461 relations: A Flock of Seagulls, Abbey Road, ABC (band), Access Virus, Accordion, Ace Tone, Acid house, Additive synthesis, Akai, Alwin Nikolais, Amplifier, Amplitude, Amplitude adjusting, Analog modeling synthesizer, Analog synthesizer, Analytic signal, ANS synthesizer, Are "Friends" Electric?, ARP Instruments, ARP Odyssey, Arpeggio, Arseny Avraamov, Attenuation, Attenuator (electronics), Audio Engineering Society, Audio filter, Audio frequency, Audio signal processing, Audiocubes, Audion, Automation, Baby, You're a Rich Man, Band-pass filter, Band-stop filter, Banded waveguide synthesis, Bass guitar, Bassoon, Bülent Arel, Beaver & Krause, Billboard (magazine), Boogie On Reggae Woman, Bookends (album), Boss Corporation, Brian Eno, Broadway theatre, Bronski Beat, Buzzer, California, Cambridge University Press, Canberra, ..., Cars (song), Casio, Casio CZ synthesizers, Casio digital horn, Casio VL-1, Charanjit Singh (musician), Charles Wuorinen, Chicory Tip, Chord (music), Classical music, Clavioline, Clavivox, Combo organ, Communication protocol, Composer, Computer memory, Computer music, Computer Music Center, Concatenative synthesis, Conn-Selmer, Constant Martin, Continuum Fingerboard, CRC Press, Crumar, Culture Club, CV/gate, Dachau, Dance music, Dave Smith (engineer), David Bowie, Dónal Lunny, Del Shannon, Delta timing, Depeche Mode, Devo, Dewtron, Digital audio workstation, Digital signal processing, Digital synthesizer, Digital waveguide synthesis, Direct digital synthesis, Disco, Distortion synthesis, Doepfer A-100, Don Buchla, Don't You Want Me, Double bass, Drum machine, Dubstep, Duran Duran, E-mu Emulator, E-mu Emulator X, Effects unit, Eigenharp, Electric guitar, Electric instrument, Electric organ, Electric potential, Electrical telegraph, Electricity, Electro-Theremin, Electroacoustic music, Electromagnet, Electromechanics, Electronic dance music, Electronic drum, Electronic filter, Electronic keyboard, Electronic music, Electronic musical 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Garfunkel, Sine wave, Singing, Smooth jazz, Snowflakes Are Dancing, Soft Cell, Software, Software synthesizer, Son of My Father, Sound chip, Sound film, Sound module, Sound on Sound, Spandau Ballet, Spectral density, Spectral modeling synthesis, Speech synthesis, Sports Hochi, Square wave, Stevie Wonder, Strange Days (album), String section, String synthesizer, Studio di fonologia musicale di Radio Milano, Studio for Electronic Music (WDR), Subtractive synthesis, Superstition (song), Sustain pedal, Swarmatron, Switched-On Bach, Sydney, Synclavier, Synth-pop, SynthAxe, Synthesizer, Take My Breath Away, Talk box, Talk Talk, Tangerine Dream, Tangible user interface, Taylor & Francis, Tears for Fears, Telegraphy, Telharmonium, Telstar (instrumental), Thaddeus Cahill, The Beatles, The Bells (album), The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, The Doors, The Guardian, The Human League, The Monkees, The Tornados, The United States of America (band), The Who, Theremin, Thomas Dolby, Thompson Twins, 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A Flock of Seagulls are an English new wave and synth-pop band originally formed in 1980 in Liverpool by Michael "Mike" Score (keyboards, vocals) and his brother Alister "Ali" James Score (drums), with their most famous line-up consisting of the Score brothers along with Francis Lee "Frank" Maudsley (bass) and Paul Reynolds (guitar).
Abbey Road is the eleventh studio album by English rock band the Beatles, released on 26 September 1969 by Apple Records.
ABC are an English pop band that formed in Sheffield in 1980.
The Access Virus is a virtual analog synthesizer made by the German company Access Music GmbH.
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
Ace Electronic Industries Inc., or Ace Tone was a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, including electronic organs, analogue drum machines, and electronic drums, as well as amplifiers and effects pedals.
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago.
Additive synthesis is a sound synthesis technique that creates timbre by adding sine waves together.
Akai (アカイ) is a consumer electronics brand name.
Alwin Nikolais (November 25, 1910 in Southington, Connecticut – May 8, 1993) was an American choreographer.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
The Amplitude adjusting (also referred to as Amplitude control) enables the power control of electric loads, which are operated with AC voltage.
An analog modeling synthesizer is a synthesizer that generates the sounds of traditional analog synthesizers using DSP components and software algorithms.
An analog (or analogue) synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog signals to generate sound electronically.
In mathematics and signal processing, an analytic signal is a complex-valued function that has no negative frequency components.
The ANS synthesizer is a photoelectronic musical instrument created by Russian engineer Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1957.
"Are 'Friends' Electric?" is a 1979 song by the English band Tubeway Army.
ARP Instruments, Inc. was an American manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, founded by Alan Robert Pearlman The name of founder Alan Robert Pearlman seems to be sometimes possibly incorrectly described as "Alan Richard Pearlman", as seen as below.
The ARP Odyssey is an analog synthesizer introduced in 1972.
A broken chord is a chord broken into a sequence of notes.
Arseny Mikhailovich Avraamov (Арсений Михайлович Авраамов), (born Krasnokutsky, 1886 died Moscow, 1944) was an avant-garde Russian composer and theorist.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform.
Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.
An audio filter is a frequency dependent amplifier circuit, working in the audio frequency range, 0 Hz to beyond 20 kHz.
An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human.
Audio signal processing or audio processing is the intentional alteration of audio signals often through an audio effect or effects unit.
The AudioCubes are a collection of wireless intelligent light emitting objects, capable of detecting each other's location and orientation, and user gestures, and were created by Bert Schiettecatte.
The Audion was an electronic detecting or amplifying vacuum tube invented by American electrical engineer Lee de Forest in 1906.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
"Baby, You're a Rich Man" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles that was released in July 1967 as the B-side of their "All You Need Is Love" single.
A band-pass filter, also bandpass filter or BPF, is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range.
In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.
Banded Waveguides Synthesis is a physical modeling synthesis method to simulate sounds of dispersive sounding objects, or objects with strongly inharmonic resonant frequencies efficiently.
The bass guitar (also known as electric bass, or bass) is a stringed instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses.
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.
Bülent Arel (23 April 1919 – 24 November 1990) was a Turkish-born composer of contemporary classical music and electronic music.
Beaver & Krause were a musical duo made up of Paul Beaver and Bernie Krause.
Billboard (styled as billboard) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries.
"Boogie On Reggae Woman" is a 1974 funk single by American Motown artist Stevie Wonder, from his album Fulfillingness' First Finale.
Bookends is the fourth studio album by American music duo Simon & Garfunkel.
Boss is a manufacturer of effects pedals for electric guitar and bass guitar.
Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno, RDI (born Brian Peter George Eno; 15 May 1948) is an English musician, composer, record producer, singer, writer, and visual artist.
Broadway theatre,Although theater is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), many Broadway venues, performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations use the spelling theatre.
Bronski Beat is a British synthpop trio which achieved success in the mid-1980s, particularly with the 1984 chart hit "Smalltown Boy", from their debut album The Age of Consent, which was their only US Billboard Hot 100 single.
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signalling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric (piezo for short).
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
"Cars" is a song by English musician Gary Numan.
is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and commercial electronics manufacturing company headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.
The CZ series is a family of low-cost phase distortion synthesizers produced by Casio in the mid-1980s.
The Digital Horn was an instrument produced by Casio in the mid 1980s.
The VL-1 was the first instrument of Casio's VL-Tone product line, and is sometimes referred to as the VL-Tone.
Charanjit Singh (1940 – 5 July 2015) was an Indian musician from Mumbai, who performed as a session musician, often as a guitarist or synthesizer player, in numerous Bollywood soundtrack orchestras from the 1960s to 1980s, working with filmi composers such as Shankar-Jaikishan, R.D. Burman (Rahul Dev Burman), S.D. Burman, and Laxmikant-Pyarelal.
Charles Peter Wuorinen (born June 9, 1938) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American composer of contemporary classical music based in New York City.
Chicory Tip are an English pop group, formed in 1967 in Maidstone, Kent.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The clavioline is an electronic keyboard instrument, a forerunner to the analog synthesizer.
The Clavivox was a keyboard sound synthesizer and sequencer developed by American composer Raymond Scott beginning in 1950.
A combo organ, so-named and classified by popular culture due to its original intended use by small, touring jazz, pop and dance groups known as "combo bands", as well as some models having "Combo" as part of their brand or model names, is an electronic organ of the frequency divider type, generally produced between the early 1960s and the late 1970s.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Computer music is the application of computing technology in music composition, to help human composers create new music or to have computers independently create music, such as with algorithmic composition programs.
The Computer Music Center (CMC) at Columbia University is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States.
Concatenative synthesis is a technique for synthesising sounds by concatenating short samples of recorded sound (called units).
Conn-Selmer, Inc. is an American manufacturer of musical instruments for concert bands, marching bands and orchestras.
Constant Martin (1910–1995) was a French engineer and inventor who perfected and successfully commercialised radio sets and most famously the Clavioline, a precursor to the synthesizer.
The Continuum Fingerboard or Haken Continuum is a music performance controller and synthesizer developed by Lippold Haken, a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois, and sold by Haken Audio, located in Champaign, Illinois.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crumar was an Italian electronic musical instrument manufacturer established by Mario Crucianelli in the 1970s, which manufactured synthesizers and keyboards during the 70s and 80s.
Culture Club are an English new wave band that formed in London in 1981.
CV/gate (an abbreviation of control voltage/gate) is an analog method of controlling synthesizers, drum machines and other similar equipment with external sequencers.
Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
Dave Smith is an engineer and musician who has pioneered many groundbreaking music technologies.
David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.
Dónal Lunny (born 10 March 1947) is an Irish folk musician and producer.
Del Shannon (born Charles Weedon Westover; December 30, 1934 – February 8, 1990) was an American rock and roll and country musician and singer-songwriter, best known for his 1961 number 1 Billboard hit "Runaway".
Delta Time or Delta Timing is a concept used amongst programmers in relation to hardware and network responsiveness.
Depeche Mode are an English electronic band formed in Basildon, Essex in 1980.
Devo (originally) is an American rock band from Akron, Ohio formed in 1973.
Dewtron (Design Engineering (Wokingham) Ltd. or D. E. W. Ltd.) were a small British manufacturer of modular synthesizers which were sold to customers in kit form or as built units.
A digital audio workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or application software used for recording, editing and producing audio files.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.
A digital synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds.
Digital waveguide synthesis is the synthesis of audio using a digital waveguide.
Direct digital synthesis (DDS) is a method employed by frequency synthesizers used for creating arbitrary waveforms from a single, fixed-frequency reference clock.
Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.
Distortion synthesis is a group of sound synthesis techniques which modify existing sounds to produce more complex sounds (or timbres), usually by using non-linear circuits or mathematics.
The Doepfer A-100 is an analog modular synthesizer system introduced by German audio manufacturer Doepfer in 1995.
Donald "Don" Buchla (April 17, 1937 – September 14, 2016) was an American pioneer in the field of sound synthesizers, releasing his first units shortly after Robert Moog's first synthesizers.
"Don't You Want Me" is a single by British synthpop group The Human League, released on 27 November 1981 as the fourth single from their third studio album Dare (1981).
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion.
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in South London in the late 1990s.
Duran Duran are an English new wave and synthpop band formed in Birmingham in 1978.
The Emulator is the name given the series of digital sampling synthesizers using floppy disk storage, manufactured by E-mu Systems from 1981 until the 1990s.
Emulator X is a software-based audio sampler that was produced by E-MU Systems from 2004 to 2009.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
An Eigenharp Alpha-model Eigenharp is a brand of electronic instrument made by Eigenlabs, a company based in Devon, UK, invented by John Lambert and released in 2009 after developing it for eight years.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.
An electric musical instrument is one in which the use of electric devices determines or affects the sound produced by an instrument.
An electric organ, also known as electronic organ, is an electronic keyboard instrument which was derived from the harmonium, pipe organ and theatre organ.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The Electro-Theremin is an electronic musical instrument developed by trombonist Paul Tanner and amateur inventor Bob Whitsell in the late 1950s to produce a sound to mimic that of the theremin.
Electroacoustic music originated in Western art music around the middle of the 20th century, following the incorporation of electric sound production into compositional practice.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.
Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
An electronic drum, also known as electric drums, digital drums, or electronic percussion, is a modern electronic musical instrument, a special type of synthesizer or sampler, primarily designed to serve as an alternative to an acoustic drum kit or other percussion instruments.
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry.
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.
The electronic sackbut is an instrument designed by Hugh Le Caine in the 1940s.
Electronics was an American trade journal that covered the radio industry and its later spin-offs in the mid-to-late 20th century.
Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emerson, Lake & Palmer (ELP) were an English progressive rock supergroup formed in London in 1970.
"Enola Gay" is an anti-war song by the British synth-pop group Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (OMD) and the only single from the band's 1980 album, Organisation.
Ensoniq ESQ-1 is a 61-key, velocity sensitive, eight-note polyphonic and multitimbral synthesizer released by Ensoniq in 1985.
The Ensoniq Mirage is one of the earliest affordable sampler-synths, introduced in 1984.
An envelope detector is an electronic circuit that takes a high-frequency signal as input and provides an output which is the envelope of the original signal.
Eithne Pádraigín Ní Bhraonáin (anglicised as Enya Patricia Brennan; born 17 May 1961), known professionally as Enya, is an Irish singer, songwriter and musician.
Erasure are an English synthpop duo, consisting of singer and songwriter Andy Bell and songwriter and keyboardist Vince Clarke.
Eurorack is a modular synthesizer format originally specified in 1996 by Doepfer Musikelektronik.
Eurythmics were a British music duo consisting of members Annie Lennox and David A. Stewart.
The Everett Piano Company or simply Everett Piano was a piano manufacturing company founded by the John Church Company.
EWI (from electronic wind instrument, pronounced EE-wee) is a type of wind controller, an electronic musical instrument.
An expression pedal is an important control found on many musical instruments including organs, electronic keyboards and pedal steel guitar.
The Fairlight CMI (short for Computer Musical Instrument) is a digital synthesizer, sampler and digital audio workstation introduced in 1979 by the founders of Fairlight, Peter Vogel and Kim Ryrie, — with links to some Fairlight history and photos developed based on the commercial license of Qasar M8 dual-MC6800 microprocessor musical instrument originally developed by Tony Furse of Creative Strategies in Sydney, Australia.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
In signal processing, a filter bank is an array of band-pass filters that separates the input signal into multiple components, each one carrying a single frequency sub-band of the original signal.
FL Studio (formerly known as FruityLoops) is a digital audio workstation (DAW) developed by the Belgian company Image-Line.
"Flash Light" is a song by funk band Parliament, written by George Clinton, Bernie Worrell, and Bootsy Collins and released in January 1978 on the album Funkentelechy Vs. the Placebo Syndrome.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.
Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American musician, composer, activist and filmmaker.
A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound as air flows past a vibrating reed in a frame.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A frequency divider, also called a clock divider or scaler or prescaler, is a circuit that takes an input signal of a frequency, f_, and generates an output signal of a frequency: f_.
In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of sound synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform (such as a square, triangle, or sawtooth) called the carrier, is changed by modulating its frequency with a modulator frequency that is also in the same or similar audio range, so that a more complex timbre results.
A frequency synthesizer is an electronic circuit that generates a range of frequencies from a single reference frequency.
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
Fuzz bass, also called "bass overdrive" or "bass distortion", is a style of playing the electric bass or modifying its signal that produces a buzzy, distorted, overdriven sound, which the name implies in an onomatopoetic fashion.
Gary Anthony James Webb (born 8 March 1958), known professionally as Gary Numan, is an English singer, songwriter, composer, musician and record producer.
The AY-3-8910 is a 3-voice programmable sound generator (PSG) designed by General Instrument in 1978, initially for use with their 16-bit CP1610 or one of the PIC1650 series of 8-bit microcomputers.
General MIDI or GM is a standardized specification for electronic musical instruments that respond to MIDI messages.
Genesis were an English rock band formed at Charterhouse School, Godalming, Surrey in 1967.
George Edward Clinton (born July 22, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter, bandleader, and record producer.
George Duke (January 12, 1946 – August 5, 2013) was an American musician, known as a keyboard pioneer, composer, singer and producer in both jazz and popular mainstream musical genres.
Georges Jenny (c.1900–1976) was a French musician, poet, and electronic instrument builder.
Gibson Brands, Inc. (formerly Gibson Guitar Corp.) is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, and consumer and professional electronics from Kalamazoo, Michigan and now based in Nashville, Tennessee.
Giovanni Giorgio Moroder (born 26 April 1940) is an Italian singer, songwriter, DJ and record producer.
Granular synthesis is a basic sound synthesis method that operates on the microsound time scale.
Graphical sound or drawn sound (Fr. son dessiné, Ger. graphische Tonerzeugung,; It. suono disegnato) is a sound recording created from images drawn directly onto film or paper that were then played back using a sound system.
A guitar synthesizer (also guitar synth, alternatively guitar-synthesizer, guitar-synth, guitar/synthesizer, guitar/synth, g-synth or synth guitar) is any one of a number of musical instrument systems that allow a guitar player to play synthesizer sound.
Halim Abdul Messieh El-Dabh (حليم عبد المسيح الضبع, Ḥalīm ʻAbd al-Masīḥ al-Ḍabʻ; March 4, 1921 – September 2, 2017) was an Egyptian American composer, musician, ethnomusicologist, and educator, who has had a career spanning six decades.
is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935.
Harald Bode (October 19, 1909 – January 15, 1987) was a German engineer and pioneer in the development of electronic music instruments.
A harmonic series is the sequence of sounds—pure tones, represented by sinusoidal waves—in which the frequency of each sound is an integer multiple of the fundamental, the lowest frequency.
The harmonica, also known as a French harp or mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, jazz, country, and rock and roll.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Heaven 17 are an English new wave and synth-pop band that formed in Sheffield in 1980.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Helmholtz resonance or wind throb is the phenomenon of air resonance in a cavity, such as when one blows across the top of an empty bottle.
Herbert Jeffrey "Herbie" Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an American pianist, keyboardist, bandleader, composer and actor.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Heterodyning is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining or mixing two frequencies.
A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Hohner Musikinstrumente GmbH & Co.
A hook is a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to "catch the ear of the listener".
John Howard Jones (born 23 February 1955) is a British singer, musician and songwriter.
Hugh Le Caine (May 27, 1914 – July 3, 1977) was a Canadian physicist, composer, and instrument builder.
An instrument amplifier is an electronic device that converts the often barely audible or purely electronic signal of a musical instrument into an audible sound.
, often known simply as Tomita, was a Japanese music composer, regarded as one of the pioneers of electronic music and space music, and as one of the most famous producers of analog synthesizer arrangements.
Japan were an English band formed in 1974 in Catford, South London by David Sylvian (vocals, guitar, keyboards), Steve Jansen (drums), Richard Barbieri (keyboards) and Mick Karn (bass guitar).
Jean-Michel André Jarre (born 24 August 1948) is a French composer, performer and record producer.
John M. Chowning (born August 22, 1934 in Salem, New Jersey) is an American composer, musician, inventor, and professor best known for his work at Stanford University and his invention of FM synthesis while there.
John Charles Eaton (March 30, 1935 – December 2, 2015) was an American composer.
John Alec Entwistle (9 October 1944 – 27 June 2002) was an English bass guitarist, singer, songwriter, and film and music producer.
John Foxx (born Dennis Leigh, 26 September 1947) is an English singer, artist, photographer and teacher.
Jordan Rudess (born Jordan Charles Rudes; November 4, 1956) is an American virtuoso keyboardist and composer best known as a member of the progressive metal/rock band Dream Theater and the progressive rock supergroup Liquid Tension Experiment.
"Just Can't Get Enough" is a song by the English electronic music band Depeche Mode.
Kajagoogoo are a British new wave band, best known for their hit single "Too Shy", which reached No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart, and the Top 10 in numerous other countries.
Karplus–Strong string synthesis is a method of physical modelling synthesis that loops a short waveform through a filtered delay line to simulate the sound of a hammered or plucked string or some types of percussion.
Catherine "Kate" Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer-songwriter, musician, dancer and record producer.
Keith Noel Emerson (2 November 1944 – 11 March 2016) was an English musician and composer.
Keyboard is a magazine that originally covered electronic keyboard instruments and keyboardists, though with the advent of computer-based recording and audio technology, they have added digital music technology to their regular coverage, including those not strictly pertaining to the keyboard-related instruments.
Keyboard expression is the ability of a keyboard musical instrument to respond to change tone or other qualities of the sound in response to velocity, pressure or other variations in how the performer depresses the keys of the musical keyboard.
The keytar is a relatively lightweight electronic keyboard (with or without a built-in synthesizer) that is supported by a strap around the neck and shoulders, similar to the way a guitar is supported by a strap.
, born (February 4, 1953), is a Japanese recording artist, composer, record producer and arranger noted for his electronic-instrumental music, and is often associated and regarded as one of the most prominent musical acts of New-age music.
, founded as Keio Electronic Laboratories, is a Japanese multinational corporation that manufactures electronic musical instruments, audio processors and guitar pedals, recording equipment, and electronic tuners.
The Korg DSS-1 is a 12-bit polyphonic sampling synthesizer released in September 1986.
The Korg M1 is a 16-voice, 8-part multitimbral sample-based synthesizer and music workstation, manufactured by Korg from 1988 to 1995.
The Korg Minilogue is a two VCO per-voice, four-voice, polyphonic analog synthesizer from Korg, designed by Korg engineer and synthesizer designer Tatsuya Takahashi.
The Korg MS-20 is a patchable semi-modular monophonic analog synthesizer which Korg released in 1978 and which was in production until 1983.
The Korg Polysix is a six-voice programmable polyphonic analog synthesizer released by Korg in 1981.
The Korg Prophecy is considered one of the earliest (mid-nineties) "virtual analog" (a.k.a. VA) synthesizers, although its synthesis capabilities went beyond many of its VA contemporaries.
Korg Trinity is a commercially successful synthesizer music workstation released by Korg in 1995.
Kraftwerk ("power station") is a German band formed in Düsseldorf in 1970 by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider.
Krautrock (also called " ", cosmic music") is a broad genre of experimental rock that developed in Germany in the late 1960s.
Kurzweil Music Systems is an American company that produces electronic musical instruments.
Lev Sergeyevich Termen (p; – 3 November 1993), or Léon Theremin in the United States, was a Russian and Soviet inventor, most famous for his invention of the theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments and the first to be mass-produced.
Lee de Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures.
Linear Arithmetic synthesis, or LA synthesis, is a term invented by the Roland Corporation when they released their D-50 synthesizer in 1987.
Linear predictive coding (LPC) is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form, using the information of a linear predictive model.
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.
These are the ''Billboard'' magazine number-one albums of 1967, per the ''Billboard'' 200.
This is intended to be a list of classic instruments which marked a turning point in musical sound or style, potentially worth an article of their own.
This list of museums in Michigan encompasses museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.
Notable synthesizer manufacturers past and present include.
Lewis Allan Reed (March 2, 1942 – October 27, 2013) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Low-frequency oscillation (LFO) is an electronic signal which is usually below 20 Hz and creates a rhythmic pulse or sweep.
A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
The Lyricon is an electronic wind instrument, the first wind controller to be constructed.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mario Bava (31 July 1914 – 27 April 1980) was an Italian director, screenwriter, special effects artist, and cinematographer from the "golden age" of Italian horror films.
Mario Davidovsky (born March 4, 1934) is an Argentine-American composer.
Maurice Louis Eugène Martenot (October 14, 1898 – October 8, 1980) was a French cellist, a radio telegrapher during the first World War, and an inventor.
Frederick Schiller Faust (May 29, 1892 – May 12, 1944) was an American author known primarily for his thoughtful and literary Westerns under the pen name Max Brand.
The melodica, also known as the pianica, blow-organ, key harmonica, free-reed clarinet, or melodyhorn, is a free-reed instrument similar to the pump organ and harmonica.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Men Without Hats are a Canadian new wave/synthpop group, originally from Montreal, Quebec.
George Michael Dolenz Jr. (born March 8, 1945) is an American actor, musician, television director, radio personality and theater director, best known as a vocalist and drummer of the 1960s pop/rock band the Monkees.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
A MIDI controller is any hardware or software that generates and transmits Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data to electronic or digital MIDI-enabled devices, typically to trigger sounds and control parameters of an electronic music performance.
Michael Gordon Oldfield (born 15 May 1953) is an English musician and composer.
Michael John Cloete Crawford Rutherford (born 2 October 1950) is an English songwriter and musician.
Milton Byron Babbitt (May 10, 1916 – January 29, 2011) was an American composer, music theorist, and teacher.
The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by Bill Hemsath and Robert Moog.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.
The modular synthesizer is a type of synthesizer, which exists in both physical and virtual forms, consisting of separate specialized modules.
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
A Moog modular synthesizer is a monophonic analog modular synthesizer developed by the American electronic instrument pioneer Dr.
Moog synthesizer (pronounced; often anglicized to, though Robert Moog preferred the former) may refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for older-generation analog music synthesizers.
The Moog Taurus is a foot-operated analog synthesizer designed and manufactured by Moog Music, originally conceived as a part of the Constellation series of synthesizers.
Morton Subotnick (born April 14, 1933, in Los Angeles, California) is an American composer of electronic music, best known for his Silver Apples of the Moon, the first electronic work commissioned by a record company, Nonesuch.
The Hohner Multimonica (introduced in 1940) featured a combination of a fan-blown reed organ and a monophonic sawtooth wave analog synthesizer. Produced by the German Hohner GmbH in the 1940s and 1950s, it preceded even the more famous Selmer Clavioline. Its circuitry was designed by the German engineer Harald Bode. There have been at least two series of Multimonica, with different control panel layout and schematics. The earlier models are now rare, since their production was halted by the outbreak of World War II, and many units may have been lost in the war. Multimonica II was released by the end of the ’40s. The front panel controls of the Multimonica I from left to right are: gain knob for the microphone input; power switch and overall volume knob; synthesizer/amplifier selector; power switch for the blower fan; tuning knob; four selector switches for different harmonics filtering of the synthesizer sound; four selectors for the different loudspeakers; vibrato switch. The Multimonica II featured no microphone input, and only one loudspeaker, but provided more types of harmonics filtering, and the electromechanic vibrato was changed to a tube based and more sophisticated design. The front panel controls of the Multimonica II from left to right are: power switch and overall volume knob; six selector switches for different preset sounds of the synthesizer; tuning knob; two selector switches for different harmonics filtering; three switches for the vibrato speed and amplitude; power switch for the blower fan. The circuit is based on Philips 13204 X, Philips EL41, Telefunken EF41 tubes for Multimonica I, and EL41; ECC40; EF40 tubes for the second series.(English) A photo of a third model can be found on the World Wide Web, looking like a simplified version of Multimonica I (without microphone input).
Multivox was an American-based synthesizer company since the mid-1970s until the 1980s.
A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control (OSC), and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins.
A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of.
MUSIC-N refers to a family of computer music programs and programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC, a program written by Max Mathews in 1957 at Bell Labs.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.
The Musicians' Union (MU) is an organisation which represents over 30,000 musicians working in all sectors of the British music business.
Musique concrète (meaning "concrete music")" problem for any translator of an academic work in French is that the language is relatively abstract and theoretical compared to English; one might even say that the mode of thinking itself tends to be more schematic, with a readiness to see material for study in terms of highly abstract dualisms and correlations, which on occasion does not sit easily with the perhaps more pragmatic English language.
Naked Eyes is a British new wave band"All Eyes on Pete Byrne" Newsday 15 October 2013 that rose to prominence in the early 1980s.
New England Digital Corp. (1976–1993) was founded in Norwich, Vermont, and relocated to White River Junction, Vermont.
New Order are an English rock band formed in 1980 by vocalist and guitarist Bernard Sumner, bassist Peter Hook and drummer Stephen Morris.
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock.
New-age music is a genre of music intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism.
Nick Rhodes (born Nicholas James Bates; 8 June 1962) is an English musician, singer and producer, best known as a founding member and keyboardist of the new wave band Duran Duran.
The Novachord is often considered to be the world's first commercial polyphonic synthesizer.
Nursery Cryme is the third studio album from the English rock band Genesis, released in November 1971 on Charisma Records.
The Oberheim OB-8 is a subtractive analog synthesizer launched by Oberheim in early 1983 and discontinued in 1985.
The Oberheim OB-X is an analog polyphonic sound synthesizer.
The Oberheim polyphonic is an analog music synthesizer that was produced from 1975 to 1979 by Oberheim Electronics.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
The ondes Martenot ("Martenot waves"), also known as the ondium Martenot, Martenot and ondes musicales, is an early electronic musical instrument invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot.
The Ondioline is an electronic keyboard instrument, invented in 1941 by the Frenchman Georges Jenny, and is a forerunner of today's synthesizers.
Open Sound Control (OSC) is a protocol for networking sound synthesizers, computers, and other multimedia devices for purposes such as musical performance or show control.
In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (OMD) are an English electronic music band formed in Wirral, Merseyside in 1978.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Organised Sound is an international peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on the rapidly developing methods and issues arising from the use of technology in music today.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Oscillator sync is a feature in some synthesizers with two or more VCOs, DCOs, or "virtual" oscillators.
Otto Clarence Luening (June 15, 1900 – September 2, 1996) was a German-American composer and conductor, and an early pioneer of tape music and electronic music.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Parliament is a funk band formed in the late 1960s by George Clinton as part of his Parliament-Funkadelic collective.
A patch cable, patch cord or patch lead is an electrical or optical cable used to connect ("patch in") one electronic or optical device to another for signal routing.
A pedalboard (also called a pedal keyboard, pedal clavier, or, with electronic instruments, a bass pedalboard) is a keyboard played with the feet that is usually used to produce the low-pitched bass line of a piece of music.
The Persephone is an analog fingerboard synthesizer from the year 2004 in the tradition of the first ribbon controlled instruments from the 1920s.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The Pet Shop Boys are an English synthpop duo, formed in London in 1981 and consisting of Neil Tennant (lead vocals, keyboards, occasional guitar) and Chris Lowe (keyboards, vocals).
Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born 19 May 1945) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist, best known as the lead guitarist, backing vocalist, and principal songwriter for the rock band the Who.
Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950) is an English singer-songwriter, record producer and humanitarian who rose to fame as the original lead singer and flautist of the progressive rock band Genesis.
Phase distortion (PD) synthesis is a synthesis method introduced in 1984 by Casio in its CZ range of synthesizers.
Philip David Charles Collins (born 30 January 1951) is an English drummer, singer-songwriter, record producer and actor.
Phuture is an American, Chicago-based acid-house group of electronic musicians, founded in 1985 by Spanky, DJ Pierre and Herb J. Their seminal 12-minute track "Acid Tracks" (1987) is considered to be the first acid house record and they are widely credited with inventing the sound.
Physical modelling synthesis refers to sound synthesis methods in which the waveform of the sound to be generated is computed using a mathematical model, a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound, usually a musical instrument.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments, particularly stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, and converts these to an electrical signal that is amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure.
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.
Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd. is the fourth album by the Monkees, released on November 6, 1967, when the Monkees were exerting more control over their music and had started to play many of the instruments themselves, something their record company had previously forbidden.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
In electronic music, a pitch wheel, pitch bend or bender is a control on a synthesizer to vary the pitch in a continuously variable manner (portamento).
Polyphony is a property of musical instruments that means that they can play multiple independent melody lines simultaneously.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
In music, portamento (plural: portamenti, from portamento, meaning "carriage" or "carrying") is a pitch sliding from one note to another.
The PPG Wave is a series of hybrid digital/analogue synthesizers built by the German company Palm Products GmbH from 1981 to 1987.
A preamplifier (preamp or "pre") is an electronic amplifier that converts a weak electrical signal into an output signal strong enough to be noise-tolerant and strong enough for further processing, or for sending to a power amplifier and a loudspeaker.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, September 10, 1908 – February 8, 1994) was an American composer, band leader, pianist, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
The RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer (nicknamed Victor) was the first programmable electronic synthesizer and the flagship piece of equipment at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center.
The Reactable is an electronic musical instrument with a tabletop tangible user interface that was developed within the Music Technology Group at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona, Spain by Sergi Jordà, Marcos Alonso, Martin Kaltenbrunner and Günter Geiger.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece.
A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument.
Richard William Wright (28 July 1943 – 15 September 2008) was an English musician, composer, singer, and songwriter.
Richard Christopher "Rick" Wakeman (born 18 May 1949) is an English keyboardist, songwriter, television and radio presenter, and author.
In electronics, ring modulation is a signal-processing function, an implementation of frequency mixing, performed by multiplying two signals, where one is typically a sine wave or another simple waveform and the other is the signal to be modulated.
"Rio" is the seventh single by Duran Duran.
Robert Arthur Moog ("mogue"; May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005), founder of Moog Music, was an American engineer and pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software.
The Roland Jupiter-4 (JP-4) was an analog synthesizer manufactured by the Roland Corporation between 1978 and 1981.
The Jupiter-8, or JP-8, is an eight-voice polyphonic analog subtractive synthesizer introduced by Roland Corporation in early 1981.
The Roland MC-8 MicroComposer by the Roland Corporation was introduced in early 1977 at a list price of US$4,795 (¥1,200,000 JPY).
The Roland RS-202 was a polyphonic string synthesizer, emulating the sound of string instruments, introduced by Roland in 1976.
Roland SH-101 is a synthesizer from the early 1980s, manufactured by Roland.
The Roland TB-303 Bass Line is a bass synthesizer released by the Roland Corporation in 1981.
Karl Rudolph Koenig (Rudolf Koenig; 26 November 1832 – 2 October 1901), known by himself and others as Rudolph Koenig, was a German physicist, chiefly concerned with acoustic phenomena.
"Runaway" is a number-one ''Billboard'' Hot 100 song made famous by Del Shannon in 1961.
Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be contrasted to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis.
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument similar in some respects to a synthesizer, but instead of generating new sounds with filters, it uses sound recordings (or "samples") of real instrument sounds (e.g., a piano, violin or trumpet), excerpts from recorded songs (e.g., a five-second bass guitar riff from a funk song) or other sounds (e.g., sirens and ocean waves).
The sawtooth wave (or saw wave) is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform.
The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments.
Scanned synthesis represents a powerful and efficient technique for animating wave tables and controlling them in real-time.
Sequential Circuits Inc. (SCI) was a San Francisco Bay Area-based synthesizer company that was founded in the early 1970s by Dave Smith, and sold to Yamaha Corporation in 1987.
The Prophet-5 is an analog synthesizer manufactured by Sequential Circuits between 1978 and 1984.
The Six-Trak was an analogue synthesizer manufactured by Sequential Circuits in San Jose, California and released in January 1984.
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances.
Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Smooth jazz is music that evolved from a blend of jazz fusion and easy listening pop music, featuring a polished pop feel with little to no jazz improvisation.
Snowflakes Are Dancing is the second studio album by Japanese musician Isao Tomita, recorded in 1973–1974 and first released by RCA Records as a Quadradisc in April 1974.
Soft Cell are an English synthpop duo who came to prominence in the early 1980s, consisting of vocalist Marc Almond and instrumentalist David Ball.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth, is a computer program, or plug-in that generates digital audio, usually for music.
"Son of My Father" is a song popularised in 1972 by Chicory Tip.
A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
A sound module is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a piano-style musical keyboard.
Sound on Sound is an independently owned monthly music technology magazine published by SOS Publications Group, based in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Spandau Ballet are an English band formed in Islington, London in 1979.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
Spectral modeling synthesis or simply SMS is an acoustic modeling approach for speech and other signals.
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
, previously known as, is a Japanese language daily sports newspaper.
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
Stevland Hardaway Morris (né Judkins; born May 13, 1950), known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and multi-instrumentalist.
Strange Days is the second studio album by American rock band The Doors, released on September 25, 1967 by Elektra Records.
The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family.
A string synthesizer is a specialized synthesizer designed specifically to make sounds similar to that of a string orchestra.
The was established 1955 in Milan following a joint initiative by Luciano Berio and Bruno Maderna.
The Studio for Electronic Music of the West German Radio (German: Studio für elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunks) was a facility of the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR) in Cologne.
Subtractive synthesis is a method of sound synthesis in which partials of an audio signal (often one rich in harmonics) are attenuated by a filter to alter the timbre of the sound.
"Superstition" is a song by American singer-songwriter Stevie Wonder.
A sustain pedal or sustaining pedal (also called damper pedal, loud pedal, or open pedal) is the most commonly used pedal in a modern piano.
The Swarmatron is an analogue synthesizer or electronic musical instrument that uses a ribbon controller rather than a keyboard.
Switched-On Bach is the first studio album by the American musician and composer Wendy Carlos, released under her birth name Walter Carlos in October 1968 by Columbia Records.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Synclavier was an early digital synthesizer, polyphonic digital sampling system, and music workstation manufactured by New England Digital Corporation of Norwich, Vermont, USA.
Synth-pop (short for synthesizer pop; also called techno-pop) is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument.
The SynthAxe is a fretted, guitar-like MIDI controller, created by Bill Aitken, Mike Dixon, and Tony Sedivy and manufactured in England in 1985.
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
"Take My Breath Away" is a song written by Italian DJ Giorgio Moroder and Tom Whitlock for the film Top Gun, performed by the band Berlin.
A talk box is an effects unit that allows musicians to modify the sound of a musical instrument by shaping the frequency content of the sound and to apply speech sounds (in the same way as singing) onto the sounds of the instrument.
Talk Talk were an English rock band formed in 1981, led by Mark Hollis (vocals, guitar, piano), Lee Harris (drums), and Paul Webb (bass).
Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music band founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese.
A tangible user interface (TUI) is a user interface in which a person interacts with digital information through the physical environment.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tears for Fears are an English pop rock band formed in Bath in 1981 by Roland Orzabal and Curt Smith.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
The Telharmonium (also known as the Dynamophone) was an early electrical organ, developed by Thaddeus Cahill circa 1896 and patented in 1897.
"Telstar" is a 1962 instrumental written and produced by Joe Meek for the English band the Tornados.
Thaddeus Cahill (June 18, 1867 – April 12, 1934) was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Bells is the ninth solo studio album by American musician Lou Reed, released in April 1979 by Arista Records.
The Crazy World of Arthur Brown are an English psychedelic rock band formed by singer Arthur Brown in 1967.
The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles, with vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, guitarist Robby Krieger, and John Densmore on drums.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Human League are an English synth-pop band formed in Sheffield in 1977.
The Monkees were an American rock and pop band originally active between 1966 and 1971, with reunion albums and tours in the decades that followed.
The Tornados were an English instrumental group of the 1960s that acted as backing group for many of record producer Joe Meek's productions and also for singer Billy Fury.
The United States of America was an American experimental rock band whose works, recorded in late 1967, are an early example of the use of electronic devices in rock music.
The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964.
The theremin (--> originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox) is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer).
Thomas Morgan Robertson (born 14 October 1958), known by the stage name Thomas Dolby, is an English musician, singer and producer.
Thompson Twins were a British pop band that formed in April 1977.
In music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.
Todd Harry Rundgren (born June 22, 1948) is an American multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter, and record producer who has performed a diverse range of styles as a solo artist and as a member of the band Utopia.
Tonto's Expanding Head Band was a British-American electronic music duo consisting of Malcolm Cecil and Robert Margouleff.
Anthony George Banks (born 27 March 1950) is an English musician, songwriter, singer, and film composer primarily known as the keyboardist and founding member of the rock band Genesis.
A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen.
The Trautonium is a monophonic electronic musical instrument invented about 1929 by Friedrich Trautwein in Berlin at the Musikhochschule's music and radio lab, the Rundfunkversuchstelle.
In music, tremolo, or tremolando, is a trembling effect.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel).
Ultravox (earlier stylized as Ultravox!) were a British new wave band, formed in London in 1973 as Tiger Lily.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Salford, Manchester is a public research university in Salford, Greater Manchester, England, west of Manchester city centre.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou (born 29 March 1943), best known professionally as Vangelis (Βαγγέλης), is a Greek composer of electronic, progressive, ambient, jazz, and orchestral music.
A variable-gain or voltage-controlled amplifier is an electronic amplifier that varies its gain depending on a control voltage (often abbreviated CV).
Vector Synthesis is a type of audio synthesis introduced by Sequential Circuits in the Prophet VS synthesizer during 1986.
Vibrato (Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch.
Vincent Crane (born Vincent Rodney Cheesman; 21 May 1943 – 14 February 1989) was an English keyboardist who was best known as the organist for The Crazy World of Arthur Brown and Atomic Rooster.
Virtual Studio Technology (VST) is an audio plug-in software interface that integrates software synthesizer and effects in digital audio workstations.
Visage were a British synthpop band, formed in London in 1978.
Vladimir Alexeevich Ussachevsky (November 3, 1911 in Hailar, China – January 2, 1990 in New York, New York) was a composer, particularly known for his work in electronic music.
is a singing voice synthesizer software.
A vocoder (a portmanteau of voice encoder) is a category of voice codec that analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compression, multiplexing, voice encryption, voice transformation, etc.
A voltage-controlled filter (VCF) is a processor, a filter whose operating characteristics (primarily cutoff frequency) can be controlled by means of a control voltage applied to control inputs.
A microwave (12–18nbspGHz) voltage-controlled oscillator A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an electronic oscillator whose oscillation frequency is controlled by a voltage input.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
Vox is a musical equipment manufacturer founded in 1947 by Thomas Walter Jennings in Dartford, Kent, England.
Wah-wah (or wa-wa) is an imitative word (or onomatopoeia) for the sound of altering the resonance of musical notes to extend expressiveness, sounding much like a human voice saying the syllable wah.
Waldorf Music AG was a German synthesizer company.
A waveform is the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.
Wavetable synthesis is a sound synthesis technique used to create periodic waveforms.
Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos; November 14, 1939) is an American musician and composer best known for her electronic music and film scores.
Werner Meyer-Eppler (30 April 1913 – 8 July 1960), was a Belgian-born German physicist, experimental acoustician, phoneticist and information theorist.
"West End Girls" is a song by the British pop duo Pet Shop Boys.
Whistle Rymes is the second solo album by John Entwistle, bassist for British rock band The Who.
White Noise is an English experimental electronic music band formed in London in 1968 by American-born David Vorhaus, a classical bass player with a background in physics and electronic engineering.
A wind controller, sometimes referred to as a "wind synth", or "wind synthesizer", is a wind instrument capable of controlling one or more music synthesizers or other devices.
Wolfgang von Kempelen's speaking machine is a manually operated speech synthesizer that began development in 1769, by Austro-Hungarian author and inventor Wolfgang von Kempelen.
The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, usually referred to as simply Wurlitzer, is an American company started in Cincinnati in 1853 by German immigrant (Franz) Rudolph Wurlitzer.
() is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate with a very wide range of products and services, predominantly musical instruments, electronics and power sports equipment.
The Yamaha CS-80 is a polyphonic analog synthesizer released in 1976.
The Yamaha DX7 is an FM synthesis-based digital synthesizer and electronic keyboard manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1989.
The Yamaha GX-1, first released as Electone GX-707,It's rumored that when Yamaha realized the model number shared the designation of Boeing 707 aircraft, they changed it to GX-1.
The Yamaha WX5/WX11/WX7 are models of monophonic MIDI wind controller musical instruments manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation.
Yazoo (known as Yaz in North America for legal reasons involving Yazoo Records) were a British synthpop duo from Basildon, Essex, England, consisting of former Depeche Mode member Vince Clarke (keyboards) and Alison Moyet (vocals).
Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO) is a Japanese electronic music band formed in Tokyo in 1978 by Haruomi Hosono (bass, keyboards, vocals), Yukihiro Takahashi (drums, lead vocals) and Ryuichi Sakamoto (keyboards, vocals).
Yes are an English progressive rock band formed in London in 1968 by singer Jon Anderson, bassist Chris Squire, guitarist Peter Banks, keyboardist Tony Kaye, and drummer Bill Bruford.
Yevgeny Murzin (Евгений Мурзин; 1914–1970) was a Russian audio engineer and inventor of the ANS synthesizer.
Zapp (also known as the Zapp Band or Zapp & Roger) is an American funk band that emerged from Dayton, Ohio, in 1977.
During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to.
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