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Synthetic biology

Index Synthetic biology

Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. [1]

171 relations: Abiogenesis, Abiotic component, Acetylcholine, Adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin -like), Affibody molecule, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Aliivibrio fischeri, Amino acid, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Amyloid, Antibody, Antimalarial medication, Artemisinin, Artificial cell, Artificial gene synthesis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteriophage, Barack Obama, Bifidobacterium, BioBrick, Biofilm, Biological computing, Biological engineering, Biological system, Biology, Bioluminescence, Bioluminescent bacteria, Biomedical engineering, Biomimetics, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Biosensor, Biotechnology, Cancer immunotherapy, Carbon monoxide, Carlson curve, Cell-free protein synthesis, Chemical polarity, Chemically induced dimerization, Chimeric antigen receptor, Chorismate mutase, Clostridium, Code refactoring, Coiled coil, Computational biology, Computer engineering, Control engineering, Craig Venter, CRISPR, Daniel Nathans, ..., Directed evolution, DNA digital data storage, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, Do-it-yourself biology, Dual-use technology, Electrical engineering, Electrochemical gradient, Energy, Engineering biology, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epitope, Escherichia coli, ETC Group (AGETC), Eukaryote, Eukaryotic translation, European Union, Evolutionary biology, Friends of the Earth, Gene (journal), Gene expression, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, George M. Church, Hamilton O. Smith, Helix bundle, Hemoglobin, Hepatitis C, Human genome, Human microbiota, Human science, In vitro, Integrated circuit, International Center for Technology Assessment, International Genetically Engineered Machine, J. Craig Venter Institute, Lactobacillus, Ligand, Light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain, Listeria, Logic gate, Luciferase, Lysis, Macromolecule, Materials science, Megabit, Messenger RNA, Microfluidics, Mirror life, Model lipid bilayer, Modelling biological systems, Molecular biology, Molecular engineering, Molecular machine, Mutation, Mycoplasma laboratorium, Nanomaterials, NASA, Nature (journal), Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-cellular life, Nonsense suppressor, Nucleotide, Oligonucleotide, Open synthetic biology, Oxidoreductase, Oxygen, Peptide, Petroleum, Phenotype, Phi X 174, Poliovirus, Pollutant, Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Recombinant DNA, Regenerative medicine, Registry of Standard Biological Parts, Restriction enzyme, Richard Lewontin, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, San Francisco Chronicle, SH3 domain, Smallpox, Sonnet, Standardization, Stéphane Leduc, Stony Brook University, Stop codon, Streptococcus, Synthetic biological circuit, Synthetic biology, Synthetic genomics, Synthetic intelligence, Synthetic morphology, Synthetic virology, Systems and Synthetic Biology, Systems biology, T cell, The arts, The Hastings Center, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, Tissue engineering, Tom Knight (scientist), Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Tumor microenvironment, Tyrosine, Wacław Szybalski, Werner Arber, William Shakespeare, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, World Science Festival, Yeast, Zikhron Ya'akov, Zinc finger. Expand index (121 more) »


Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Abiotic component

In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin -like)

In molecular biology, the adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin-like) is a protein domain.

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Affibody molecule

Affibody molecules are small, robust proteins engineered to bind to a large number of target proteins or peptides with high affinity, imitating monoclonal antibodies, and are therefore a member of the family of antibody mimetics.

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Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation is an American philanthropic nonprofit organization.

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Aliivibrio fischeri

Aliivibrio fischeri is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found globally in marine environments.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

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Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antimalarial medication

Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.

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Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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Artificial cell

An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell.

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Artificial gene synthesis

Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory.

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Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.

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A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria.

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BioBrick parts are DNA sequences which conform to a restriction-enzyme assembly standard.

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A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Biological computing

Bio computers use systems of biologically derived molecules—such as DNA and proteins—to perform computational calculations involving storing, retrieving, and processing data.

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Biological engineering

Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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Bioluminescent bacteria

Bioluminescent bacteria are light-producing bacteria that are predominantly present in sea water, marine sediments, the surface of decomposing fish and in the gut of marine animals.

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Biomedical engineering

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).

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Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carlson curve

The Carlson curve is a term to describe the rate of DNA sequencing or cost per sequenced base as a function of time.

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Cell-free protein synthesis

Cell-free protein synthesis, also known as in vitro protein synthesis or CFPS, is the production of protein using biological machinery in a cell-free system, that is, without the use of living cells.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chemically induced dimerization

Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent.

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Chimeric antigen receptor

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are engineered receptors that combine a new specificity with an immune cell to target cancer cells.

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Chorismate mutase

In enzymology, chorismate mutase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction for the conversion of chorismate to prephenate in the pathway to the production of phenylalanine and tyrosine, also known as the shikimate pathway.

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Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.

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Code refactoring

Code refactoring is the process of restructuring existing computer code—changing the factoring—without changing its external behavior.

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Coiled coil

A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2–7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope (dimers and trimers are the most common types).

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Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.

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Computer engineering

Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

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Control engineering

Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that applies automatic control theory to design systems with desired behaviors in control environments.

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Craig Venter

John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.

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CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.

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Daniel Nathans

Daniel Nathans (October 30, 1928 – November 16, 1999) was an American microbiologist.

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Directed evolution

Directed evolution (DE, "gelenkte Evolution") is a method used in protein engineering that mimics the process of natural selection to evolve proteins or nucleic acids toward a user-defined goal.

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DNA digital data storage

DNA digital data storage refers to any process to store digital data in the base sequence of DNA using commercially available oligonucleotide synthesis machines for storage and DNA sequencing machines for retrieval.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Do-it-yourself biology

Do-it-yourself biology (DIY biology, DIY bio) is a growing biotechnological social movement in which individuals, communities, and small organizations study biology and life science using the same methods as traditional research institutions.

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Dual-use technology

In politics and diplomacy, dual-use is technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Electrochemical gradient

An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Engineering biology

Engineering biology is the set of methods for designing, building, and testing engineered biological systems which have been used to manipulate information, construct materials, process chemicals, produce energy, provide food, and help maintain or enhance human health and environment.

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Epidermal growth factor receptor

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

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An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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ETC Group is an international organization dedicated to "the conservation and sustainable advancement of cultural and ecological diversity and human rights." The full legal name is Action Group on Erosion, Technology and Concentration.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eukaryotic translation

Eukaryotic translation is the biological process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Friends of the Earth

Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries.

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Gene (journal)

Gene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in genetics, focusing on the cloning, structure, and function of genes.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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George M. Church

George McDonald Church (born August 28, 1954) is an American geneticist, molecular engineer, and chemist.

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Hamilton O. Smith

Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.

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Helix bundle

A helix bundle is a small protein fold composed of several alpha helices that are usually nearly parallel or antiparallel to each other.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human microbiota

The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.

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Human science

Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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International Center for Technology Assessment

The International Center for Technology Assessment (ICTA) is a U.S. non-profit bi-partisan organization, based in Washington, D.C..

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International Genetically Engineered Machine

The International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition is a worldwide synthetic biology competition that was initially aimed at undergraduate university students, but has since expanded to include divisions for high school students, entrepreneurs, and community laboratories, as well as 'overgraduates'.

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J. Craig Venter Institute

The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.

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Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain

A Light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domain (LOV domain) is a protein sensor used by a large variety of higher plants, microalgae, fungi and bacteria to sense environmental conditions.

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Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.

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Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

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Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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The megabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale at which capillary penetration governs mass transport.

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Mirror life

Mirror life is the creation of lifeforms that are identical to known lifeforms, except that they are mirror-reflected (in the molecular sense) copies.

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Model lipid bilayer

A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus.

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Modelling biological systems

Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular engineering

Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.

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Molecular machine

A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mycoplasma laboratorium

Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.

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Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-cellular life

Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle.

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Nonsense suppressor

A nonsense suppressor is a factor which can inhibit the effect of the nonsense mutation.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.

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Open synthetic biology

Open Synthetic Biology (Open SynBio) is the idea that scientific knowledge and data should be openly accessible through common rights licensing to enable the rapid development of safe, effective and commercially viable synthetic biology applications.

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In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phi X 174

The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.

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Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.

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A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

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Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the Bioethics Commission) was created by on November 24, 2009.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function".

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Registry of Standard Biological Parts

The Registry of Standard Biological Parts is a collection of genetic parts that are used in the assembly of systems and devices in synthetic biology.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Richard Lewontin

Richard Charles "Dick" Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and social commentator.

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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica

Salmonella enterica subsp.

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San Francisco Chronicle

The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.

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SH3 domain

The SRC Homology 3 Domain (or SH3 domain) is a small protein domain of about 60 amino acid residues.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.

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Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.

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Stéphane Leduc

Stéphane Leduc (1 November 1853 – 8 March 1939) was a French biologist who sought to contribute to understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms of life.

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Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook (also known as Stony Brook University or SUNY Stony Brook) is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in the eastern United States.

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Stop codon

In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.

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Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Synthetic biological circuit

Synthetic biological circuits are an application of synthetic biology where biological parts inside a cell are designed to perform logical functions mimicking those observed in electronic circuits.

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Synthetic biology

Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.

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Synthetic genomics

Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology that uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms, or artificial gene synthesis to create new DNA or entire lifeforms.

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Synthetic intelligence

Synthetic intelligence (SI) is an alternative term for artificial intelligence which emphasizes that the intelligence of machines need not be an imitation or in any way artificial; it can be a genuine form of intelligence.

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Synthetic morphology

Synthetic morphology is a sub-discipline of the broader field of synthetic biology.

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Synthetic virology

Synthetic Virology is the scientific discipline engaged in the study and engineering of synthetic, man-made Viruses.

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Systems and Synthetic Biology

Systems and Synthetic Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering systems and synthetic biology.

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Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Hastings Center

The Hastings Center is an independent, non-partisan bioethics research institute based in Garrison, New York.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.

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Tom Knight (scientist)

Tom Knight is an American synthetic biologist and computer engineer, who was formerly a senior research scientist at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, a part of the MIT School of Engineering.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Transformation (genetics)

In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Tumor microenvironment

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).

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Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Wacław Szybalski

Wacław Szybalski (born September 9, 1921 in Lwów, Poland is a professor of oncology at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison Medical School.

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Werner Arber

Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.

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World Science Festival

The World Science Festival is an annual science festival produced by the World Science Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization headquartered in New York City.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Zikhron Ya'akov

Zikhron Ya'akov (זִכְרוֹן יַעֲקֹב, lit. "Jacob's Memorial"; often shortened to just Zikhron; زخرون يعكوف) is a town in Israel, south of Haifa, and part of the Haifa District.

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Zinc finger

A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.

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Algeny, Artificial animal, Artificial life form, Artificial lifeform, Biological design, Cyborg bacteria, Synthetic Biology, Synthetic biologic, Synthetic biological organism, Synthetic life, Wet alife, Wet artificial life.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_biology

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