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Abarsal was a city-state of Mesopotamia in the area of the Euphrates.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasiyyin Stadium (ملعب العباسيين) is a multi-use all-seater stadium in Damascus, Syria, currently used mostly for football matches and serves as the home venue of the Syrian national team.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).
Adib Bin Hassan Al-Shishakli (أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي, Edip Çiçekli; 1909 – 27 September 1964) was a Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–54).
Ali Ahmad Said Esber, romanised: ʿAlī Aḥmad Saʿīd 'Isbar (born 1 January 1930), also known by the pen name Adonis or Adunis (أدونيس, Adūnīs), is a Syrian poet, essayist and translator who is considered one of the most influential and dominant Arab poets of the modern era.
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Ain es Saheb airstrike occurred on 5 October 2003 and was the first overt Israeli military operation in Syria since the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
Akkad (also Accad, Akkade, Agade; cuneiform URIKI) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.
Al-Hasakah Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Parêzgeha Hesîçe, Huparkiyo d'Ḥasake, also known as Gozarto) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (قلاوون الصالحي, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.
Al-Musayfirah (المسيفرة, also spelled Mseifreh or Musayfra) is a town in southern Syria, administratively part of the Daraa Governorate, located east of Daraa and 37 kilometers southeast of Damascus.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Al-Sarkha, Bakhah or Baẖҁa (الصرخه or بخعة, ܒܟܥܐ - בכעא) is a Syrian village in the Yabroud District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate.
Alalakh (Hittite: Alalaḫ) was an ancient city-state, a late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Vilayet of Aleppo (Vilâyet-i Halep; ولاية حلب) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, centered on the city of Aleppo.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Amin al-Hafiz (or Hafez; 12 November 1921 – 17 December 2009) (أمين الحافظ) was a Syrian politician, General and member of the Ba'ath Party who served as the President of Syria from 27 July 1963 to 23 February 1966.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Amorite is an extinct early Northwest Semitic language, formerly spoken by the Amorite tribes prominent in ancient Near Eastern history.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Amrit or Amrith (عمريت), also known as Marathos or Marathus (Ancient Greek: Μάραθος), was an ancient Phoenician city located near Tartus in Syria.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
In law and government, appropriation (from Latin appropriare, "to make one's own", later "to set aside") is the act of setting apart something for its application to a particular usage, to the exclusion of all other uses.
Arab al-Mulk (عرب الملك, also spelled Arab al-Milk, Beldi al-Melek, Balda al-Milk or Beldeh) is a coastal village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Jableh District in the Latakia Governorate, located south of Latakia.
Arab Argentines refers to Argentine citizens or residents whose ancestry traces back to various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world such as Palestine, Egypt, and Morocco.
The Arab International University (AIU) (previously: Arab European University) is a Syrian private university located in Ghabaghib, Daraa Governorate, Syria, founded in 2005.
The Arab Kingdom of Syria (المملكة العربية السورية) was a self-proclaimed, unrecognized state that existed only a little over four months, from 8 March to 24 July 1920.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Reform Initiative (مبادرة الإصلاح العربي), or simply the ARI, is a leading independent think-tank consisting of a network of independent Arab research and policy institutes, with partners from the Middle East, the Maghreb, Europe, South America, and the United States.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Arab television drama or Arab soap opera (also known as "مسلسل", musalsal, plural musalsalat) is a television form of melodramatic serialized fiction.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic coffee (qahwah arabiyya) refers to a version of the brewed coffee of Coffea arabica beans.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arak or araq (عرق, ערק) is a Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof, commonly 50% Alc. Vol./100 proof) in the anise drinks family.
Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day central Syria, including where the city of Aleppo now stands.
Aram Rehob was an early Aramaean kingdom, of which the chief city was Rehob or Beth-Rehob, associated with Aram-Zobah as hostile to King David.
Aram-Damascus was an Aramaean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BCE to 732 BCE.
Aram-Naharaim (’Ǎram Nahărayim; Aramaic: ארם נהריים) is a region that is mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.
Arwad (أرواد) – formerly known as Arados (Ἄραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, and Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Πιερίας), also called Ruad Island – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only inhabited island in Syria.
As-Suwayda (السويداء / ALA-LC romanization: as-Suwaydā’), also spelled Sweida or Swaida, is a mainly Druze city located in southwestern Syria, close to the border with Jordan.
Al-Suwayda Governorate (مُحافظة السويداء / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat as-Suwaydā’) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Amal al-Atrash (آمال الأطرش; November 25, 1912 - July 14, 1944),, Al-Mada better known by her stage name Asmahan (أسمهان), was a Syrian born singer who lived in Egypt.
Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Assyrians in Syria are people of Assyrian descent living in Syria.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Ayn al-Bayda (عين البيضة) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located north of Latakia.
Ayran (from ayran, ayran, دوغ "doogh", dew) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
The Çineköy inscription is a Hieroglyphic Luwian-Phoenician bilingual inscription, uncovered in 1997 in Çineköy, Adana Province, Turkey (ancient Cilicia).
İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (spelled "Ba'th" or "Baath", "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb Al-Ba'aṯ Al-'Arabī Al-Ištirākī), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of al-Mazra'a (معركة المزرعة) was one of the major battles of the Great Syrian Revolt, that led to the spread of the rebellion throughout the French Mandate of Syria.
The Battle of Kadesh or Battle of Qadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border.
The Battle of Kafr El Dawwar was a conflict during the Anglo-Egyptian War near Kafr El Dawwar, Egypt.
The Battle of Maysalun (معركة ميسلون), also called the Battle of Maysalun Pass or the Battle of Khan Maysalun, was fought between the forces of the Arab Kingdom of Syria and the French Army of the Levant on 24 July 1920 near Khan Maysalun in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, about west of Damascus.
The Battles of the Kinarot Valley (הַמַּעֲרָכָה בְּבִקְעַת כִּנָּרוֹת, HaMa'arakha BeBik'at Kinarot), is a collective name for a series of military engagements between the Haganah and the Syrian army during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, fought between May 15–22, 1948 in the Kinarot Valley.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beer Ajam (Biʾr ʿAjam, also spelled Bir Ajam, lit. "Non-Arabs' Spring") is a Syrian Circassian village in the Quneitra Governorate in the Syrian controlled portion of the Golan Heights.
The Vilayet of Beirut was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Bit Baḫiani was an independent Hittite city-state kingdom (c. 1200 - 808 BC) and an Assyrian province (c. 810 - 706 BC) with its capital at ''Guzana'' (modern day Tell Halaf).
Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.
Bosnians (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanci/Босанци; singular: Bosnian (Bosanac/Босанац) are people who live in Bosnia, or who are of Bosnian descent. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality. Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" (along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc.). According to the latest population census (2013), there were around 2.7% "Others". According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians. This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians. CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality. Instead it mentions "Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)" thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity (e.g. Bosnian Roma) to indicate place of residence. Other times they use (with equal rights) the term Herzegovinians. In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group. According to the latest (2013) census however, this population does not rise above 2.7%. According to a study conducted by University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikšić, Montenegro and University of Novi Sad in Serbia, Bosnian people are the tallest in the world.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (المكتب المركزي للإحصاء) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in the Syrian Arab Republic.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chris Morris is a British broadcast journalist who regularly contributes to BBC News, Today and From Our Own Correspondent, and is the author of the 2005 Granta publication The New Turkey.
Christians in Syria make up approximately 10% of the population.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
The Circassians in Syria (Circassian: Сирием ис адыгэхэр) refers to the Circassian diaspora, some of whom settled in Syria (then part of the Ottoman Empire) in the 19th century.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Classical Greco-Roman mythology, Greek and Roman mythology or Greco-Roman mythology is both the body of and the study of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans as they are used or transformed by cultural reception.
Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.
The Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic was adopted on 13 March 1973 and amended on 26 February 2012.
The conversion of Paul the Apostle, was, according to the New Testament, an event in the life of Paul the Apostle that led him to cease persecuting early Christians and to become a follower of Jesus.
The Corrective Movement (الحركة التصحيحية), also referred to as the Corrective Revolution, was a political movement in Syria, initiated by a coup d'état, led by General Hafez al-Assad on 13 November 1970.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Dabke (دبكة; also transliterated Dabka, Dabki, Dubki, Dabkeh; plural Dabkaat) is an Arab folk dance native to the Levant.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damascus Governorate (مُحافظة دمشق) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Damascus Spring (ربيع دمشق) was a period of intense political and social debate in Syria which started after the death of President Hafiz al-Asad in June 2000 and continued to some degree until autumn 2001, when most of the activities associated with it were suppressed by the government.
The University of Damascus (جامعة دمشق, Jāmi‘atu Dimashq) is the largest and oldest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus and has campuses in other Syrian cities.
Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic:, also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera'a, Dera, Derʿā and Edrei; means "fortress", compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria, located about north of the border with Jordan.
Dara`a Governorate (مُحافظة درعا / ALA-LC) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The death of Akram Raslan, an artist known for his political cartoons, at the hands of the government of Syria brought condemnation from various publications around the world.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
The Democratic Union Party or PYD (Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat; translit; translit) is a Kurdish democratic confederalist political party established on 20 September 2003 in northern Syria.
Jordanians (Arabic: أردنيون), also known as the Jordanian people (Arabic: الشعب الأردني ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-ūrdunī) are the citizens of Jordan, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
In 2011, the Syrian population was estimated at roughly 23 million permanent inhabitants, including people with refugee status from Palestine and Iraq and are an overall indigenous Levantine people.
Der (Sumerian: ALUDi-e-ir, 𒌷𒂦𒀭𒆠 uruBAD3.ANki) was a Sumerian city-state at the site of modern Tell Aqar near al-Badra in Iraq's Wasit Governorate.
The 14 governorates of Syria, or muhafazat (sing. muhafazah), are divided into 65 districts, or manatiq (sing. mintaqah), including the city of Damascus.
Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes common in the Mediterranean cuisine and surrounding regions including the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia and Middle East.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Druze people in Syria refers to an ethnoreligious group consisting of adherents to the Druze faith, originating from the Near East who self-identify as "Unitarians" or "the People of Monotheism" (الموحدين al-Muwaḥḥidīn).
Dumat al-Jundal (دومة الجندل) is an ancient city of ruins located in North Western Saudi Arabia in the Al Jawf Province; it is located 37 km away from Sakakah.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eber-Nari (Akkadian, also Ebir-Nari), Abar-Nahara עבר-נהרה (Aramaic) or 'Ābēr Nahrā (Syriac) was the name of a region of Western Asia and a satrapy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC).
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
Eblaite (also known as Eblan ISO 639-3), or Paleo Syrian, is an extinct Semitic language which was used during the third millennium BCE by the populations of Northern Syria.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
Elagabalus, Aelagabalus, or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Emar (modern Tell Meskene) is an archaeological site in Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Expedition of Dumat al-Jandal is an early Muslim expedition which took place in August or September of 626 AD.
Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi (فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933.
Farid al-Atrash (فريد الأطرش; October 19, 1917 – December 26, 1974), also written Farid El-Atrache, was an Egyptian-Syrian composer, singer, virtuoso oud player, and actor.
Fattoush (فتوش, also fattush, fatush, fattoosh, and fattouche) is a Levantine bread salad made from toasted or fried pieces of Arabic flat bread combined with mixed greens and other vegetables, such as radishes and tomatoes.
Fawwaz Haddad (Arabic: فواز حدّاد) (born 1947) is a Syrian novelist.
The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Germany.
Filo or phyllo (φύλλο "leaf") is a very thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava and börek in Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War refers to political, military and operational support to parties involved in the ongoing conflict in Syria that began in March 2011, as well as active foreign involvement.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
François Marie Denis Georges-Picot (21 December 1870 in Paris – 20 June 1951 in Paris) was a French diplomat and lawyer who negotiated the Sykes–Picot Agreement with the English diplomat Sir Mark Sykes between November 1915 and March 1916 before its signing on May 16, 1916.
The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence, also known as the Viénot Accords, was a treaty negotiated between France and Syria to provide for Syrian independence from French authority.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Ghadah Al-Samman (غادة السمّان) is a Syrian writer, journalist and novelist born in Damascus in 1942 to a prominent and conservative Damascene family, she is remotely related to Nizar Qabbani the famous poet.
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") was an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli law which applies Israel's government and laws to the Golan Heights.
Syria is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes, it is divided into fourteen governorates, also called provinces in English (Arabic muḥāfaẓāt, singular muḥāfaẓah).
Granta is a literary magazine and publisher in the United Kingdom whose mission centres on its "belief in the power and urgency of the story, both in fiction and non-fiction, and the story’s supreme ability to describe, illuminate and make real." In 2007, The Observer stated: "In its blend of memoirs and photojournalism, and in its championing of contemporary realist fiction, Granta has its face pressed firmly against the window, determined to witness the world.".
The Great Syrian Revolt (الثورة السورية الكبرى) or Great Druze Revolt (1925–1927) was a general uprising across Mandatory Syria and Lebanon aimed at getting rid of the French, who had been in control of the region since the end of World War I.Miller, 1977, p. 547.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Greek presence in Syria began in the 7th century BC and became more prominent during the Hellenistic period and when the Seleucid Empire was centered there.
Ground beef, beef mince, minced beef, or minced meat (not to be confused with the mixture of chopped dried fruit, distilled spirits and spices referred to as "mincemeat") is a ground meat made of beef that has been finely chopped with a large knife or a meat grinder.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
In Internet activism, hacktivism or hactivism (a portmanteau of hack and activism) is the subversive use of computers and computer networks to promote a political agenda or a social change.
Hader (حضر, also spelt Hadar) is a village in southern Syria, administratively part of the Khan Arnabah Subdistrict of the Quneitra Governorate.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Haidar Haidar (حيدر حيدر) (born 1936 in Husayn al-Baher) is a Syrian writer and novelist.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hama Governorate (مُحافظة حماة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥamā) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
Hammouda Youssef Sabbagh (حمودة يوسف الصباغ, born 1959 in Al-Hasakah) is a Syrian politician who has been the Speaker of the People's Council of Syria since September 2017. He is the first Syriac Orthodox Christian to have held the post. He was elected speaker of parliament with 193 votes on 252.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
Hamoukar (in Arabic: حموكار) is a large archaeological site located in the Jazira region of northeastern Syria (Al Hasakah Governorate), near the Iraqi and Turkish borders.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (11 January 1875 – 5 December 1960) (هاشم الأتاسي, Haşim el Atasi) was a Syrian nationalist and statesman and its President from 1936 to 1939, 1949 to 1951 and 1954 to 1955.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hatay Province (Hatay ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya (Antioch), and the other major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun (Alexandretta). It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova (Cilicia), a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı. Sovereignty over the province remains disputed with neighbouring Syria, which claims that the province was separated from itself against the stipulations of the French Mandate of Syria in the years following Syria's independence from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.
Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
The High Judicial Council is the highest judicial authority in Syria.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: those who inhabited Syria from early times and the Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492 AD).
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
An hors d'oeuvre (hors d'œuvre), appetizer or starter is a small dish served before a meal.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
"Ḥumāt ad-Diyār" (حماة الديار, translated "Guardians of the Homeland") is the national anthem of Syria, with lyrics written by Khalil Mardam Bey and the music by Mohammed Flayfel, who also composed the national anthem of the Palestinian state (now used as the national anthem of Iraq), as well as many other Arab folk songs.
Hummus (or; حُمُّص, full Arabic name: hummus bi tahini حمص بالطحينة) is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Husni al-Za'im (11 May 1897 – 14 August 1949) (حسني الزعيم) was a Syrian military man and politician.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ibrium (24th century BC), also spelt Ebrium, was the vizier of Ebla for king Irkab-Damu and his successor Isar-Damu.
Ideocracy (a portmanteau word combining "ideology" and kratos, Greek for "power") is "governance of a state according to the principles of a particular (political) ideology; a state or country governed in this way".
Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.
Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Ikhshidid dynasty ruled Egypt from 935 to 969.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imad Mohammad Deeb Khamis (عماد محمد ديب خميس) (born 1 August 1961) is a Syrian politician who has been Prime Minister of Syria since 2016.
This page list topics related to Syria.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The Syrian National Council (SNC) is recognised by 7 UN members, the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people in the midst of the Syrian Civil War, with three of those being permanent members of the Security Council.
International University for Science and Technology (IUST) (IUST; الجامعة الدولية الخاصة للعلوم والتكنولوجيا) is a private, accredited university located in Oum El Qusur, thirty five kilometers away from the center of Damascus, Syria.
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Syria is followed by 87% of the country's total population: Sunnis make up 75% of the total, mostly of Arab, Kurdish and Turkoman ethnicities.
The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين, Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn) known in the West as simply Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), is a Palestinian Islamist terrorist organization formed in 1981 whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of a sovereign, Islamic Palestinian state.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The Islamist uprising in Syria comprised a series of revolts and armed insurgencies by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood from 1976 until 1982.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Israel–Syria Mixed Armistice Commission (ISMAC) was the United Nations commission for observing the armistice between Israel and Syria after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as part of the Mixed Armistice Commissions (MAC).
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jabal al-Druze (جبل الدروز, jabal ad-durūz, Mountain of the Druze), officially Jabal al-Arab (جبل العرب, jabal al-ʿarab, Mountain of the Arabs), is an elevated volcanic region in the As-Suwayda Governorate of southern Syria.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jallab (Arabic: جلاب / ALA-LC: jallāb) is a type of fruit syrup popular in the Middle East made from carob, dates, grape molasses and rose water.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies is a biannual academic journal published by various Assyriologists and other academics, covering studies on the Assyrian people, the history of Assyria and Babylonia, and Assyriology in general.
Jubb'adin or Ġuppaҁōḏ (جبعدين, ܓܦܥܘܕ - גפעוד) is a village in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, located northeast of Damascus in the Qalamun Mountains.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress of Syrian origins, the second wife of Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211), and a powerful figure in the regime of his successor, the emperor Caracalla.
Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.
Kessab, Kesab or Kasab (كسب, Քեսապ, Kesab) is a mostly Armenian-populated town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located 59 kilometers north of Latakia.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
The Khan Shaykhun chemical attack took place on 4 April 2017 on the town of Khan Shaykhun in the Idlib Governorate of Syria.
Khubz, alternatively spelled khoubz, khobez, khubez, khobz or khubooz (خبز, Arabic: khubzun), is a round leavened Middle Eastern flatbread, that forms a staple of the local diet from the Arabian Peninsula to Morocco.
Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.
The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The border between the Syrian Arab Republic and the Lebanese Republic runs for a total length of about; it accounts for most of the land border of Lebanon (except for the short border with Israel in the south).
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lena Chamamyan (لينا شماميان, Լենա Շամամյան) is a Syrian singer of Armenian origin.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Levant Crisis also known as the Damascus Crisis, the Syrian Crisis or the Levant Confrontation was a military situation that took place between British and French forces in Syria in May 1945 soon after the end of World War II in Europe.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This list of Internet top-level domain (TLD) extensions contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet.
This is a list of monasteries in Syria.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Luhuti,Lukhuti or Lu'ash, was an Iron Age Syro-Hittite Aramean region during the early 1st millennium BC located in northern Syria, in an area that used to be called Nuhašše.
The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Maaloula or Maҁlūlā (ܡܥܠܘܠܐ - מעלולא; معلولا) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Madinat al-Baath (Madīnat al-Bā'āth, Medinet el-Baas), also known as City of Baath or New Quneitra, is a town in the Golan Heights that is the administrative centre of the Quneitra Governorate of southern Syria.
The Madrid Conference of 1991 was a peace conference, held from 30 October to 1 November 1991 in Madrid, hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Maltese (Maltin) are an ethnic group indigenous to Malta, and identified with the Maltese language.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Manakish, also manaqish, manaeesh or manakeesh or in singular form man'ousheh (مناقيش manāqīsh; sometimes called معجنات mu‘ajjanāt 'pastry') is a popular Levantine food consisting of dough topped with thyme, cheese, or ground meat.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (مندائية) is a gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview.
The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne), known as Mandatory Syrian Republic, or simply Mandatory Syria was formed in 1930 as a component of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon, succeeding the State of Syria.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The March 1949 Syrian coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état that took place on 30 March, and was the first military coup in modern Syrian history which overthrew the country's democratically elected government.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Colonel Sir Tatton Benvenuto Mark Sykes, 6th Baronet (16 March 1879 – 16 February 1919) was an English traveller, Conservative Party politician and diplomatic advisor, particularly with regard to the Middle East at the time of the First World War.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Mecelle (also transliterated Mejelle, Majalla, Medjelle, or Meğelle, from the Ottoman Turkish, Mecelle-ʾi Aḥkām-ı ʿAdlīye - from Arabic, مجلة الأحكام العدلية Majallah el-Ahkam-i-Adliya) was the civil code of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The media of Syria consists primarily of television, radio, Internet, film and print.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Melkite (Greek) Catholic Church (كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Meze or mezze (also spelled mazzeh or mazze; maze; meze; məzə; mezés; мезe / meze; мезе; мезе; muqabbilāt; Meze; мезе) is a selection of small dishes served to accompany alcoholic drinks in the Near East, the Balkans, and parts of Central Asia.
Michel Aflaq (ميشيل عفلق‎,, 9 January 1910 – 23 June 1989) was a Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a state to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.
The Military Intelligence Directorate (شعبة المخابرات العسكرية, Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya) is the military intelligence service of Syria.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
The Ministry of Communication and Technology (وزارة الإتصالات والتكنولوجيا) of Syria is the ministry that is responsible for developing government communications and information policies and setting strategies and implementation programs in this field.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad al-Maghout (1934- April 3, 2006) (محمد الماغوط) was a renowned Syrian writer and poet.
Major General Muhammad Umran (محمد عمران; 1922–4 March 1972) was a founding member of the Military Committee of the unitary Ba'ath Party, and a leading personality in Syrian politics from the 8th of March Revolution until the 1966 Syrian coup d'état.
Mujaddara (مجدرة mujadarah, with alternative spellings in English majadra, mejadra, moujadara, mudardara, and megadarra) consists of cooked lentils together with groats, generally rice, and garnished with sautéed onions.
Mureybet (مريبط) is a tell, or ancient settlement mound, located on the west bank of the Euphrates in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria.
The music of Syria may refer to musical traditions and practices in modern-day Syria (as opposed to Greater Syria), merging the habits of people who settled in Syria throughout its history.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria (الإخوان المسلمون في سوريا Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun fi Suriya), formerly the Islamic Socialist Front, has been described as "a branch" of the Sunni Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, and as "very loosely affiliated" to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem (Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı; متصرفية القدس الشريف), also known as the Sanjak of Jerusalem, was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872.
Muwashshah (موشح literally means "girdled" in Classical Arabic; plural موشحات or تواشيح) is the name for both an Arabic poetic form and a secular musical genre.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nahr al-Kabir al-Janoubi (Arabic النهر الكبير الجنوبي 'the southern great river') is a river in the Syria and Lebanon flowing into the Mediterranean Sea at Arida, Lebanon.
Naram-Sin (also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen, meaning "Beloved of Sin"; reigned c. 2254–2218 BC) was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
The National Progressive Front (al-Jabha al-Waṭaniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF) is a political alliance of parties in Syria that supports the socialist and Arab nationalist orientation of the government and accepts the "leading role in society" of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, the largest party in the NPF.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of the Semitic Aramaic, that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200 (conventional date).
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani (نزار توفيق قباني) (21 March 1923 – 30 April 1998) was a Syrian diplomat, poet and publisher.
The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Noureddin Mustafa Ali al-Atassi (11 January 1929 – 3 December 1992) (نور الدين بن محمد علي الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā al-'Atasī) was President of Syria from February 1966 to November 1970.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Septimius Udhayna, Latinized as Odaenathus (Palmyrene:, spelled Oḏainaṯ; أذينة; 220 – 267 AD), was the founder king (Mlk) of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Operation Outside the Box (מבצע מחוץ לקופסה, Mivtza Michutz La'Kufsa) was an Israeli airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor, Associated Press Latest Update: 04.28.11, 18:10 referred to as the Al Kibar site (also referred to in IAEA documents as Dair Alzour), in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria, which occurred just after midnight (local time) on 6 September 2007.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Syria: Syria – country in Western Asia, that borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south and Israel to the southwest.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Palestinians in Syria (الفلسطينيون في سوريا) are people of Palestinian origin, most of whom have been residing in Syria after they were expelled and displaced from their homeland during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
Palistin (or Walistin), was an early Syro-Hittite kingdom located in what is now northwestern Syria and the southeastern Turkish province of Hatay.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pastirma, basturma, pastourma, bastirma, basterma (from) is a highly seasoned, air-dried cured beef that is part of the cuisines of countries from the Balkans to the Levant.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The People's Council (مجلس الشعب, Majlis al-Sha'ab; Assemblée du peuple) is Syria's legislative authority.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabus, also known as Philip or Philip I), was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.
Phoenice was a province of the Roman Empire encompassing the historical region of Phoenicia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Popular Front for Change and Liberation (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية للتحرير والتغيير, al-Jabha aš-š‘abiyya li'l-taghayyir wa'l-taḥrīr) is a coalition of Syrian political parties and is the leader of the official political opposition within the People's Council of Syria, the state's unicameral parliament.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating BP.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
The President of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
The Prime Minister of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
The purple line was the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria after the 1967 Six-Day War and serves as the de facto border between the two countries.
Qamishli (القامشلي, Qamişlo, lit or translit) is a city in northeastern Syria on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Turkish city of Nusaybin, and close to Iraq.
Qatna (modern: تل المشرفة, Tell al-Mishrifeh) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria.
Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة al-Qunayṭrah) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria.
Quneitra Governorate (مُحافظة القنيطرة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Al-Qunayṭrah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Rif Dimashq Governorate (محافظة ريف دمشق, literally, the "Governorate of the Countryside of Damascus") is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Emesani dynasty or the Sempsigerami of Emesa, sometimes known as the Sampsiceramids (Arabic: آل شميس غرام) were a ruling Roman client dynasty of priest-kings in Emesa, Syria Province (modern Homs, Syria).
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Sabah Abu Qaws, also known as Sabah Fakhri (صباح فخري; born May 2, 1933), is an iconic Syrian tenor singer from Aleppo.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah ad-Din al-Bitar (صلاح الدين البيطار) (1 January 1912 – 21 July 1980) was a Syrian politician who co-founded the Arab Ba'ath Party with Michel Aflaq in the early 1940s.
Salah Jadid (1926 – 19 August 1993, صلاح جديد) was a Syrian general and political figure in the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Syria, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.
Salim Barakat (سليم بركات, Selîm Berekat) (born 1 September 1951 in Qamishli) is a Kurdish-Syrian novelist and poet.
Sam'al (Hittite: Yadiya) was founded as a Hittite colony from 1725-1200 BC.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sami Hilmy al-Hinnawi (محمد سامي حلمي الحناوي) (1898 – October 31, 1950) was a Syrian politician and military officer.
The San Remo conference was an international meeting of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council as an outgrowth of the Paris Peace Conference, held at Villa Devachan in Sanremo, Italy, from 19 to 26 April 1920.
The Sanjak of Alexandretta (İskenderun Sancağı, Sandjak d'Alexandrette, لواء الإسكندرونة) was a sanjak of the Mandate of Syria composed of two qadaas of the former Aleppo Vilayet (Alexandretta and Antioch, now İskenderun and Antakya) and became autonomous under Article 7 of the 1921 Treaty of Ankara: "A special administrative regime shall be established for the district of Alexandretta.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi (سيف الدولة أبو الحسن ابن حمدان), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf ud-Dawla ("Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).
Schocken Books is an offspring of the Schocken Verlag, a publishing company that was established in Berlin in 1931 with a second office in Prague by the Schocken Department Store owner Salman Schocken.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second Battle of Homs was fought in western Syria on 29 October 1281, between the armies of the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt and the Ilkhanate, a division of the Mongol Empire centered on Iran. The battle was part of Abaqa Khan's attempt at taking Syria from the Mamluks. After the Mamluk victories over Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and Albistan in 1277, the Il-khan Abaqa sent his brother Möngke Temur at the head of a large army which numbered about 40-50,000 men, chiefly Armenians under Leo II and Georgians under Demetrius II. The two armies met south of Homs, a city in western Syria. In a pitched battle, the Armenians, Georgians and Oirats under King Leo II and Mongol generals routed and scattered the Mamluk left flank, but the Mamluks personally led by Sultan Qalawun destroyed the Mongol centre. Möngke Temur was wounded and fled, followed by his disorganized army. However, Qalawun chose to not pursue the defeated enemy, and the Armenian-Georgian auxiliaries of the Mongols managed to withdraw safely. The following year, Abaqa died and his successor, Tekuder, reversed his policy towards the Mamluks. He converted to Islam and forged an alliance with the Mamluk sultan.
A security agency is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Shahba (شهبا / ALA-LC: Shahbā) is a city located 87 km south of Damascus in the Jabal el Druze in As-Suwayda Governorate of Syria, but formerly in the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
Shanklish (shanklīsh or شنغليش shanghlīsh), also known as shinklish, shankleesh, sorke, or sürke, is a type of cow's milk or sheep milk cheese in Levantine cuisine.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shawarma (شاورما), also spelled shawurma or shawerma, is a Levantine meat preparation, where thin cuts of lamb, chicken, turkey, beef, veal, or mixed meats are stacked in a cone-like shape on a vertical rotisserie.
Shebaa Farms, also spelled Sheba'a Farms (مزارع شبعا,; חוות שבעא, Havot Sheba‘a or הר דוב, Har Dov) is a small strip of disputed land at the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shukri al-Quwatli (6 May 189130 June 1967; شكري القوتلي, Şükrü el Kuvvetli) was the first president of post-independence Syria.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sophene (Ծոփք Tsopkh, translit or Չորրորդ Հայք, Fourth Armenia) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire, located in the south-west of the kingdom.
Southern Syria (سوريا الجنوبية, Suriyya al-Janubiyya) is the southern part of the Syria region, roughly corresponding to the Southern Levant.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Speaker of the People's Council of Syria represents the People's Council, Syria's legislature, signs documents and speaks on its behalf. Throughout its history, the Speaker has been responsible for representing the Council. As of 2017, 30 different people have served as speakers. A People's Council is elected every fourth calendar year. The first meeting of a newly elected People's Council is responsible for electing it's Speaker. The People's Council should meet at least three times a year, the Speaker has the power to convene an extraordinary meeting of the Council. The guards of the People's Council are under the authority of the Speaker. 60 days before the term of the President expires, the Speaker calls for new elections. All presidential candidates have to be approved personally by the Speaker. If only one candidate is acceptable, the Speaker is supposed to postpone the elections. The election result is to be announced when the results have been counted.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State of Syria (État de Syrie, دولة سوريا) was a French Mandate state declared on 1 December 1924 from the union of the State of Aleppo and the State of Damascus.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yoghurt, labaneh or suzma yogurt (Greek: στραγγιστό γιαούρτι, لبنة labnah, süzme yoğurt), is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than unstrained yogurt, while preserving yogurt's distinctive sour taste.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sucuk is a dry, spicy sausage which is eaten from the Balkans to the Middle East and Central Asia.
Sultan al-Atrash, (March 5, 1888 – March 26, 1982) (سلطان الأطرش), commonly known as Sultan Pasha al-Atrash (سلطان باشا الأطرش) was a prominent Arab Druze leader, Syrian nationalist and Commander General of the Syrian Revolution (1925–27).
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Constitutional Court (المحكمة الدستورية العليا, Al-Mahkamah al-Dustūrīyah al-‘Ulyā) is the highest jurisdictional authority in the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan c. 1350 BC, and later also lived in Babylonia.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
The Syria national football team (منتخب سوريا لكرة القدم, Équipe de Syrie de football) represents Syria in association football and is controlled by the Syrian Arab Federation for Football, the governing body for football in Syria.
The Vilayet of Syria (Vilâyet-i Suriye), also known as Vilayet of Damascus,.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Syrian Arab Airlines (مؤسسة الطيران العربية السورية), operating as SyrianAir (السورية), is the flag carrier airline of Syria.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Center for Policy Research (also known as SCPR) is an independent, non-governmental, and non-profit think tank based in Syria.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
A constitutional referendum was held in Syria on 1 December 1961.
Syrian diaspora refers to Syrian migrants and their descendants who, whether by choice or coercion, emigrated from Syria and now reside in other countries as either immigrants or refugees of the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian Electronic Army (SEA) is a group of computer hackers which first surfaced online in 2011 to support the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
The Syrian Interim Government is an alternative government of the Syrian Opposition, which has been formed by the opposition umbrella group, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.
Syrian Jews (יהודי סוריה Yehudey Surya, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn, colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria.
Syrian literature is literature originating from present-day Syria (officially the "Syrian Arabic Republic"), and which may be written in any of the languages of Syria.
Syrian nationalism, also known as Pan-Syrian nationalism, refers to the nationalism of the region of Syria, or the Fertile Crescent as a cultural or political entity known as "Greater Syria".
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (الاحتلال السوري للبنان, Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
The Syrian pound or Syrian lira (الليرة السورية; livre syrienne; sign: LS or £S; code: SYP) is the currency of Syria and is issued by the Central Bank of Syria.
Presidential elections were held in Syria on 10 July 2000, following the death of President Hafez al-Assad.
Syrian Private University or SPU (SPU; الجامعة السورية الخاصة) (formerly: Syrian International University for Science and Technology) is a private university located in Syria.
General Establishment of Syrian Railways (المؤسسة العامة للخطوط الحديدية, Chemins de fer syriens, CFS) is the national railway operator for the state of Syria, subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation.
The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne) was recognized as a sovereign state in 1945 and became de-facto independent in April 1946 from the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.
Syrian Telecom (officially: Syrian Telecommunications Establishment) (الإتصالات السورية) is a telecommunications company in Syria.
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.
Tabbouleh (تبولة taboūleh; also tabouleh, tabbouli, tabouli, or taboulah) is a Levantine vegetarian salad made of mostly finely chopped parsley with tomatoes, mint, onion, bulgur (cracked wheat), and seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (transliteration:, "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham and abbreviated HTS, also known as al-Qaeda in Syria, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tartus (طرطوس / ALA-LC: Ṭarṭūs; also transliterated Tartous) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria.
Tartus Governorate (مُحافظة طرطوس / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ṭarṭūs) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Syrian Ministry of Communications retains governmental authority over the internet in Syria.
Telephone numbers in Syria, lists the telephone numbering and dialing conventions in Syria.
Television in Syria was formed in 1960, when Syria and Egypt (which adopted television that same year) were part of the United Arab Republic.
Tell Kazel is an oval-shaped tell that measures by at its base, narrowing to by at its top.
Tell Sukas (ancient Shuksi or Suksi) is a Late Bronze Age archaeological mound on the Eastern Mediterranean coast about south of Jableh, Syria.
The New Turkey: The Quiet Revolution on the Edge of Europe is a 2005 Granta Books publication by BBC World Affairs Correspondent Chris Morris which examines the potential and the problems of the far-reaching political and economic reforms being undertaken in what the author describes as a second revolution in Turkey.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theodor Nöldeke (2 March 1836 – 25 December 1930) was a German orientalist, who was born in Harburg and studied in Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.
Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tishreen University (جامعة تشرين), is a public university located in Latakia, Syria.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkey national football team (Türkiye Millî Futbol Takımı) represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey.
Turkish coffee (Türk kahvesi) is a method of preparing very finely ground unfiltered coffee.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 350 on 31 May 1974, to implement Resolution 338 (1973) which called for an immediate ceasefire and implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges.
University of Aleppo (جامعة حلب, also called Aleppo University) is a public university located in Aleppo, Syria.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Kalamoon (Arabic:جامعة القلمون الخاصة) is a private, accredited university located in Deir Atiyah An-Nabek District Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria, located between the Qalamoun Mountains and the Eastern Lebanon Mountains, 88 kilometres (55 miles) north of the capital Damascus.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Vice President of Syria is a political position in Syria.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victor Harold Matthews (born 13 November 1950) is an American Old Testament scholar.
A vocation is an occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified.
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
A war economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilize its economy for war production.
The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Neo-Aramaic is a modern Aramaic language.
White coffee can refer to any of a number of different kinds of coffees or coffee substitutes worldwide.
White Ware or "Vaisselle Blanche", effectively a form of limestone plaster used to make vessels, is the first precursor to clay pottery developed in the Levant that appeared in the 9th millennium BC, during the pre-pottery (aceramic) neolithic period.
Sir William Muir, KCSI (27 April 1819 – 11 July 1905) was a Scottish Orientalist, scholar of Islam, and colonial administrator, serving as Principal of the University of Edinburgh and Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Provinces of India.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Za'atar (زَعْتَر) is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum (oregano), Calamintha (basil thyme), Thymus (typically Thymus vulgaris, i.e., thyme), and Satureja (savory).
Zakaria Tamer (زكريا تامر), also called the little pea ziad and is (strict transliteration), (born January 2, 1931 in Damascus, Syria) is an influential master of the Arabic-language short story.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.
The Sanjak of Zor (Deyr-i-Zor sancağı) was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire.
.sy is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Syrian web-sites.
The 1954 Syrian coup d'état took place in February of that year to overthrow the government of Adib Shishakli.
The Syrian coup d'état of 1961 was an uprising by disgruntled Syrian Army officers on September 28, 1961, that resulted in the break-up of the United Arab Republic and the restoration of an independent Syrian Republic.
The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (ثورة الثامن من آذار), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
The 1966 Syrian coup d'état refers to events between 21 and 23 February in which the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced.
The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.
The 2004 Qamishli uprising was an uprising by Syrian Kurds in the northeastern city of Qamishli in March 2004.
In the morning of 7 April 2017, the United States launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles from the Mediterranean Sea into Syria, aimed at Shayrat Airbase controlled by the Syrian government.
The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 35° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 43° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of Syria, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah, Amorrhitis, Arab Republic of Syria, Assad Government, Assad regime, Ba'athist Syria, Etymology of Syria, ISO 3166-1:SY, Souria, Sourie, Sport in Syria, Subdivisions of Syria, Suriyah, Syrian (language), Syrian Arab Republic, Syrie, Syrien, Sūriyā, Sūrīyah, الجمهورية العربية السورية, الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة, سوريا.