52 relations: Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur, Acequia, Alexander the Great, Alexandria Eschate, Amu Darya, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Aral Sea, Arys River, Baikonur, Battle of Jaxartes, Canal, Central Asia, Chirchiq River, Chu River, Cotton, Cyropolis, Cyrus the Great, Early Muslim conquests, Endorheic basin, Environmental degradation, Etymology, Fergana Valley, History of the central steppe, Jannah, Kara Darya, Kazakhstan, Kazaly, Khanate of Kokand, Khiva, Khujand, Kokand, Kyrgyzstan, Kyzylorda, Muslim, Naryn River, North Aral Sea, Old Persian, Paradise, Rice, River source, Russian conquest of Central Asia, Russian Empire, Sary su River, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, Talas River, Tashkent, Tian Shan, Turkistan (city), ..., Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur (Abulgʻozi Bahodirxon Abulgazi, Ebulgazi, Abu-l-Ghazi, August 24, 1603 – 1663) was a khan of the Khanate of Khiva from 1643 to 1663.
An acequia or séquia is a community-operated watercourse used in Spain and former Spanish colonies in the Americas for irrigation.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria Eschate or Alexandria Eskhata (Greek Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη), literally "Alexandria the Farthest", was a city founded by Alexander the Great, at the south-western end of the Fergana Valley (modern Tajikistan) in August 329 BCE.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Arys (Арыс Arıs) is a river of southern Kazakhstan and a tributary of the Syr Darya.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
The Battle of Jaxartes was a battle fought in 329 BC by Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army against the Scythians at the Syr Darya River, the modern name for the River Jaxartes.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chirchiq or Chirchik (Chirchiq, Чирчиқ, Чирчик) is a river of Uzbekistan, a major right tributary of the Syr Darya.
The Chu (Shu or Chui, Chuy) (Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cyropolis (Latin form of Gr. Kyroúpolis (Κυρούπολις) literally "The City of Cyrus") was an ancient city founded by Cyrus the Great in 544 BCE to mark the northeastern border of his Achaemenid empire.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
History of the central steppe: This is a short history of the central steppe, an area roughly equivalent to modern Kazakhstan.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
The Kara Darya (Кара-Дарыя, Qara-Darıya/Kara-Daryýa, قارا-دارىيا; Qoradaryo, Қорадарё, قارەدەريا - literally black river) or Qaradaryo (Карадарья) is a tributary of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazaly is a town in Kazaly District of Kyzylorda Region in Kazakhstan, located on the right bank of the Syr Darya River.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Khiva (Xiva/Хива, خىۋا; خیوه,; alternative or historical names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chorezm, and خوارزم) is a city of approximately 50,000 people located in Xorazm Region, Uzbekistan.
Khujand (Xujand; Xo‘jand/Хўжанд; Xojand), formerly known as Leninabad (Leninobod; Leninâbâd) in 1936-1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd.
Kokand (Qo‘qon, Қўқон, قوقان; Xuqand; Chagatai: خوقند, Xuqand; Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyzylorda (Қызылорда, Qyzylorda, قىزىلوردا), formerly known as Kzyl-Orda (Кзыл-Орда), Ak-Mechet (Ак-Мечеть), Perovsk (Перовск), and Fort-Perovsky (Форт-Перовский), is a city in south-central Kazakhstan, capital of Kyzylorda Region and former capital of the Kazak ASSR from 1925 to 1929.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Naryn River (Нарын, Нарын, Norin) rises in the Tian Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan.
The North Aral Sea (Солтүстік Арал теңізі, Северное Аральское море) is the portion of the former Aral Sea that is fed by the Syr Darya River.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Paradise is the term for a place of timeless harmony.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
The Russian conquest of Central Asia took place in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Sary su (also Sary-Sû and Sarsa; Сарысу Sarısw; Сарысу́ Sarysu) is a river in central Kazakhstan.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Talas River (Kyrgyz, Талас) rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Turkistan (Түркістан, Túrkistan, تٷركئستان), formerly known as Turkestan (Туркестан; Turkiston, Туркистон, توركىستان), is a city and the admiistrative center of Turkistan Region of Kazakhstan, near the Syr Darya river.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Iaxartes, Jaxartes, Jaxartes River, Jaxartes river, Seyhoun River, Sir Darya, Sir Derya, Sir River, Sirdarya, Siri Derya, Syr Daria, Syr Darya River, Syr Darya river, Syr-Daria, Syr-Darya, Syr-darya, Syrdar'ya, Syrdaria River, Syrdariya, Syrdariya Basin, Syrdarya, The Syr Darya, The Syr Darya River, Yaxartes.