135 relations: A Short History of the World (Blainey), Abjad, Abugida, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Norman language, Aorist (Ancient Greek), Arabic, Austroasiatic languages, Berber languages, British Museum, Checked and free vowels, Checked tone, Chinese language, Chinookan languages, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Chroneme, Classical Arabic, Classical Latin, Close vowel, Consistori del Gay Saber, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Diphthong, English language, Epenthesis, Floral Games, Fort Worth, Texas, Fricative consonant, Gemination, Geoffrey Blainey, German language, Germanic languages, Glottal stop, Grapheme, Greek diacritics, Greek language, Guilhem Molinier, Hangul, Hawaiian language, Hebrew language, Historical Chinese phonology, History of writing, International Phonetic Alphabet, Isochrony, Italian language, Japanese language, Khmu language, Koine Greek, Korean language, Language, ..., Latin, Latin alphabet, Liaison (French), Line (poetry), Liquid consonant, List of the longest English words with one syllable, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Maltese language, Mandarin Chinese, Metre (poetry), Middle Chinese, Minor syllable, Miyakoan language, Monophthong, Mora (linguistics), Moroccan Arabic, Nasal infix, Nick Clements, Nuxalk language, Obstruent, Occitan language, Old Chinese, Old English, Old French, Open vowel, Parse tree, Penult, Phoneme, Phonological word, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pictogram, Pinyin, Pitch-accent language, Poetry, Polynesian languages, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European root, Proto-Sinaitic script, Rhyme, Rime dictionary, Rime table, Romance languages, Ryukyuan languages, Salishan languages, Samuel Jay Keyser, Sanskrit, Semai language, Semivowel, Sibilant, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sonorant, Sound change, Spanish language, Speech, Standard Chinese phonology, Stød, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Suffix, Sumer, Suprasegmentals, Swahili language, Syllabary, Syllabic consonant, Syllabification, Syllable, Syllable (computing), Syllable weight, Tamil language, Tenseness, Thai language, Tone (linguistics), Triphthong, Troubadour, Ultima (linguistics), Underlying representation, Upper Arrernte language, Ur, Vietnamese language, Vowel, Wakashan languages, Word, Zero (linguistics), Zero consonant. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
A Short History of the World is a general history non-fiction book written by Australian historian Geoffrey Blainey.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
In the grammar of Ancient Greek, including Koine, the aorist (pronounced or) is a class of verb forms that generally portray a situation as simple or undefined, that is, as having aorist aspect.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
In phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed closed syllable; and free vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed open syllable.
A checked tone, commonly known by its Chinese calque entering tone, is one of four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.
In linguistics, a chroneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words by duration only of a vowel or consonant.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The Consistori del Gay Saber ("Consistory of the Gay Science") was a poetic academy founded at Toulouse in 1323 to revive and perpetuate the lyric poetry of the troubadours.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Floral Games were any of a series of historically related poetry contests with floral prizes.
Fort Worth is the 15th-largest city in the United States and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guilhem Molinier or Moulinier (1330–50) was a medieval Occitan poet from Toulouse.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Khmu is the language of the Khmu people of the northern Laos region.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
A line is a unit of language into which a poem or play is divided, which operates on principles which are distinct from and not necessarily coincident with grammatical structures, such as the sentence or single clauses in sentences.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is a list of candidates for the longest English word of one syllable, i.e. monosyllables with the most letters.
The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Minor syllable is a term used primarily in the description of Mon-Khmer languages, where a word typically consists of a reduced (minor) syllable followed by a full tonic or stressed syllable.
The Miyakoan language (宮古口/ミャークフツ Myaakufutsu or 島口/スマフツ Sumafutsu) is a language spoken in the Miyako Islands, located southwest of Okinawa.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
The nasal infix is a reconstructed nasal consonant or syllable that was inserted (infixed) into the stem or root of a word in the Proto-Indo-European language.
George Nick Clements (October 5, 1940 – August 30, 2009) was an American theoretical linguist specializing in phonology.
Nuxalk, also known as Bella Coola, is a Salishan language spoken by the Nuxalk people.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
A parse tree or parsing tree or derivation tree or concrete syntax tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar.
Penult is a linguistics term for the second to last syllable of a word.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
The phonological word or prosodic word (also called pword, PrWd; symbolised as ω) is a constituent in the phonological hierarchy higher than the syllable and the foot but lower than intonational phrase and the phonological phrase.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
A rime dictionary, rhyme dictionary, or rime book is an ancient type of Chinese dictionary that collates characters by tone and rhyme, instead of by radical.
A rime table or rhyme table is a Chinese phonological model, tabulating the syllables of the series of rime dictionaries beginning with the Qieyun (601) by their onsets, rhyme groups, tones and other properties.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The are the indigenous languages of the Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost part of the Japanese archipelago.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Samuel Jay Keyser (born 7 July 1935) is an American theoretical linguist who is an authority on the history and structure of the English language and on linguistic approaches to literary criticism.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semai is a Mon–Khmer language of western Malaysia spoken by about 44,000 Semai people.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
Stød (also occasionally spelled stod) is a suprasegmental unit of Danish phonology (represented in IPA as or as), which in its most common form is a kind of creaky voice (laryngealization), but it may also be realized as a glottal stop, especially in emphatic pronunciation.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
In linguistics, suprasegmentals are contrastive elements of speech that cannot be easily analyzed as distinct segments but rather belong to a syllable or word.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
Syllabification or syllabication is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In computing, a syllable is a name for a platform-dependent unit of information storage.
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
In linguistics, the ultima is the last syllable of a word, the penult is the next-to-last syllable, and the antepenult is third-from-last syllable.
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
Arrernte or Aranda or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Wakashan is a family of languages spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, and in the northwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
In linguistics, a zero or null is a segment which is not pronounced or written.
In orthography, a zero consonant, silent initial, or null-onset letter is a consonant letter that does not correspond to a consonant sound, but is required when a word or syllable starts with a vowel (i.e. has a null onset).
Ambisyllabic, Ambisyllabicity, Auslaut, Checked syllable, Closed syllable, Closed syllables, Coda (linguistics), Disyllabic, Disyllable, Final (linguistics), Initial (linguistics), Monosyllabic, Monosyllable, Nasal coda, Nucleus (linguistics), Nucleus (syllable), Null initial, Null onset, Onset (linguistics), Open syllable, Peak (linguistics), Peak of syllable, Polysyllabic, Polysyllable, Rhyme (linguistics), Rime (linguistics), Shengmu, Sillable, Sillables, Sylable, Syllabic coda, Syllable (linguistics), Syllable body, Syllable coda, Syllable core, Syllable final, Syllable initial, Syllable medial, Syllable nuclei, Syllable nucleus, Syllable onset, Syllable onsets, Syllable peak, Syllable rhyme, Syllable rime, Syllable rimes, Syllable structure, Syllables, Trisyllabic, Trisyllable, Yunmu, Zero initial, 聲母.