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Index Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. [1]

184 relations: Abscess, African Americans, Albrecht Dürer, Americas, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antimicrobial resistance, Aortic aneurysm, Argyll Robertson pupil, Arsphenamine, Arthritis, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asymptomatic, Édouard Manet, Bacteria, Base pair, Benignity, Benzathine benzylpenicillin, Benzylpenicillin, Birth defect, Blood product, Blood test, Ceftriaxone, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Cephalosporin, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervix, Chancre, Charles Baudelaire, Chickenpox, Christopher Columbus, Clindamycin, Clutton's joints, Condom, Condylomata lata, Congenital syphilis, Connective tissue disease, Cuba, Cutaneous condition, Cytokine, Dactylic hexameter, Dark-field microscopy, Dementia, Developed country, Developing country, Direct fluorescent antibody, Disability-adjusted life year, Doxycycline, Endocarditis, ..., Epileptic seizure, Erich Hoffmann, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, European Union, Femme fatale, Fetus, Fever, Fluorescein, Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, Fomite, Franz Schubert, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fritz Schaudinn, General paresis of the insane, Girolamo Fracastoro, Gram-negative bacteria, Guaiacum, Guatemala, Gumma (pathology), Guy de Maupassant, Hair loss, Headache, Hepatitis, Hepatosplenomegaly, Higouménakis' sign, History of syphilis, HIV, Human anus, Human penis, Human sexual activity, Human subject research, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Informed consent, Interstitial keratitis, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Italian War of 1494–98, Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction, John Keats, Juan José Arévalo, Kidney, Kiss, La Belle Dame sans Merci, Landsknecht, Latin, Lesion, Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lymphoma, Macrolide, Maculopapular rash, Malaise, Malaria, Measles, Medical ethics, Men who have sex with men, Meningitis, Mental disorder, Mercenary, Mercury (element), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Microbiology, Microscopy, Miscarriage, Mucous membrane, Myalgia, Naples, Natural reservoir, Needle sharing, Neurosyphilis, Nontreponemal tests for syphilis, Nonvenereal endemic syphilis, Notifiable disease, Optic neuritis, Optimal virulence, Papule, Partner notification, Paul Ehrlich, Penicillin, Perinatal mortality, Periostitis, Peter Buxtun, Pharmacology, Pinta (disease), Pneumonitis, Polymerase chain reaction, Pregnancy, Prenatal care, Promiscuity, Prostitution, Public health, Rapid plasma reagin, Recreational drug use, Rectum, Rembrandt, Rifampicin, Saber shin, Saddle nose, Sensitivity and specificity, Serology, Serous fluid, Sexually transmitted infection, Side effects of penicillin, Sore throat, Springer Science+Business Media, Stillbirth, Stradanus, Sub-Saharan Africa, Syphilis, Syphilitic aortitis, Tabes dorsalis, Tachycardia, Tetracycline, The great imitator, The Washington Post, Treponema pallidum, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay, Tuberculosis, Tuskegee syphilis experiment, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama, Ulcer, Ulcer (dermatology), United States, United States Preventive Services Task Force, United States Public Health Service, Uveitis, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, Vertically transmitted infection, Weight loss, White blood cell, William Osler, World Health Organization, Yaws. Expand index (134 more) »


An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Aortic aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.

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Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson pupils (AR pupils or, colloquially, "prostitute's pupils") are bilateral small pupils that reduce in size on a near object (i.e., they accommodate), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (i.e., they do not react to light).

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Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.

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Benzathine benzylpenicillin

Benzathine benzylpenicillin, also known as benzathine penicillin G, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Benzylpenicillin, also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blood product

A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Ceftriaxone, sold under the trade name Rocephin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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A chancre thefreedictionary is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis.

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Clutton's joints

Clutton's joints is a term describing the finding of symmetrical joint swelling seen in patients with congenital syphilis.

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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Condylomata lata

Condylomata lata or condyloma latum, is a cutaneous condition characterized by wart-like lesions on the genitals.

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Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with syphilis.

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Connective tissue disease

A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Dactylic hexameter

Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.

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Dark-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy (dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Direct fluorescent antibody

A direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or dFA), also known as "direct immunofluorescence", is an antibody that has been tagged in a direct fluorescent antibody test.

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Disability-adjusted life year

The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

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Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.

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Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Erich Hoffmann

Erich Hoffmann (April 25, 1868 – May 8, 1959) was a German dermatologist who was a native of Witzmitz, Pomerania.

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European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

The European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering clinical microbiology and infectious diseases.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Femme fatale

A femme fatale, sometimes called a maneater, is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fluorescein is a manufactured organic compound and dye.

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Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test

The fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test is a diagnostic test for syphilis.

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A fomes (pronounced) or fomite is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as viruses or bacteria, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Fritz Schaudinn

Fritz Richard Schaudinn (19 September 1871 – 22 June 1906) was a German zoologist with Lithuanian roots.

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General paresis of the insane

General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder, classified as an organic mental disorder and caused by the chronic meningoencephalitis that leads to cerebral atrophy in late-stage syphilis.

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Girolamo Fracastoro

Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Guaiacum (OED 2nd edition, 1989. in, retrieved 2013-04-30.), sometimes spelled Guajacum, is a genus of flowering plants in the caltrop family Zygophyllaceae.

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Gumma (pathology)

A gumma is a soft, non-cancerous growth resulting from the tertiary stage of syphilis.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Hair loss

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Hepatosplenomegaly (commonly abbreviated HSM) is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly).

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Higouménakis' sign

Higouménakis' sign is a unilateral enlargement of the sternoclavicular portion of the clavicle, seen in congenital syphilis.

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History of syphilis

The first recorded outbreak of syphilis in Europe occurred in 1494/1495 in Naples, Italy, during a French invasion.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human anus

The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum.

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Human penis

The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Human subject research

Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.

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Infectious disease (medical specialty)

Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.

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Interstitial keratitis

Interstitial keratitis (IK) is corneal scarring due to chronic inflammation of the corneal stroma.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Italian War of 1494–98

The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars.

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Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction

A Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction is a reaction to endotoxin-like products released by the death of harmful microorganisms within the body during antibiotic treatment.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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Juan José Arévalo

Juan José Arévalo Bermejo (10 September 1904 – 8 October 1990) was a professor of philosophy who became Guatemala's first democratically elected president in 1945.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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A kiss is the touch or pressing of one's lips against another person or an object.

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La Belle Dame sans Merci

"La Belle Dame sans Merci" (French for "The Beautiful Lady Without Mercy") is a ballad written by the English poet John Keats.

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The German Landsknechts, sometimes also rendered as (singular), were colourful mercenary soldiers with a formidable reputation, who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.

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Maculopapular rash

A maculopapular rash is a type of rash characterized by a flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small confluent bumps.

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Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

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Men who have sex with men

Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many such men do not sexually identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Natural reservoir

In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.

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Needle sharing

Needle sharing is the practice of intravenous drug-users by which a syringe is shared by multiple individuals to administer intravenous drugs, and is a primary vector for diseases which can be transmitted through blood (blood-borne pathogens).

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Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.

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Nontreponemal tests for syphilis

A nontreponemal test (NTT) is a blood test for diagnosis of infection with syphilis.

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Nonvenereal endemic syphilis

Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by the endemicum subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum.

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Notifiable disease

A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.

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Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve.

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Optimal virulence

Optimal virulence is a concept relating to the ecology of hosts and parasites.

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A papule is a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid, varying in area from a pinhead to 1 cm.

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Partner notification

Partner notification is the practice of notifying the sexual partners of a person, known as the "index case", who has been newly diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection that they may have been exposed to the infection.

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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Perinatal mortality

Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate.

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Periostitis, also known as periostalgia, is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the periosteum, a layer of connective tissue that surrounds bone.

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Peter Buxtun

Peter Buxtun (sometimes referred to as Peter Buxton; born 1937 in Prague) is a former employee of the United States Public Health Service who became known as the whistleblower responsible for ending the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Pinta (disease)

Pinta (also known as Azul, Carate, Empeines, Lota, Mal del Pinto and Tina) is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America caused by infection with the spirochete, Treponema carateum, which is morphologically and serologically indistinguishable from the bacterium that causes syphilis.

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Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prenatal care

Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.

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Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.

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Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Rapid plasma reagin

The rapid plasma reagin test (RPR test or RPR titer) is a type of rapid diagnostic test that looks for non-specific antibodies in the blood of the patient that may indicate a syphilis infection.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.

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Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Saber shin

Saber shin is a malformation of the tibia.

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Saddle nose

Saddle nose is a condition associated with nasal trauma, congenital syphilis, relapsing polychondritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, cocaine abuse, and leprosy, among other conditions.

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Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.

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Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.

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Serous fluid

In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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Side effects of penicillin

The side effects of penicillin are bodily responses to penicillin and closely related antibiotics that do not relate directly to its effect on bacteria.

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Sore throat

Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Giovanni Stradano or Jan Van der Straet or van der Straat or Stradanus or Stratensis (1523 – 2 November 1605) was a Flanders-born mannerist artist active mainly in 16th century Florence.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Syphilitic aortitis

Syphilitic aortitis (SA) is inflammation of the aorta associated with the tertiary stage of syphilis infection.

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Tabes dorsalis

Tabes dorsalis, also known as syphilitic myelopathy, is a slow degeneration (specifically, demyelination) of the neural tracts primarily in the dorsal columns (posterior columns) of the spinal cord (the portion closest to the back of the body) & dorsal roots.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.

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The great imitator

The Great Imitator (also The Great Masquerader) is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.

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Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay

The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (also called TPPA test) is an indirect agglutination assay used for detection and titration of antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tuskegee syphilis experiment

The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, also known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study or Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service.

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Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States.

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Tuskegee, Alabama

Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States.

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An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.

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Ulcer (dermatology)

An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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United States Public Health Service

The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW; which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979–1980 (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education).

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test

The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for syphilis that was developed by the eponymous lab.

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Vertically transmitted infection

A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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William Osler

Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Yaws is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue.

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Acquired syphilis, Asymptomatic neurosyphilis, Bigpox, Cardiovascular syphilis, Early syphilis, Endemic non-venereal syphilis, Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody, French disease, French pox, Great Pox, Greatpox, Hinton test, Late syphilis, Latent syphilis, Leucoderma syphiliticum, Leutic, Lues, Lues Congenita, Lues Veneria, Luetic, Luiphobia, Lutz-Jeanselme syndrome, Lúes Congénita, Meningovascular syphilis, Oral mucous membrane lesions secondary syphilis, Parrot's frontal bossing, Primary chancre syphilis, Primary syphilis, Primary syphilitis, Secondary Syphilis, Secondary syphilis, Siffilus, Sifilis, Sifilus, Siphalis, Siphilis, Siphillis, Stages of syphilis, Syfilis, Symptomatic neurosyphilis, Syph, Syphalis, Syphelis, Syphilic, Syphilis disease, Syphilis serodiagnosis, Syphilis test, Syphilis testing, Syphilis, cardiovascular, Syphilism, Syphilitic, Syphilitic aortic incompetence, Syphilitis, Syphillis, Syphillus, Syphilologist, Syphilology, Syphlis, Syphliss, Syphyllis, Tertiary syphilis, The French disease, Tonsillitis secondary syphilis, Tuberculosis of the Spine, Tuberculosis+of+the+Spine, Vaginal syphilis, Venereal syphilis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis

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