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Syrian Turkmen

Index Syrian Turkmen

Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918). [1]

265 relations: Abdurrahman Mustafa, Abu Khalil Qabbani, Abyad wa Aswad, Adib Shishakli, Adil Şan, Ahmad Nami, Akshamsaddin, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), Al Bawaba, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera English, Al Sharq Forum, Al-Assad family, Al-Azm family, Al-Bab, Al-Badrusiyah, Al-Hasakah, Al-Qalqashandi, Al-Rai, Syria, Alasdair Drysdale, Aleppo, Aleppo Governorate, Aleppo Sanjak, Alevism, Aliye Rona, Alwatan, American University of Beirut, Amnesty International, Anatolia, Ankara, Aqrab, Arab Reform Initiative, Arabic, Arabization, Arabs, Arabs in Turkey, Armenians in Syria, Atabeg, Atassi family, Atul Singh, Azaz, Aziz al-Azmeh, İskenderun, Bahri dynasty, Baibars, Balkans, Barry Rubin, Bashar al-Assad, Bashir al-Azma, Battle of al-Rai (August 2016), ..., Bayırbucak, BBC, Bedouin, Bektashi Order, Birth rate, Brill Publishers, Burhan Asaf Belge, Burj Qa'i, Cairo, Cambridge University Press, Cemil Bilsel, Central Asia, Chechens, Circassians, Columbia University, Council on Foreign Relations, Crusades, Cune Press, Damascus, Damascus Governorate, Damat, Daniel Pipes, Daraa, Daraa Governorate, Dawn Chatty, Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Duke University Press, Edessa, Edward Elgar Publishing, Encyclopædia Britannica, Euphrates, Europe, Fief, Firas Tlass, Flag of Turkey, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Free Syrian Army, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Gaziantep, Gharnatah, Golan Heights, Hafez al-Assad, Hala Shawkat, Hama, Hama Governorate, Harrassowitz Verlag, Hasan Turkmani, Hatay Province, Hatay State, Hürriyet Daily News, Hetq Online, Homs, Homs Governorate, Houla, Huda Naamani, Humat ad-Diyar, Husni al-Za'im, I.B. Tauris, Idlib, Idlib Governorate, Imad ad-Din Zengi, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi Turkmens, Islam, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Israel, Jamestown Foundation, Jamil Mardam Bey, Jarabulus, Jonathan Spyer, Jordan, Kessab, Khaled Khoja, Khalil Mardam Bey, Kilis, Kinship, Krak des Chevaliers, Kurdish languages, Kurds, Language island, Latakia, Latakia Governorate, League of Nations, Lebanon, Leuven University Press, List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War, List of Presidents of Syria, List of rulers of Mosul, Loanword, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Mahmud Kâmil Pasha, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Manaf Tlass, Margat, Mütesellim, Mehmed Fuad Carim, Mehmet Şandır, Mehrdad Izady, Middle East, Minority Rights Group International, Muhittin Kurtiş, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mustafa Naima, Mustafa Tlass, Nadia al-Ghazzi, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, Nawar (people), Nikolaos van Dam, Nizar Qabbani, Northern al-Bab offensive (September 2016), Nur ad-Din (died 1174), Ohio State University, Operation Euphrates Shield, Osman I, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Oxford University Press, Pakize Tarzi, Palgrave Macmillan, People's Protection Units, Polymath, Princeton University Press, Qalamun Mountains, Qara, Syria, Quneitra, Quneitra Governorate, Rana Kabbani, Raqqa, Raqqa Governorate, Reşit Ronabar, Refi Cevat Ulunay, Refugee Studies Centre, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Rim Turkmani, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Rural area, Russia, Sabah Qabbani, Sadiq Jalal al-Azm, Said al-Ghazzi, Salma Mardam Bey, Sami Sabit Karaman, Sanjak, Sati' al-Husri, Selim I, Seljuk Brigade, Seljuk Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Shia Islam, Shukri al-Quwatli, Sputnik (news agency), Suat Hayri Ürgüplü, Subhi Bey Barakat, Suleyman Shah, Sultan Murad Division, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syria Turkmen Bloc, Syria Vilayet, Syria–Turkey border, Syria–Turkey relations, Syrian Army, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Democratic Forces, Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement, Syrian Republic (1930–63), Syrian Turkmen Assembly, Syrian Turkmen Brigades, Syrians, Talaf, Talal Silo, Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Tartus Governorate, Taylor & Francis, Tell Abyad, The Australian, The National (Abu Dhabi), The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The Stationery Office, The Voice: la plus belle voix, Tomb of Suleyman Shah, Treaty of Ankara, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire, Turkish people, Turkish Policy Quarterly, Turkmen Mountain, Turkmenistan, Turks in Egypt, Turks in Lebanon, Turks in the Arab world, Umm al-Tuyour, Latakia Governorate, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Human Rights Council, United States, University of Oxford, University of Szeged, University of Texas Press, University Press of America, Urban area, Urfa, Vassal, Vital Cuinet, Wilayah, Yasser al-Azma, Yayladağı, Yazidis in Syria, Yörüks, Yusuf al-'Azma, Zeki Pasha, Zengid dynasty. Expand index (215 more) »

Abdurrahman Mustafa

Abdurrahman Mustafa (born 1964) is the incumbent president of the Syrian Turkmen Assembly, the umbrella organization of the Turkmen political movements in Syria, and the political leader of the Turkmen national movement of Syria.

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Abu Khalil Qabbani

Abu Khalil Qabbani (أبو خليل القباني / ALA-LC: Abū Khalīl al-Qabbānī; 1835–1902) was a Syrian playwright and composer of Turkish origin.

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Abyad wa Aswad

Abyad wa Aswad ("Black and White" in English) is an Arabic independent weekly political culture magazine published in Damascus, Syria.

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Adib Shishakli

Adib Bin Hassan Al-Shishakli (أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي, Edip Çiçekli; 1909 – 27 September 1964) was a Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–54).

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Adil Şan

Adil Şan (born September 12, 1980) is a Syrian and Turkish singer and poet.

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Ahmad Nami

"Al-Damad" Ahmad Nami or "Damat" Ahmet Nami (أحمد نامي) (11 May 1879 – 13 December 1962) was an Ottoman prince (damat), the 5th Prime Minister of Syria and 2nd President of Syria (1926–28), and a lecturer of History and Politics.

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Akshamsaddin

Akshamsaddin (Muhammad Shams al-Din bin Hamzah, Ak Şemsettin) (b. 1389, Damascus - d. 16 February 1459, Göynük, Bolu), was an influential Ottoman religious scholar, poet, and mystic saint.

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Al Akhbar (Lebanon)

Al Akhbar (الأخبار, literally "The News") is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut.

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Al Bawaba

Al Bawaba (البوابة, Arabic for "the portal" or "the gate") is a news, blogging and media website headquartered in Amman, Jordan with an office in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Al Jazeera English

Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.

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Al Sharq Forum

Al Sharq Forum (منتدى الشرق) is an independent pro-democracy, non-partisan, non-profit, think-tank focusing on the greater Middle East.

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Al-Assad family

The al-Assad family (عائِلَة الأَسَد) has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad became President of Syria in 1971 and established an authoritarian government under the control of the Ba'ath Party.

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Al-Azm family

Al-Azm family (آل العظم) is a prominent Damascene family.

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Al-Bab

Al-Bab (الباب / ALA-LC: al-Bāb) is a city, de-jure administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate of the Syrian Arab Republic.

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Al-Badrusiyah

Al-Badrusiyah or El-Badrusiyeh (Arabic: البدروسية) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located north of Latakia.

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Al-Hasakah

Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.

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Al-Qalqashandi

Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.

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Al-Rai, Syria

Çobanbey (Çobanbey, جوبان باي) or Chobān Bayk (Chobān Bāyk) also known as Al-Rai (الراعي; al-Ra'i or al-Rayi), is a small town in northern Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.

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Alasdair Drysdale

Alasdair Drysdale (born 1950) is professor emeritus of geography and formerly associate dean of the College of Liberal Arts at the University of New Hampshire.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Aleppo Governorate

Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Aleppo Sanjak

The Aleppo Sanjak (Haleb Sancağı) was a prefecture (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire, located in modern-day Syria and Turkey.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Aliye Rona

Aliye Rona, née Dilligil, (1921 – August 29, 1996) was a Turkish film actress starring in more than 130 movies, mostly of drama and romance genre, from 1947 until her death.

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Alwatan

Alwatan (الوطن, The Homeland) is a daily Arabic newspaper published in Oman and distributed internationally.

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American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB); الجامعة الأمريكية في بيروت) is a private, secular and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut (AUB) are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents. The university is ranked number 1 in the Arab region and 235 in the world in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences in Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the University of Paris. The current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, MD. The American University of Beirut (AUB) boasts an operating budget of $380 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, formerly known as AUH – American University Hospital) (420 beds), four libraries, three museums and seven dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB graduates reside in more than 120 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Aqrab

Aqrab (عقرب, also spelled Akrab) is a Town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located southwest of Hama.

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Arab Reform Initiative

The Arab Reform Initiative (مبادرة الإصلاح العربي), or simply the ARI, is a leading independent think-tank consisting of a network of independent Arab research and policy institutes, with partners from the Middle East, the Maghreb, Europe, South America, and the United States.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabization

Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arabs in Turkey

Arabs in Turkey (العرب في تركيا, Türkiye'deki Araplar) refers to citizens and residents of Turkey who are ethnically Arab.

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Armenians in Syria

The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.

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Atabeg

Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.

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Atassi family

Atassi, also spelled Atasi (الأتاسي) is the name of a prominent family in Homs, Syria, of a noble and ancient lineage, dating back to the 15th century AD.

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Atul Singh

Atul Singh is an Indian-born former lawyer, university lecturer, and the founder, CEO and editor-in-chief of Fair Observer.

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Azaz

Azaz (أعزاز A‘zāz, Hurrian: Azazuwa, Azázion, Neo-Assyrian: Ḫazazu, Old Aramaic: Ḥzz) is a city in northwestern Syria, roughly north-northwest of Aleppo.

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Aziz al-Azmeh

Aziz Al-Azmeh (Arabic: عزيز العظمة) (born July 24, 1947) is a Syrian academic and professor at the Department of History, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

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İskenderun

İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

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Bahri dynasty

The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.

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Baibars

Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Barry Rubin

Barry M. Rubin (28 January 1950 – February 3, 2014) was an American-born Israeli writer and academic on terrorism and Middle Eastern affairs.

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Bashar al-Assad

Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.

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Bashir al-Azma

Bashir al-Azma (1910–1992) (بشير العظَمة), was a Syrian doctor and politician.

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Battle of al-Rai (August 2016)

The Battle of al-Rai was a battle in August 2016 between the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in the border town of al-Rai, part of the northern Aleppo Governorate on the border with Turkey, which resulted in the FSA capturing the town.

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Bayırbucak

Bayirbucak (Bayırbucak) is a region in northwestern of Syria that has a long border with Turkey.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bedouin

The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Bektashi Order

Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Burhan Asaf Belge

Burhan Asaf Belge (February 1, 1899 – January 12, 1967) was a figure among the young intellectuals during the early periods of Republic of Turkey and served as the representative of Muğla province during the 11th term of Turkish National Assembly.

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Burj Qa'i

Burj Qa'i (برج قاعي, also spelled Burj al-Qa'y or simply al-Burj) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located northwest of Homs.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cemil Bilsel

Professor Cemil Bilsel (1879–1949) was a Turkish lawyer, academic, and politician.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chechens

Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cune Press

Cune Press is a Seattle-based US publisher.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Damascus Governorate

Damascus Governorate (مُحافظة دمشق) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Damat

Damat (damat, from داماد (dâmâd) "bridegroom") was an official Ottoman title describing men that entered the imperial House of Osman by means of marriage, literally becoming the bridegroom to the Ottoman sultan and the dynasty.

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Daniel Pipes

Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian, writer, and commentator.

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Daraa

Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic:, also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera'a, Dera, Derʿā and Edrei; means "fortress", compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria, located about north of the border with Jordan.

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Daraa Governorate

Dara`a Governorate (مُحافظة درعا / ALA-LC) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Dawn Chatty

Dawn Chatty, FBA (born 16 October 1947) is an American social anthropologist and academic, who specialises in the Middle East, nomadic pastoral tribes, and refugees.

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Democratic Federation of Northern Syria

The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.

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Duke University Press

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.

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Edessa

Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.

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Edward Elgar Publishing

Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fief

A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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Firas Tlass

Firas Mustafa Tlass (born 20 August 1960) is a Syrian business tycoon and a member of a significant Sunni family who had close relations with former Syrian President Hafez al-Assad, but defected to the rebels during the Syrian Civil War.

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Flag of Turkey

The flag of Turkey (Türk bayrağı) is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Free Syrian Army

The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.

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French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.

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Gaziantep

Gaziantep, previously and still informally called Antep (Այնթապ, Kurdish: Dîlok), is a city in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some east of Adana and north of Aleppo, Syria.

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Gharnatah

Al-Ghajar (El-Kacer, Al-Ghārjar) or Gharnatah (El-Gırnata, al-Gharnātah, also known as Ghajar Amir) is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of the Rastan District, located north of Homs.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.

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Hala Shawkat

Fatma Turkan Shawkat (فاطمة توركان شوكت), better known by her stage name Hala Shawkat (هالة شوكت), was a Syrian actress.

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Hama

Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.

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Hama Governorate

Hama Governorate (مُحافظة حماة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥamā) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Harrassowitz Verlag

Harrassowitz Verlag is a German academic publishing house, based in Wiesbaden.

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Hasan Turkmani

Hasan Ali Turkmani (حسن توركماني; 27 January 1935 – 18 July 2012) was a prominent Syrian military commander and Ba'ath Party member, who served as minister of defense from 2004 to 2009.

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Hatay Province

Hatay Province (Hatay ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya (Antioch), and the other major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun (Alexandretta). It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova (Cilicia), a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı. Sovereignty over the province remains disputed with neighbouring Syria, which claims that the province was separated from itself against the stipulations of the French Mandate of Syria in the years following Syria's independence from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it.

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Hatay State

Hatay State (Hatay Devleti, État du Hatay, دولة خطاي Dawlat Khaṭāy), also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria.

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Hürriyet Daily News

The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.

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Hetq Online

Hetq Online or Hetq (Հետք, meaning The Trace) is an online newspaper published in Yerevan by the Investigative Journalists NGO.

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Homs

Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.

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Homs Governorate

Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Houla

The Houla Region or Houla Plain (الحولة al-Ḥūlāh) is an area consisting of three villages in the Homs Governorate of central Syria, northwest of the city of Homs.

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Huda Naamani

Huda Naamani (also known as Houda Naamani, Hoda Naamani,or Houda K. Al-Naamani) (Arabic: هدى نعمانىِ) is a Damascus-born Arab feminist writer, poet, publisher, and artist.

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Humat ad-Diyar

"Ḥumāt ad-Diyār" (حماة الديار, translated "Guardians of the Homeland") is the national anthem of Syria, with lyrics written by Khalil Mardam Bey and the music by Mohammed Flayfel, who also composed the national anthem of the Palestinian state (now used as the national anthem of Iraq), as well as many other Arab folk songs.

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Husni al-Za'im

Husni al-Za'im (11 May 1897 – 14 August 1949) (حسني الزعيم) was a Syrian military man and politician.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Idlib

Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.

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Idlib Governorate

Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Imad ad-Din Zengi

Imad ad-Din Zengi (عماد الدین زنكي; – 14 September 1146), also romanized as Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, and Zanki, was a Oghuz Turkish atabeg who ruled Mosul, Aleppo, Hama, and Edessa.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Iraqi Turkmens

The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jamestown Foundation

The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.

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Jamil Mardam Bey

Jamil Mardam Bey (جميل مردم بك; Cemil Mardam Bey; 1893–1960), was a Syrian politician.

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Jarabulus

Jarabulus (جرابلس / ALA-LC: Jarābulus; Cerablus, North Syrian Arabic: Jrāblos), is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Aleppo Governorate.

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Jonathan Spyer

Jonathan Spyer (יונתן ספייר, جوناثان سباير) is a British-Israeli analyst, writer, and journalist of Middle Eastern affairs.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Kessab

Kessab, Kesab or Kasab (كسب, Քեսապ, Kesab) is a mostly Armenian-populated town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located 59 kilometers north of Latakia.

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Khaled Khoja

Khaled Khoja (خالد خوجة, Halid Hoca; born 4 July 1965) is a Syrian opposition politician.

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Khalil Mardam Bey

Khalil Mardam Bek (1895–1959) (خليل مردم بك Halil Mardam Bey) was a Syrian poet and critique who is most notable for composing the lyrics of the Syrian National Anthem.

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Kilis

Kilis (كلز Killiz; Kilîs) is a city in south-central Turkey, near the border with Syria, and the administrative centre of Kilis Province.

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Kinship

In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Krak des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Language island

A language island is an exclave of a language that is surrounded by one or more different languages.

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Latakia

Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.

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Latakia Governorate

Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Leuven University Press

Leuven University Press (Universitaire Pers Leuven) is a university press located in Leuven, Belgium.

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List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War

A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.

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List of Presidents of Syria

This article lists the Presidents of Syria since 1920.

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List of rulers of Mosul

This is a list of the rulers of the Iraqi city of Mosul.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lynne Rienner Publishers

Lynne Rienner Publishers is an independent scholarly and textbook publishing firm based in Boulder, CO.

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Mahmud Kâmil Pasha

Mahmud Kâmil Pasha (1880; Aleppo -June 1922; Constantinople (Istanbul)) was a general of the Ottoman Army.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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Manaf Tlass

Manaf Tlass or Manaf Tlas (مناف طلاس; born 1964) is a former Brigadier General of the Syrian Republican Guard and member of Bashar al-Assad's inner circle who defected in 2012.

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Margat

Margat, also known as Marqab from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab (قلعة المرقب, "Castle of the Watchtower") is a castle near Baniyas, Syria, which was a Crusader fortress and one of the major strongholds of the Knights Hospitaller.

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Mütesellim

Mütesellim or mutesellim was an Ottoman gubernatorial title used to describe mainly the head of a ''nahiye'', but also other positions within the Ottoman hierarchy, depending on the context.

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Mehmed Fuad Carim

Mehmed Fuad Carim (1892; Ottoman Aleppo - 1972; Istanbul, Turkey) was a Turkish politician and diplomat.

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Mehmet Şandır

Mehmet Şandır (born in 1947, in Bayırbucak, Syria) is a Turkish politician.

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Mehrdad Izady

Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady or Michael Izady (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East, and Kurds.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Minority Rights Group International

Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.

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Muhittin Kurtiş

Muhittin Kurtiş (1876; Damascus, Ottoman Empire - 1951; Istanbul, Turkey) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the general of the Turkish Army.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Mustafa Naima

Mustafa Naima (مصطفى نعيما; Muṣṭafā Na'īmā; 1655 – 1716) was an Ottoman bureaucrat and historian who wrote the chronicle known as the Tārīḫ-i Na'īmā (Naima's History).

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Mustafa Tlass

Mustafa Abdul Qadir Tlass (مصطفى طلاس; 11 May 1932 – 27 June 2017) was a Syrian senior military officer and politician who was Syria's minister of defense from 1972 to 2004.

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Nadia al-Ghazzi

Nadia al-Ghazzi (نادية الغزي, born in 1935) is a Syrian lawyer and writer.

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National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.

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Nawar (people)

Nawar is an Arabic term for several sedentary communities used primarily in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine.

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Nikolaos van Dam

Nikolaos (Koos) van Dam (born 1 April 1945) is a Dutch scholar and author on the Middle East.

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Nizar Qabbani

Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani (نزار توفيق قباني) (21 March 1923 – 30 April 1998) was a Syrian diplomat, poet and publisher.

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Northern al-Bab offensive (September 2016)

The northern al-Bab offensive (September 2016) was a military offensive and part of the third phase of Operation Euphrates Shield launched by the Turkish Armed Forces and factions from the Free Syrian Army and allied groups, with the goal of capturing the city of al-Bab located north of Aleppo.

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Nur ad-Din (died 1174)

Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.

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Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.

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Operation Euphrates Shield

Operation Euphrates Shield (Fırat Kalkanı Harekâtı) was a cross-border operation by the Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War which led to the Turkish occupation of northern Syria. Operations were carried out in the region between the Euphrates river to the east and the rebel-held area around Azaz to the west. The Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian rebel groups, some of which used the Free Syrian Army label, fought against forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as well as against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) from 24 August 2016. On 29 March 2017, the Turkish military officially announced that Operation Euphrates Shield was "successfully completed". The Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said on the first day of the operation that it was aimed against both the ISIL and Syrian Kurdish "terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria". The objective to capture Manbij, under the de facto control of the Rojava administration, that had been promulgated by the Turkish president at the end of February 2017 remained unfulfilled.

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Osman I

Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakize Tarzi

Pakize İzzet Tarzi (1910–2004) was a Turkish physician.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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People's Protection Units

The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Qalamun Mountains

The Qalamun Mountains (جبال القلمون) are the northeastern portion of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, and they are located northeast of the Syrian capital Damascus.

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Qara, Syria

Qara or Kara (قارة) is a Syrian city in the An-Nabek District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate.

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Quneitra

Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة al-Qunayṭrah) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria.

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Quneitra Governorate

Quneitra Governorate (مُحافظة القنيطرة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Al-Qunayṭrah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Rana Kabbani

Rana Kabbani (رنا قباني) (born 1958) is a British Syrian cultural historian, writer and broadcaster who lives in London.

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Raqqa

Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.

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Raqqa Governorate

Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Reşit Ronabar

Mektubîzade M. Reşit Ronabar Pasha, commonly known as Reşit Ronabar or Reşit Pasha (born in 1868 in Damascus, Ottoman Syria - died in 1924 in the Republic of Turkey) was an Ottoman governor who served in the Balkans, Edirne, Kastamonu, Ankara, Sivas, and several other locations in the Mediterranean.

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Refi Cevat Ulunay

Refi Cevat Ulunay (1890-1968) was a Turkish writer, and a controversial journalist and novelist during the Ottoman era.

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Refugee Studies Centre

The Refugee Studies Centre (RSC) was established in 1982, as part of the University of Oxford's Department of International Development (Queen Elizabeth House), in order to promote the understanding of the causes and consequences of forced migration and to improve the lives of some of the world’s most marginalised people.

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.

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Rim Turkmani

Rim Turkmani is a Syrian-born astrophysicist formerly at Imperial College London and Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellow of the Royal Society.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sabah Qabbani

Sabah Qabbani (صباح قبّاني; June 5, 1928 – January 1, 2015) was appointed ambassador of Syria to the United States by President Hafez Al-Asad in 1974.

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Sadiq Jalal al-Azm

Sadiq Jalal Al-Azm (صادق جلال العظم Ṣādiq Jalāl al-‘Aẓm; 1934 – December 11, 2016) was a Professor Emeritus of Modern European Philosophy at the University of Damascus in Syria and was, until 2007, a visiting professor in the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University.

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Said al-Ghazzi

Said Al-Ghazzi (سعيد الغزي) (11 June 1893 ‎ – 18 September 1967) was a Syrian lawyer, politician and two time prime minister of Syria.

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Salma Mardam Bey

Salma Mardam Bey (سلمى مردم بك Selma Mardam Bey) is a Syrian writer and historian.

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Sami Sabit Karaman

Sami Sabit Karaman (1877; Damascus - 1957; ?) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.

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Sanjak

Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sati' al-Husri

Sāṭi` al-Ḥuṣrī (ساطع الحصري; Mustafa Satı Bey, August 1880 – 1968) was an Ottoman and Syrian writer, educationalist and an influential Arab nationalist thinker in the 20th century.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Seljuk Brigade

The Seljuk Brigade (Selçuklular Tugayı, لواء السلاجقة), is a Syrian Turkmen rebel group participating in the Syrian Civil War, named after the Seljuk Turks.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shukri al-Quwatli

Shukri al-Quwatli (6 May 189130 June 1967; شكري القوتلي, Şükrü el Kuvvetli) was the first president of post-independence Syria.

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Sputnik (news agency)

Sputnik (formerly The Voice of Russia and RIA Novosti) is a news agency, news website platform and radio broadcast service established by the Russian government-controlled news agency Rossiya Segodnya.

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Suat Hayri Ürgüplü

Ali Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (13 August 1903, Damascus, Ottoman Empire – 26 December 1981, Istanbul, Turkey) was a Turkish politician.

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Subhi Bey Barakat

Subhi Bey Barakat al-Khalidi or Suphi Bereket (صبحي بك بركات الخالدي Suphi Bereket; 1889, Antioch – 1939, Turkey) was a Syrian politician from Antioch, born into a family of Turkish origin.

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Suleyman Shah

Suleyman Shah (سلیمان شاه; Modern Süleyman Şah) was, according to Ottoman tradition, the son of Kaya Alp and the father of Ertuğrul, who was, in turn, the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sultan Murad Division

The Sultan Murad Division (فرقة السلطان مراد; Firqat al-Sultan Murad, Sultan Murat Tümeni) is an armed rebel group in the Syrian Civil War, created around Syrian Turkmen identity.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syria Turkmen Bloc

The Syria Turkmen Bloc (Suriye Türkmen Kitlesi) or Syrian Turkmen National Bloc (الكتلة الوطنية التركمانية السورية), is one of the two major opposition movements of Syrian Turkmens.

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Syria Vilayet

The Vilayet of Syria (Vilâyet-i Suriye), also known as Vilayet of Damascus,.

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Syria–Turkey border

The border between the Syrian Arab Republic and the Republic of Turkey is about long.

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Syria–Turkey relations

Turkey shares its longest common border with Syria; various geographic and historical links also tie the two neighboring countries together.

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Syrian Army

The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Syrian Democratic Forces

The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.

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Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement

The Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement (Suriye Demokratik Türkmen Hareketi; الحركة التركمانية الديمقراطية) is one of the two major opposition movements of Syrian Turkmens.

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Syrian Republic (1930–63)

The Syrian Republic was a period in the history of Syria which lasted from 1930 to 1963.

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Syrian Turkmen Assembly

The Syrian Turkmen Assembly (Suriye Türkmen Meclisi, المجلس السوري التركماني) is a coalition of Syrian Turkmen political parties and groups representing Syrian Turkmens in the Syrian National Council and the Syrian National Coalition.

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Syrian Turkmen Brigades

Syrian Turkmen Brigades (Suriye Türkmen Tugayları), also called the United Turkmen Army (Birleşik Türkmen Ordusu), are an informal armed opposition structure composed of Syrian Turkmen and Turks that form the military wing of the Syrian Turkmen Assembly, primarily fighting against the Syrian Armed Forces, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Democratic Forces.

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Syrians

Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.

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Talaf

Talaf (Toulouf) or Tallaf (Tıllıf, Tullif) is a village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located southwest of Hama.

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Talal Silo

Talal (Ali) Silo (or Telal Silo, Talal Sallou) was the official Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) spokesperson until his surrender or defection to Turkey in November 2017.

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Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf

Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf ash-Shami al-Asadi (Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي, Turkish: Takiyüddin or Taki) (1526–1585) was an Ottoman polymath active in Constantinople.

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Tartus Governorate

Tartus Governorate (مُحافظة طرطوس / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ṭarṭūs) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tell Abyad

Tell Abyad (lit, Girê Spî, Tellebyad,Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — November 2011, 33 pages. Թել Աբյադ, ܬܠ ܐܒܝܕ) is a town and nahiya in Syria.

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The Australian

The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.

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The National (Abu Dhabi)

The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Stationery Office

The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.

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The Voice: la plus belle voix

The Voice: la plus belle voix (The Voice: the Most Beautiful Voice) is a reality singing competition on TF1.

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Tomb of Suleyman Shah

The Tomb of Suleyman Shah (Süleyman Şah Türbesi) is, according to Ottoman tradition, the grave (tomb, mausoleum) housing the relics of Suleyman Shah (c. 1178–1236), grandfather of Osman I (d. 1323/4), the founder of the Ottoman Empire.

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Treaty of Ankara

The Ankara Agreement (or the Accord of Ankara; Franklin-Bouillon Agreement; Franco-Turkish Agreement of Ankara, Turkish: Ankara Anlaşması French: Traité d'Ankara) was signed on 20 October 1921"Ankara, Treaty of" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire

The Turkish minorities/communities in the former Ottoman Empire refers to ethnic Turks, who are the descendants of Ottoman-Turkish settlers from Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, living outside of the modern borders of the Republic of Turkey, and in the independent states which were formerly part of the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turkish Policy Quarterly

Turkish Policy Quarterly is an Istanbul-based quarterly magazine aiming to foster original thinking and constructive policy debates on Turkey and its neighborhood.

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Turkmen Mountain

Turkmen Mountain (جبل تركمان; Jabal Turkman, Türkmen Dağı), is a mountain in the north of Latakia region of Syria, in the area called Bayırbucak locally in Turkish, neighboring the Turkish border.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Turks in Egypt

The Turks in Egypt, also referred to as Egyptian Turks, Turkish-Egyptians and Turco-Egyptians (Mısır Türkleri) are Egyptian citizens of partial or full Turkish ancestry, who are the descendants of settlers that arrived in the region during the Tulunid (868–905), Zengid (1127–1250), Mamluk (1250–1517), and Ottoman eras (1517–1867 and 1867–1914).

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Turks in Lebanon

Turks in Lebanon, also known as Lebanese Turks (Lübnan Türkleri), are people of Turkish ancestry that live in Lebanon.

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Turks in the Arab world

The Turks in the Arab world refers to ethnic Turkish people who live in the Arab World.

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Umm al-Tuyour, Latakia Governorate

Turunç (Turunç, Umūl Tūyūr) or Umm al-Tuyour (Umm al-Tūyūr) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located north of Latakia on the Mediterranean coast.

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

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United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Szeged

The University of Szeged (Szegedi Tudományegyetem) is a large research university in Hungary.

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University of Texas Press

The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.

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University Press of America

University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Urfa

Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (Riha); Ուռհա Uṙha in Armenian, and known in ancient times as Edessa, is a city with 561,465 inhabitants in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province.

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Vassal

A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vital Cuinet

Vital-Casimir Cuinet, commonly known as Vital Cuinet (Longeville- December 19, 1833 - Istanbul, September 6, 1896) was a French geographer and orientalist.

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Wilayah

A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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Yasser al-Azma

Yasser al-Azma (ياسر العظمة; born 16 May 1942) is a prominent Syrian writer and actor of television, film, and stage.

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Yayladağı

Yayladağı (اوردو) is a town and district of Hatay Province in southern Turkey, on the border between Turkey and Syria, south of the city of Antakya.

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Yazidis in Syria

Yazidis in Syria may refer to people born in or residing in Syria of full or partial Yazidi origin.

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Yörüks

The Yörüks, also Yuruks or Yorouks (Yörükler;, Youroúkoi; юруци; Јуруци, Juruci), are a Turkish ethnic subgroup, some of whom are nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia, and partly in the Balkan peninsula.

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Yusuf al-'Azma

Yusuf al-'Azma (يوسف العظمة, ALA-LC: Yūsuf al-‘Aẓmah; 9 April 1884 – 24 July 1920) was the Syrian minister of war in the governments of prime ministers Rida al-Rikabi and Hashim al-Atassi, and the Arab Army's chief of general staff under King Faisal.

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Zeki Pasha

Zeki Pasha or Zekki Pasha or Zeki Kolaçİzzettin Çalışlar, On yıllık savaşın günlüğü: Balkan, Birinci Dünya ve İstiklal Savaşları, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1997, or Mehmet Zeki Baraz (Halepli Zeki Paşa; 1862–1943), known as Zeki Baraz Kolaç Kılıçoğlu after the 1934 Surname Law,Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu name, Osmanlı Askerlik Literatürü Tarihi: History of Military Art and Science Literature during the Ottoman Period, İslâm Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi (IRCICA), 2004, was a Turkish Balkan Wars and World War I field marshal of the Ottoman Army.

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Zengid dynasty

The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.

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Redirects here:

Syrian Turkmens, Syrian Turkomans, Syrian Turks, Turkish Syrian, Turkmen in Syria, Turkmens of syria, Turks in Syria, تركمان سوريا.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Turkmen

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