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Index Symbiosis

Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic. [1]

140 relations: Actinomycetales, Albert Bernhard Frank, Alder, Algae, Ancient Greek, Animal, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Antagonism (phytopathology), Aposymbiotic, Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Bacteria, Baleen whale, Barnacle, Bat, Batesian mimicry, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Biology, Bird, Bryozoa, Bumblebee, Carbon fixation, Caridea, Charles Darwin, Cheating (biology), Chloroplast, Cleaner fish, Cleaning symbiosis, Co-operation (evolution), Coevolution, Cold seep, Combat, Commensalism, Competition (biology), Coral, Deception in animals, Deep sea, Digestion, DNA, Dorion Sagan, Earth, Eating, Ecology, Ectosymbiosis, Edward Haskell, Elacatinus, Endosymbiont, Entomophily, Eukaryote, Evolution, Exocrine gland, ..., Fitness (biology), Flowering plant, Food, Frankia, Fungus, Gastropoda, Genome, Goby, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gut flora, Heinrich Anton de Bary, Herbivore, Heredity, Hermit crab, Heteractis magnifica, Host (biology), Human Microbiome Project, Hydrothermal vent, Inquiline, Insect, Interaction, Interspecies friendship, Juglans nigra, Legume, Lichen, Life, Limiting factor, Linnean Society of London, List of symbiotic organisms, List of symbiotic relationships, Louse, Lynn Margulis, Müllerian mimicry, Metabolism, Microbial consortium, Microbiota, Mistletoe, Mitochondrion, Mucus, Muller's ratchet, Mutation, Mutualism (biology), Mycology, Mycorrhiza, Natural selection, Nitrogen fixation, Ocellaris clownfish, Open reading frame, Organism, Ornithophily, Parasitic castration, Parasitism, Phenotype, Phoresis (biology), Plant, PLOS Biology, Pollination, Predation, Protist, Protozoa, Pseudomyrmex ferruginea, Reciprocal altruism, Rhizobia, Root nodule, Ross Piper, Siboglinidae, Signalling theory, Social network, Social relation, Speciation, Species, Stinger, Symbiodinium, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Tentacle, Territory (animal), Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Trentepohlia (alga), Tube worm, Vachellia, Vachellia chiapensis, Vachellia collinsii, Vachellia cornigera, Vachellia hindsii, Vachellia sphaerocephala, Vascular plant, Water, Wrasse. Expand index (90 more) »


The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.

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Albert Bernhard Frank

Albert Bernhard Frank (January 17, 1839 in Dresden – September 27, 1900 in Berlin) was a German botanist, plant pathologist, and mycologist.

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Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics

The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Antagonism (phytopathology)

In phytopathology, antagonism refers to the action of any organism that suppress or interfere the normal growth and activity of a plant pathogen, such as the main parts of bacteria or fungi.

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Aposymbiosis occurs when symbiotic organisms live apart from one another (for example, a clownfish living independently of a sea anemone).

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Arbuscular mycorrhiza

An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a. endomycorrhiza) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus (AM fungi, or AMF) penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baleen whale

Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).

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A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Batesian mimicry

Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.

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Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.

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Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

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The Caridea, commonly known as caridean shrimp, are an infraorder of shrimp within the order Decapoda.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Cheating (biology)

Cheating is a term used in behavioral ecology and ethology to describe behavior whereby organisms receive a benefit at the cost of other organisms.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Cleaner fish

Cleaner fish are fish that provide a service to other fish species by removing dead skin and ectoparasites.

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Cleaning symbiosis

Cleaning symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association between individuals of two species, where one (the cleaner) removes and eats parasites and other materials from the surface of the other (the client).

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Co-operation (evolution)

In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.

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In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.

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Cold seep

A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.

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Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.

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Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.

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Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Deception in animals

Deception in animals is the transmission of misinformation by one animal to another, of the same or different species, in a way that propagates beliefs that are not true.

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Deep sea

The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dorion Sagan

Dorion Sagan (born 1959) is an American author, essayist, fiction writer, and theorist from Madison, Wisconsin.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands.

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Edward Haskell

Edward Fröhlich Haskell (August 24, 1906 – 1986) was a synergic scientist and integral thinker who dedicated his life to the unification of human knowledge into a single discipline.

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Elacatinus is a genus of small marine gobies, often known collectively as the neon gobies.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Exocrine gland

Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Frankia is a genus of nitrogen-fixing, filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, similar to the Rhizobium bacteria found in the root nodules of legumes in the family Fabaceae.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Gobies are fishes of the family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Heinrich Anton de Bary

Heinrich Anton de Bary (26 January 183119 January 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology).

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Hermit crab

Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the superfamily Paguroidea.

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Heteractis magnifica

Heteractis magnifica, also known by the common names magnificent sea anemone or Ritteri anemone, is a species of sea anemone belonging to the Stichodactylidae family native to the Indo-Pacific area.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Human Microbiome Project

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) research initiative to improve understanding of the microbial flora involved in human health and disease.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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In zoology, an inquiline (from Latin inquilinus, "lodger" or "tenant") is an animal that lives commensally in the nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.

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Interspecies friendship

An interspecies friendship is a bond that is formed between animals of different species.

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Juglans nigra

Juglans nigra, the eastern black walnut, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, native to eastern North America.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Limiting factor

A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.

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Linnean Society of London

The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.

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List of symbiotic organisms

This is a list of organisms that are true symbiotes with other organisms.

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List of symbiotic relationships

Symbiosis can vary between mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism, though these grade into each other,.

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Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.

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Müllerian mimicry

Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more unprofitable (often, distasteful) species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's honest warning signals, to their mutual benefit, since predators can learn to avoid all of them with fewer experiences.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Microbial consortium

A microbial consortium is two or more microbial groups living symbiotically.

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A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.

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Mistletoe is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Muller's ratchet

In evolutionary genetics, Muller's ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller, by analogy with a ratchet effect) is a process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.

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A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.

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Ocellaris clownfish

The ocellaris clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris), also known as the false percula clownfish or common clownfish, is a marine fish belonging to the family Pomacentridae, which includes clownfishes and damselfishes.

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Open reading frame

In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds.

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Parasitic castration

Parasitic castration is the strategy, by a parasite, of blocking reproduction by its host, completely or in part, to its own benefit.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phoresis (biology)

In biology, the term phoresis, also called phoresy, is an inter-species biological interaction in ecology and refers to a form of symbiosis where the symbiont, termed the phoront, is mechanically transported by its host.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Pseudomyrmex ferruginea

The acacia ant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea) is a species of ant of the genus Pseudomyrmex.

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Reciprocal altruism

In evolutionary biology, reciprocal altruism is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.

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Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).

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Root nodule

Root nodules occur on the roots of plants (primarily Fabaceae) that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

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Ross Piper

Ross Piper is a British zoologist, entomologist, and explorer.

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Siboglinidae, also known as the beard worms, is a family of polychaete annelid worms whose members made up the former phyla Pogonophora (the giant tube worms) and Vestimentifera.

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Signalling theory

Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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A stinger, or sting, is a sharp organ found in various animals (typically arthropods) capable of injecting venom, usually by piercing the epidermis of another animal.

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Symbiodinium is a genus that encompasses the largest and most prevalent group of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates known.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Territory (animal)

In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Trentepohlia (alga)

Trentepohlia is a genus of filamentous chlorophyte green algae in the family Trentepohliaceae, living free on terrestrial supports such as tree trunks and wet rocks or symbiotically in lichens.

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Tube worm

A tube worm is any worm-like sessile invertebrate that anchors its tail to an underwater surface and secretes around its body a mineral tube, into which it can withdraw its entire body.

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Vachellia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, commonly known as thorn trees or acacias.

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Vachellia chiapensis

Vachellia chiapensis is a species of leguminous tree in the Fabaceae family.

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Vachellia collinsii

Vachellia collinsii is a species of flowering plant.

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Vachellia cornigera

Vachellia cornigera, commonly known as Bullhorn Acacia (family Fabaceae), is a swollen-thorn tree native to Mexico and Central America.

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Vachellia hindsii

Vachellia hindsii is a tree up to tall native to parts of southern Mexico and parts of Central America.

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Vachellia sphaerocephala

Vachellia sphaerocephala (bull's horn thorn or bee wattle) is a plant of the family Fabaceae.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.

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Amensal, Amensalism, Artificial symbiosis, Biological interactions, Biotic interaction, Biotrophic, Interspecific interaction, Interspecific interactions, Mutual dependence, Mutual symbiosis, Obligate symbiont, Obligate symbiosis, Symbiant, Symbiologist, Symbiologists, Symbiology, Symbiont, Symbionts, Symbioses, Symbiosis relationships of animals, Symbiosys, Symbiot, Symbiotic, Symbiotic association, Symbiotic interaction, Symbiotic relationship, Symbiotic relationships, Symbiotical, Symbiotically, Symbiotics, Symbiotoc relationship.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis

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