200 relations: Acetyl group, Acid, Actinide, Actinium, Adamantane, Alchemy, Alkyl, Americium, Ancient Rome, Antihydrogen, Antimony, Argon, Arsenic, Aryl, Astatine, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Base (chemistry), Benzoyl group, Benzyl group, Berkelium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Bohrium, Boron, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Butyl group, Carbon, Carl Gustaf Mosander, Carolinium, Charles Baskerville, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical elements in East Asian languages, Chemical hazard, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chlorine, Chromium, Classical element, Copernicium, Copper, Cyclohexane, Cyclopentadienyl, Darmstadtium, Davyum, Definition, Deuterated solvents, Deuterium, Didymium, ..., Dmitri Mendeleev, Dubnium, Dysprosium, Einsteinium, Electrophile, Erbium, Ernest Rutherford, Ethyl group, Etymology, Excited state, Fermium, Fire (classical element), Fixed stars, Flerovium, Fluorine, Foundations of Science, Francium, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, Functional group, Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Greek language, Hafnium, Halogen, Hassium, Heavy water, Helium, Helvetium, Hydrogen, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ion, Ionization, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of hydrogen, Isotopes of polonium, Isotopes of radon, Isotopes of thorium, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Dalton, Lanthanide, Latin, Lawrencium, Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, List of chemical elements, List of chemical elements naming controversies, Lithium, Livermorium, Lutetium, Magnesium, Manganese, Mass number, Meitnerium, Mendelevium, Mercury (element), Mesitylene, Mesylate, Metal, Methyl group, Mischmetal, Moiety (chemistry), Molecule, Moscovium, Muonium, National Nuclear Data Center, Neodymium, Neopentane, Neptunium, New Latin, Nihonium, Niobium, Nitrogen, Nobelium, Noble gas, Nuclear isomer, Nucleon, Nucleophile, Oganesson, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Pelopium, Periodic table, Phenyl group, Phosphorus, Pisces (astrology), Planets in astrology, Platinum, Plutonium, Polonium, Positronium, Potassium, Praseodymium, Prime (symbol), Promethium, Propyl group, Protactinium, Protonium, Quantum state, Radical (chemistry), Radiochemistry, Radium, Radon, Rare-earth element, Ray (optics), Relative atomic mass, Roentgenium, Rutherfordium, Samarium, Scandium, Seaborgium, Silver, Singlet oxygen, Sodium, Steel, Subscript and superscript, Sulfur, Systematic element name, Table of nuclides, Taurus (astrology), Technetium, Technetium-99m, Tennessine, Terbium, Thallium, Thor, Thorium, Thulium, Tin, Tosyl, Trifluoromethylsulfonyl, Triphenylmethane, Tritium, Tungsten, Uranium, Uranium-234, Uranium-238, Vanadium, Water (classical element), Xenon, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zinc, 2, 2 Pallas, 3. Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound with a camphor-like odor.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
In organic chemistry, benzoyl is the functional group with the formula C6H5CO-.
In organic chemistry, benzyl is the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure C6H5CH2–.
Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bohrium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.
Carolinium and berzelium were the proposed names for new chemical elements that Charles Baskerville believed he had isolated from the already known element thorium.
Charles Baskerville was an American chemist.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The names for chemical elements in East Asian languages, along with those for some chemical compounds (mostly organic), are among the newest words to enter the local vocabularies.
A chemical hazard is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Cyclopentadienyl can refer to.
Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ds and atomic number 110.
Davyum was the proposed name for a chemical element found by chemist Serge Kern in 1877.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
Deuterated solvents are a group of compounds where one or more hydrogen atoms are substituted by deuterium atoms.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dubnium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Db and atomic number 105.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Foundations of Science is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary academic journal focussing on methodological and philosophical topics concerning the structure and the growth of science.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Friedrich Ernst Dorn (27 July 1848 – 16 December 1916) was a German physicist who was the first to discover that a radioactive substance, later named radon, is emitted from radium.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helvetium was the suggested name of chemical element number 85, now known as astatine, given to it by the Swiss chemist Walter Minder.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
There are 35 known isotopes of radon (86Rn) from 195Rn to 229Rn; all are radioactive.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Livermorium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lv and atomic number 116.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Meitnerium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mt and atomic number 109.
Mendelevium is a synthetic element with chemical symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mesitylene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene is a derivative of benzene with three methyl substituents positioned symmetrically around the ring.
In chemistry, a mesylate is any salt or ester of methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H).
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Mischmetal (from Mischmetall – "mixed metal") is an alloy of rare-earth elements.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Moscovium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mc and atomic number 115.
Muonium is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon and an electron, which was discovered in 1960 by Vernon W. Hughes and is given the chemical symbol Mu.
The National Nuclear Data Center is an organization based in the Brookhaven National Laboratory that acts as a repository for data regarding nuclear chemistry, such as nuclear structure, decay, and reaction data, as well as historical information regarding previous experiments and literature.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neopentane, also called 2,2-dimethylpropane, is a double-branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
Nihonium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Nh and atomic number 113.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol No and atomic number 102.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pelopium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist Heinrich Rose in 1845.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pisces (♓️) (Ἰχθύες Ikhthyes) is the twelfth astrological sign in the Zodiac.
Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
The prime symbol (′), double prime symbol (&Prime), triple prime symbol (‴), quadruple prime symbol (⁗) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
In organic chemistry, propyl is a three-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula – for the linear form.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Protonium (symbol: Pn), also known as antiprotonic hydrogen, is a type of exotic atom in which a proton (symbol: p) and an antiproton (symbol) orbit each other.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Roentgenium is a chemical element with symbol Rg and atomic number 111.
Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Seaborgium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Sg and atomic number 106.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A systematic element name is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or not yet synthesized chemical element.
A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull"; symbol:, Unicode: ♉) is the second astrological sign in the present zodiac.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A toluenesulfonyl (shortened tosyl, abbreviated Ts or Tos) group is CH3C6H4SO2.
Triflyl, more formally known as trifluoromethanesulfonyl, is a functional group with the formula F3CSO2–.
Triphenylmethane, or triphenyl methane, is the hydrocarbon with the formula (C6H5)3CH.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.
3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.