, Linguistic prescription, List of hundreds of Sweden, London, Low German, Lund University, Malmö, Mass media, Mälaren Valley, Middle Ages, Middle Low German, Modern Swedish, Monasticism, Monophthong, Morphological derivation, Municipalities of Finland, Municipality, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nationalencyklopedin, Nationalism, Närke, Närpes, New Testament, Nils Ferlin, Nominative case, Nordic Council, Nordic countries, Nordic Language Convention, Norrbotten, Norrland, Norrland dialects, North Germanic languages, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Noun, O, Object (grammar), Olaus Petri, Old Norse, Old Swedish, Orsa, Sweden, Orthography, Orust, Ostrobothnia (historical province), Ostrobothnia (region), Pair (parliamentary convention), Palatal consonant, Parish, Parliament, Participle, Penguin Books, Perfect (grammar), Phoneme, Plural, Porvoo, Possessive, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Printing press, Pronoun, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Norse language, Reflexive pronoun, Reformation, Retroflex consonant, Riksdag, Rimforsa, Rinkeby, Rinkeby Swedish, Romani language, Rosenbad, Rosengård, Ruhnu, Runes, Russia, Russian Empire, Södermanland, Scandinavian Braille, Scandoromani language, Scania, Scanian dialect, Selma Lagerlöf, Sj-sound, Småland, Sociolect, Sorunda, South Swedish dialects, Southwest Finland, Sovereignty, Standard German, Standard Swedish, Statistics Finland, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Studentlitteratur, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Supine, Svenska Akademiens ordbok, Svenska Akademiens ordlista, Sveriges Television, Sweden, Swedes, Swedish Academy, Swedish alphabet, Swedish as a foreign language, Swedish language, Swedish Language Council, Swedish literature, Swedish orthography, Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Swenglish, Syntax, T–V distinction, Tecknad svenska, Tone (linguistics), Top-level domain, Transcription (linguistics), Trill consonant, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States Census, Uppland, Uusimaa, V2 word order, Variety (linguistics), Värmland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Västgötalagen, Velar consonant, Viking Age, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voiced velar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voicelessness, Vormsi, Vowel, Word stem, World War II, Y, Yle, Yle Fem, Yle Vega, Yle X3M, Younger Futhark, Zealand. Expand index (234 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Aspås (from Old Norse Öspáss 'aspen ridge') is a locality situated in Krokom Municipality, Jämtland County, Sweden with 375 inhabitants in 2010.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.
Älvdalen (literally means River Valley) is a locality and the seat of Älvdalen Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 1,810 inhabitants in 2010.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Årstad is a locality situated in Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden, with 284 inhabitants in 2010.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.
Överkalix (Ylikainuu) is a locality and the seat of Överkalix Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 975 inhabitants in 2010.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.
Burträsk is a locality situated in Skellefteå Municipality, Västerbotten County, Sweden with 1,575 inhabitants in 2010.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
In linguistics, conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation involving the creation of a word (of a new word class) from an existing word (of a different word class) without any change in form, which is to say, derivation using only zero.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Dagens Industri (often referred to as DI and stylized as Dagens industri) is a financial newspaper in tabloid format published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.
Dalarna (English exonym: Dalecarlia), is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden.
Dalsland is a Swedish traditional province, or landskap, situated in Götaland in southern Sweden.
The Danish language has a number of regional and local dialect varieties.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dragsfjärd is a former municipality of Finland.
Du-reformen (the you-reform) was the process in the late 1960s of popularization of the second-person singular pronoun du as a universal form of address in Sweden.
Eastern Uusimaa (Itä-Uusimaa; Östra Nyland) was a region in Finland, until it was consolidated with the region of Uusimaa on January 1, 2011.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
Elfdalian or Övdalian (Övdalsk or Övdalską in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or Älvdalsmål in Swedish) is a North Germanic language spoken by up to 3,000 people who live or have grown up in the parish of Älvdalen (Övdaln), which is located in the southeastern part of Älvdalen Municipality in northern Dalarna, Sweden.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (estlandssvenskar, "Estonia Swedes", colloquially aibofolke, "Island People", rannarootslased, i.e. "Coastal Swedes" or eestirootslased) are a Swedish-speaking minority traditionally residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Färila is a locality situated in Ljusdal Municipality, Gävleborg County, Sweden with 1,293 inhabitants in 2010.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (finlandssvenska, suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Floby is a locality situated in Falköping Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Verbivka (Standard Swedish: Gammalsvenskby, local Swedish dialect: Gammölsvänskbi; literally: "Old Swedish Village"; Ukrainian Старошведське, Staroshvedske; German Alt-Schwedendorf&thinsp) is a former village that is now a neighbourhood in the village of Zmiivka (Ukrainian: Зміївка) in Beryslav Raion of Kherson Oblast, Ukraine.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Gräsö is an island in Östhammar Municipality, off the coast of Uppland province on the eastern coast of Sweden.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gustaf Fröding (22 August 1860 – 8 February 1911) was a Swedish poet and writer, born in Alster outside Karlstad in Värmland.
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The Gustav Vasa Bible (Gustav Vasas bibel) is the common name of the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41.
Gutnish, or Gotlandic (Gotländska, Gutniska or Gutamål) refers to the dialects of the Swedish language spoken on the islands of Gotland and Fårö.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hälsingland, sometimes referred to as Helsingia in English, is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden.
Härjedalen (Herjedalen) is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
Heberg is a locality situated in Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden, with 449 inhabitants in 2010.
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotimaisten kielten keskus, abbreviated KOTUS, Päikkieennâm kielâi tutkâmkuávdáš, Ruovttueatnan gielaid guovddáš, Dommjânnmlaž ǩiõli kõõskõs, Finnosko tšimbengo instituutos, Institutet för de inhemska språken) is a governmental linguistic research institute of Finland geared at studies of Finnish, Swedish (cf. Finland Swedish), the Sami languages, Romani language, and the Finnish Sign Language.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Jämshög is a locality situated in Olofström Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 1,494 inhabitants in 2010.
Jämtland (Norwegian: Jemtland,; Latin: Iemptia) or Jamtland is a historical province (landskap) in the centre of Sweden in northern Europe.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
The two main official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish.
Swedish is the official language of Sweden and is spoken by the vast majority of the 10 million inhabitants of the country.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Laurentius Andreae (c. 1470 – 14 April 1552) was a Swedish Lutheran clergyman and scholar who is acknowledged as one of his country's preeminent intellectual figures during the first half of the 16th century.
Laurentius Petri Nericius (1499 – 27 October 1573) was a Swedish clergyman and the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
A hundred is a geographic division formerly used in northern Germanic countries and related colonies, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative divisions.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.
Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
The Mälaren Valley (Mälardalen), occasionally referred to as Stockholm-Mälaren Region (Stockholm-mälarregionen), is the easternmost part of Svealand, the catchment area of Lake Mälaren and the surrounding municipalities.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Modern Swedish (nysvenska) is the linguistic term used for the Swedish language from the Bible translation of 1526 to the development of a common national language around 1880.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
The municipalities (kunta; kommun) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Närke is a Swedish traditional province, or landskap, situated in Svealand in south central Sweden.
Närpes (Närpiö) is a town and municipality of Finland.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nils Ferlin (11 December 1898 - 21 October 1961) was a Swedish poet and lyricist.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic Language Convention is a convention of linguistic rights that came into force on 1 March 1987, under the auspices of the Nordic Council.
Norrbotten, known in English as North Bothnia, is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden.
Norrland ("Northland", originally Norrlanden or "the Northlands") is the northernmost, largest, least populated and least densely populated of the three traditional lands of Sweden, consisting of nine provinces.
Norrland dialects (norrländska mål) is one of the six major dialect groupings of the Swedish language.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Olof Persson, sometimes Petersson (6 January 1493 – 19 April 1552), better known under the Latin form of his name, Olaus Petri (or less commonly, Olavus Petri), was a clergyman, writer, judge and major contributor to the Protestant Reformation in Sweden.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Swedish (Modern Swedish: fornsvenska) is the name for two distinct stages of the Swedish language that were spoken in the Middle Ages: Early Old Swedish (Klassisk fornsvenska), spoken from around 1225 until 1375, and Late Old Swedish (Yngre fornsvenska), spoken from 1375 until 1526.
Orsa is a locality and the seat of Orsa Municipality, Dalarna County, Sweden, with 5,308 inhabitants (2010).
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Orust is an island in western Sweden, and Sweden's third largest island.
Ostrobothnia, Österbotten (literally "Eastern Bottom", "botten" deriving from Old Norse botn in the meaning of 'bay', and Latinized "bothnia"), Pohjanmaa (literally "Bottom (low) lands") is a historical province comprising a large western and northern part of modern Finland (which was then the "eastern half" of Sweden).
Ostrobothnia (Österbotten; Pohjanmaa) is a region of Finland.
In parliamentary practice, pairing is an informal arrangement between the government and opposition parties whereby a member of a Legislative body agrees or is designated by the party whip to be absent from the chamber or abstain from voting while a member of the other party needs to be absent from the chamber due to other commitments, illness, travel problems, etc.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Porvoo (Borgå) is a city and a municipality situated on the southern coast of Finland approximately east of Helsinki.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Rimforsa is a locality situated in Kinda Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 2,238 inhabitants in 2010.
Rinkeby is a district in the Rinkeby-Kista borough, Stockholm, Sweden.
Rinkeby Swedish (Rinkebysvenska) is any of a number of varieties of Swedish spoken mainly in urban districts with a high proportion of immigrant residents which emerged as a linguistic phenomenon in the 1980s.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Rosenbad (lit. rosen bath) is a building in central Stockholm, precinct of Norrmalm.
Rosengård (literally "Rose Manor") was a city district (stadsdel) in the center of Malmö Municipality, Sweden.
Ruhnu (Runö; Roņu sala) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.
Scandinavian Braille is a braille alphabet used, with differences in orthography and punctuation, for the languages of the mainland Nordic countries: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish.
Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Scanian is a closely related group of South Swedish dialects spoken in the province of Scania in southern Sweden.
Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (20 November 1858 – 16 March 1940) was a Swedish author and teacher.
In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound (sj-ljudet) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects.
Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Sorunda is a locality situated in Nynäshamn Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 1,307 inhabitants in 2010.
South Swedish dialects (Swedish: sydsvenska mål) is one of the main dialect groups of Swedish.
Southwest Finland, also known as Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi, Egentliga Finland) is a region in the south-west of Finland.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
Standard Swedish (standardsvenska, rikssvenska, högsvenska) denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language.
Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus, Statistikcentralen) is the national statistical institution in Finland, established in 1865 to serve as an information service and to provide statistics and expertise in the statistical sciences.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Studentlitteratur is an academic publishing company based in Sweden and publishing mostly in Swedish.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In grammar, a supine is a form of verbal noun used in some languages.
A complete set of ''Svenska Akademiens ordbok'', as of late 2014. The majority of the volumes remain unbound in this set. Svenska Akademiens ordbok, abbreviated SAOB, is a dictionary published by the Swedish Academy, with the official title Ordbok över svenska språket utgiven av Svenska Akademien.
Svenska Akademiens ordlista, abbreviated SAOL, is a glossary published every few years by the Swedish Academy.
SVT is the Swedish national public TV broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets, and set by the Riksdag.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
Swedish as a foreign language is studied by about 40,000 people worldwide at the university level and by over 3 million people on Duolingo.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the primary regulatory body for the advancement and cultivation of the Swedish language.
Swedish literature refers to literature written in the Swedish language or by writers from Sweden.
Swedish orthography is the set of rules and conventions used for writing Swedish.
The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.
Swenglish is a colloquial term meaning either.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Tecknad svenska, or Signed Swedish, is an obsolete manually coded form of Swedish that used signs of Swedish Sign Language for lexical words, supplemented by additional signs for grammatical words and inflectional endings.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.
Uusimaa (Nyland,;; both lit. “new land”) is a region of Finland.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden.
Västerbotten, known in English as West Bothnia or Westrobothnia, is a province (landskap) in the north of Sweden, bordering Ångermanland, Lapland, North Bothnia, and the Gulf of Bothnia.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in Latin script and the oldest of all Swedish provincial laws.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Vormsi, also Ormsö (Ormsö, Worms) is the fourth-largest island of Estonia, located between Hiiumaa and the mainland with a total area of.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.
Yle Fem (Yle Five) was Yle's Finland-Swedish national television channel, providing television programmes in the Swedish language in Finland.
Yle Vega (prior to 1 September 2016 – Yle Radio Vega) is a Finnish radio channel broadcasting in the Swedish language.
Yle X3M (Radio Extrem) is a Finnish Swedish-language radio station, owned and operated by Yle.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).
Contemporary Swedish, Distribution of Swedish language, ISO 639:sv, ISO 639:swe, New Swedish language, Sversk, Swedish (language), Swedish Language, Swedish lang, Swedish morphology, Swedish-language, SwedishLanguage, Swedophone.