168 relations: Abu al-Duhur, Adib Shishakli, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al-Ghab Plain, Al-Kiswah, Al-Masdar News, Al-Qutayfah, Al-Zabadani, Alawites, Aleppo, Ali Abdullah Ayyoub, Ali Haydar, Amman, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-tank missile, Ar Ramtha, Armoured fighting vehicle, Armoured personnel carrier, Army, Army of the Levant, Artillery, Austrian Armed Forces, Auxiliaries, Ba'ath Brigades, Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Banias, Bashar al-Assad, Battalion, Battle of Raqqa (March 2013), Biological warfare, Black September, Bloomberg L.P., BM-21 Grad, Border guard, Brigade, British Army, Carnegie Middle East Center, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Centurion (tank), Chemical warfare, Damascus, Darayya, Defense Companies (Syria), Deir ez-Zor, Desert Hawks Brigade, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Division (military), ERDL pattern, Field artillery, ..., France 24, Free Syrian Army, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, General officer, Golan, Golan Heights, Ground warfare, Gulf War, Gun, Haaretz, Hama, Homs, Howitzer, Human Rights Watch, Husni al-Za'im, Idlib, Independent Online (South Africa), Infantry, Infantry fighting vehicle, Institute for the Study of War, International Institute for Strategic Studies, International Security (journal), Iran, Irbid, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamist uprising in Syria, Jane's Defence Weekly, Latakia, Latakia Governorate, Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanon, Library of Congress, Lions of Hussein, Main battle tank, Man-portable air-defense system, March 1949 Syrian coup d'état, Military police, Ministry of Defense (Syria), Mount Hermon, Multiple rocket launcher, Mushir, Mustafa Al-Sheikh, National Defence Forces, Northwestern Syria offensive (October–November 2015), Official Journal of the European Union, Order of Umayyad, Osprey Publishing, OTR-21 Tochka, P-15 Termit, P-800 Oniks, Palestine Liberation Organization, Pan Am Flight 121, Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops, President of Syria, Raqqa Governorate, Republican Guard (Syria), Reuters, Rifaat al-Assad, Royal Jordanian Army, Russia, Russia–Syria–Iran–Iraq coalition, Russian Armed Forces, Russian International Affairs Council, Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, Sami al-Hinnawi, Scud, Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon, Self-propelled artillery, Self-propelled gun, Shafiq Fayadh, Siege of Wadi Deif (2014), Signals intelligence, Six-Day War, Special forces, SSh-68, Sunni Islam, Surface-to-air missile, Surface-to-surface missile, Syrian Armed Forces, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Marines, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Syrian occupation of Lebanon, Syrian opposition, T-54/T-55, T-62, T-72 operators and variants, Tactical ballistic missile, Tahrir al-Sham, Tartus Governorate, Tiger Forces, Trevor N. Dupuy, United States Department of the Army, War of Attrition, Yarmouk River, Yom Kippur War, 10th Mechanised Division (Syria), 122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30), 14th Special Forces Division, 15th Special Forces Division, 17th Division (Syria), 18th Armoured Division (Syria), 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1954 Syrian coup d'état, 1963 Syrian coup d'état, 1966 Syrian coup d'état, 1982 Lebanon War, 1st Armoured Division (Syria), 1st Corps (Syria), 2015–16 Latakia offensive, 2016 Latakia offensive, 3rd Armoured Division (Syria), 4th Armoured Division (Syria), 5th Armoured Division (Syria), 7th Infantry Division (Syria), 9K52 Luna-M, 9th Armoured Division (Syria). Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Abu al-Duhur (أبو الظهور; Abu al-Ẓuhur, also spelled Abu al-Thuhur) is a town in northwestern Syria on the edge of the Syrian Desert, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located about 45 kilometers south of Aleppo.
Adib Bin Hassan Al-Shishakli (أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي, Edip Çiçekli; 1909 – 27 September 1964) was a Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–54).
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Ghab Plain (سهل الغاب) is a fertile depression lying mainly in the Al-Suqaylabiyah District in northwest Syria.
Al-Kiswah (الكسوة also spelled Kissoué/Kiswe) is a city in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, Syria.
Al-Masdar News (sometimes abbreviated AMN) (المصدر نيوز) is an online newspaper founded by Leith Abou Fadel.
Al-Qutayfah (القطيفة) is a city in Syria, administratively belonging to the Rif Dimashq Governorate, capital of the al-Qutayfah District.
Al-Zabadani or Az-Zabadani (الزبداني) is a city and popular hill station in southwestern Syria in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, close to the border with Lebanon.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
General Ali Abdullah Ayyoub (علي عبد الله أيوب) (born 28 April 1952 in Latakia) is a senior Syrian military commander and current Minister of Defense of the Syrian Arab Army.
Ali Haydar (علي حيدر), known as the "father of the Syrian Special Forces", was the commander of the Syrian Special Forces for 26 years and a close confidante to President Hafez al-Assad.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
Ar Ramtha, also known as Al-Ramtha (الرمثا), Romtha, Ramtha, Ramoth, or Ermeith is a city situated in the far northwest of Jordan.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
The Army of the Levant (Armée du Levant) identifies the armed forces of France and then Vichy France which occupied, and were in part recruited from, a portion of the "Levant" during the interwar period and early World War II.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.
An auxiliary force is an organized group supplementing but not directly incorporated in a regular military or police entity.
The Ba'ath Brigades (Katā'ib al-Baʿth), also known as the Ba'ath Battalions, are a volunteer militia made up of Syrian Ba'ath Party members, almost entirely of Sunni Muslims from Syria and many Arab countries, loyal to the Syrian Government of Bashar al-Assad.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Banias (بانياس الحولة; בניאס) is the Arabic and modern Hebrew name of an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god Pan.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Raqqa (March 2013), code named by rebels as the "Raid of the Almighty", was a battle for control of the northern Syrian city of Raqqa during the Syrian Civil War between mainly Sunni Islamist rebel insurgents and the Syrian Army.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.
A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border control, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Carnegie Middle East Center (CMEC) is a think tank and research center dealing with public policy in the Middle East.
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Darayya (داريا) is a suburb of Damascus in Syria, the centre of Darayya lying south-west of the centre of Damascus.
The Defense Companies (سرايا الدفاع; Saraya ad-Difa) were a paramilitary force in Syria that were commanded by Rifaat al-Assad.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
The Desert Hawks Brigade (لواء صقور الصحراء, liwāʾ suqūr aṣ-ṣaḥrāʾ, Liwa Suqur al-Sahara) was an armed private militia branch affiliated with the Syrian Arab Army which fought on the side of the Syrian government in the Syrian Civil War.
Deutsche Presse-Agentur GmbH (DPA; German Press Agency) is a German news agency founded in 1949.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The ERDL pattern, also known as the Leaf pattern, is a camouflage pattern developed by the United States Army at its Engineer Research & Development Laboratories (ERDL) in 1948.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Golan (גּולן; جولان or) is the name of a biblical town later known from the works of Josephus (first century CE) and Eusebius (Onomasticon, early 4th century CE).
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Husni al-Za'im (11 May 1897 – 14 August 1949) (حسني الزعيم) was a Syrian military man and politician.
Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.
Independent Online, or IOL is a news and information website based in South Africa.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct-fire support.
The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) is a United States–based think tank founded in 2007 by Kimberly Kagan.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irbid (إربد), known in ancient times as Arabella or Arbela, is the capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Islamist uprising in Syria comprised a series of revolts and armed insurgencies by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood from 1976 until 1982.
Jane's Defence Weekly (abbreviated as JDW) is a weekly magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, edited by Peter Felstead.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French), is the military of the Lebanese Republic.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Guardians of Syria Forces - Lions of Hussein (Quwat Humat Souriya - Usud al-Hussein), formerly known as Lions of Hussein Brigade (Liwa Usud al-Hussein) and often shortened to Lions of Hussein, are an Alawite militia which fights for the Ba'athist government during the Syrian Civil War.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
The March 1949 Syrian coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état that took place on 30 March, and was the first military coup in modern Syrian history which overthrew the country's democratically elected government.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
The Ministry of Defense is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for defense affairs in Syria.
Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Sheikh") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon) is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system.
Mushir (مشير) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor".
Mustafa Ahmad al-Sheikh (مصطفى أحمد الشيخ) was the founder and head of the Free Syrian Army's Higher Military Council in 2012, during the Syrian Civil War.
The National Defence Forces (NDF) (قوات الدفاع الوطني Quwāt ad-Difāʿ al-Watanī) is a pro-government militia, formed after summer 2012 and organized by the Syrian government during the Syrian Civil War as a part-time volunteer reserve component of the Syrian Armed Forces.
On 7 October 2015, shortly after the start of the Russian air campaign in Syria, the Syrian government forces and its allies launched a ground offensive against anti-government positions in northwestern Syria, initially in northern Hama Governorate.
The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJ) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU).
The Order of Umayyad (Arabic: وسام أمية الوطني) is the highest knighthood order of Syria.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
OTR-21 Tochka (оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка» ("dot"); Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile.
The P-15 Termit (П-15 "Термит"; termite) is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s.
The P-800 Oniks (П-800 Оникс; Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Яхонт; ruby), is a Soviet/Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Pan Am Flight 121 was a scheduled Pan American World Airways flight from Karachi to Istanbul.
Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT, pronounced) is a combat helmet and ballistic vest that was used by the United States military from the early 1980s until the mid-2000s, when the helmet and vest were succeeded by the Lightweight Helmet (LWH), Modular Integrated Communications Helmet (MICH), and Interceptor body armor (IBA) respectively.
The President of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Syrian Republican Guard (الحرس الجمهوري al-Ḥaras al-Jamhūriyy), also known as the Presidential Guard, is an elite 25,000 man mechanized division.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.
The Royal Jordanian Army (Arabic: القوّات البرية الاردنيّة, "Jordanian Ground Forces") is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russia–Syria–Iran–Iraq coalition (RSII coalition), also referred to as 4+1 (in which the "plus one" refers to Hezbollah of Lebanon), is a joint intelligence-sharing cooperation between opponents of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) with operation rooms in Syria's Damascus and Iraq's Green Zone in Baghdad.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) – is a non-profit academic and diplomatic think tank established by the presidential decree dated 2 February 2010.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
Sami Hilmy al-Hinnawi (محمد سامي حلمي الحناوي) (1898 – October 31, 1950) was a Syrian politician and military officer.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
An anti-aircraft vehicle, also known as a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) or self-propelled air defense system (SPAD), is a mobile vehicle with a dedicated anti-aircraft capability.
Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
A self-propelled gun (SPG) is a form of self-propelled artillery, and in modern use is usually used to refer to artillery pieces such as howitzers.
Shafiq al-Fayadh (1937 – 8 October 2015) (شفيق الفياض) was the commander of the Syrian 3rd Division and a close adviser to President Hafez al-Assad.
The Siege of Wadi Deif refers to the siege of two Syrian Army bases, Wadi Deif and Hamadiyah (both just outside Maarrat al-Nu'man), by rebel forces, during the 2014 Idlib offensive of the Syrian Civil War.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
The SSh-68, Russian: СШ-68 (стальной шлем образца 1968 года/stalnoy shlyem, or steel helmet) (English: SSh-68 steel helmet model 1968) - is a combat steel combat helmet of the Soviet and then Russian Armed Forces.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea.
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية, Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Faouj Maghawir al-Bahr (فوج مغاوير البحر, meaning "Marines Regiment") or the Syrian Marines is a unit based in the Latakia Governorate.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (الاحتلال السوري للبنان, Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank that was first introduced 1961.
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
A tactical ballistic missile (TBM) (or battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM)) is a ballistic missile designed for short-range battlefield use.
Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (transliteration:, "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham and abbreviated HTS, also known as al-Qaeda in Syria, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
Tartus Governorate (مُحافظة طرطوس / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ṭarṭūs) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Tiger Forces or Qawat Al-Nimr (قوات النمر) is an elite formation (special forces unit) of the Syrian Arab Army which functions primarily as an offensive unit in the Syrian Civil War.
Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (May 3, 1916 – June 5, 1995) was a colonel, United States Army, retired, soldier and noted military historian.
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.
The Yarmuk River (نهر اليرموك,, or شريعة المناذرة,; נהר הירמוך,; Hieromices), sometimes spelled Yarmouk, is the largest tributary of the Jordan River.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The 10th Mechanised Division is a division of the Syrian Arab Army, currently engaged in the Syrian Civil War.
The 122-mm howitzer D-30 (GRAU index 2A18) is a Soviet howitzer that first entered service in the 1960s.
The 14th Special Forces Division is a division of the Syrian Armed Forces specializing in light infantry operations.
The 15th Special Forces Division is a division of the Syrian Armed Forces specializing in light infantry operations, based in the As-Suwayda Governorate, and headed by Major General Ghassan Al Yasmina.
The 17th Reserve Division is a formation of the Syrian Army responsible for north-eastern Syria.
The 18th Armoured Division is one of two autonomous reserve divisions of the Syrian Arab Army, the other being the 17th Division.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1954 Syrian coup d'état took place in February of that year to overthrow the government of Adib Shishakli.
The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (ثورة الثامن من آذار), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
The 1966 Syrian coup d'état refers to events between 21 and 23 February in which the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced.
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
The 1st Armoured Division is a division of the Syrian Arab Army.
The 1st Corps is an army corps of the Syrian Army, first formed in the 1980s.
The 2015–16 Latakia offensive was a campaign of the Syrian Civil War that was launched by government forces in October 2015 to recapture rebel-held territory in the Latakia Governorate bordering Turkey.
The 2016 Latakia offensive, code-named Battle of Yarmouk, refers to a rebel operation launched in the northern Latakia Governorate in late June 2016.
The 3rd Armoured Division is a formation of the Syrian Army responsible for securing the northern approach to Damascus.
The 4th Armoured Division (الفرقة الرابعة Al-Firqa ar-Rābiʿah) is an elite formation of the Syrian Army whose primary purpose is to defend the Syrian government from internal and external threats.
The 5th Mechanized Division is a division of the Syrian Arab Army.
The 7th Mechanized Division is a division of the Syrian Arab Army, currently engaged in the Syrian Civil War.
The 9K52 Luna-M (Луна; moon) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system.
The 9th Armoured Division is a division of the Syrian Army, established after 1970.