85 relations: Acetylcholine, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Blood pressure, Bronchiole, Bronchus, Catecholamine, Celiac ganglia, Central nervous system, Cervical ganglia, Chromaffin cell, Circulatory system, Dendrite, Dermatome (anatomy), Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Efferent nerve fiber, Enteric nervous system, Esophagus, Fight-or-flight response, Galen, Ganglion, General visceral afferent fibers, Goose bumps, Heart failure, Heart rate, History of catecholamine research, Homeostasis, Hypertension, Inferior cervical ganglion, Intermediolateral nucleus, Jacob B. Winslow, Kidney, Large intestine, Lateral grey column, Limbic system, Lumbar, Lumbar vertebrae, Mesenteric ganglion, Middle cervical ganglion, Motility, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Myelin, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, ..., Norepinephrine, Pain, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paravertebral ganglia, Peristalsis, Peritoneal cavity, Perspiration, Postganglionic nerve fibers, Preganglionic nerve fibers, Prevertebral ganglia, Pupil, Pupillary response, Referred pain, Reflex arc, Renin, Somatic nervous system, Spinal cord, Stress (biology), Stroke volume, Superior cervical ganglion, Sweat gland, Sympathetic ganglion, Sympathetic trunk, Sympathy, Synapse, Thoracic vertebrae, Thorax, Tumescence, Urinary system, Vasoconstriction, Vasospasm, Ventral root of spinal nerve, Vertebra, Vertebral column, White ramus communicans. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
The general visceral afferent fibers (GVA) conduct sensory impulses (usually pain or reflex sensations) from the internal organs, glands, and blood vessels to the central nervous system.
Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The inferior cervical ganglion is situated between the base of the transverse process of the last cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, on the medial side of the costocervical artery.
The intermediolateral nucleus (IML) is a region of grey matter found in one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord, the lateral grey column.
Jacob Benignus Winsløw, also known as Jacques-Bénigne Winslow (17 April 1669 – 3 April 1760), was a Danish-born French anatomist.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The lateral grey column (lateral column, lateral cornu, lateral horn of spinal cord, intermediolateral column) is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord (which give the shape of a butterfly); the others being the anterior and posterior grey columns.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum. The lumbar region is sometimes referred to as the lower spine, or as an area of the back in its proximity.
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.
Mesenteric ganglion may refer to.
The middle cervical ganglion is the smallest of the three cervical ganglia, and is occasionally absent.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Along the length of the sympathetic trunks are ganglia known as ganglia of sympathetic trunk, sympathetic ganglia or paravertebral ganglia.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space between the parietal peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal wall) and visceral peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the internal organs).
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers.
Prevertebral ganglia (or collateral ganglia, or preaortic ganglia) are sympathetic ganglia which lie between the paravertebral ganglia and the target organ.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
Referred pain, also called reflective pain, is pain perceived at a location other than the site of the painful stimulus.
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Sympathetic ganglia are the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system.
The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.
Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
Tumescence is the quality or state of being tumescent or swollen.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction.
In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root or anterior root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
The white ramus communicans (plural: rami communicantes) from Latin ramus (branch) and communicans (communicating) is the preganglionic sympathetic outflow nerve tract from the spinal cord.
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