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Index System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole. [1]

128 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, Abstract and concrete, Action research, Béla H. Bánáthy, Behavior, Biosphere 2, Black box, Boundary (topology), Brian Wilson (systems scientist), Business process, Carl Jung, Chaos theory, Closed system, Coffeemaker, Cognitive science, Complex adaptive system, Complex system, Complexity theory and organizations, Component (UML), Computer science, Computing platform, Concept, Conceptual system, Consumption (economics), Convention (norm), Corollary, Culture, Dewey Decimal Classification, Distribution (marketing), Earth, Economics, Educational assessment, Engineering, Environment (systems), Formal system, Galaxy, Geometry, George Boole, George Klir, Glossary of systems theory, Goods, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Greek language, Gulf War, Hierarchy, Human body, Hybrid system, Implementation, Information science, Information system, ..., Institution, Inter-process communication, Isaac Newton, Isolated system, John A. Warden III, John Henry Holland, Kenneth D. Bailey (sociologist), Latin, Living systems, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Management science, Market (economics), Marshall McLuhan, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Mechanics, Meg Wheatley, Meta-system, Michel Crozier, Murray Gell-Mann, Natural science, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Norbert Wiener, Ontology, Open system (systems theory), Operations research, Organic (model), Organization development, Organizational behavior, Organizational studies, Person, Peter Checkland, Peter Senge, Physical system, Physics, Process modeling, Production (economics), Property, Qualitative research, Quantitative research, Quantum mechanics, Reason, Robert L. Flood, Roman numerals, Rudolf Clausius, Santa Fe Institute, Scientific modelling, Self-organization, Service (economics), Sigmund Freud, Social order, Social system, Society, Soft systems methodology, Software system, Solar System, Steam engine, Structure, System dynamics, System of systems, System of systems engineering, Systems analysis, Systems architecture, Systems art, Systems design, Systems engineering, Systems modeling, Systems theory, Taxonomy (general), The Real, Theorem, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamics, Unbounded system, Universe, View model, W. Ross Ashby, Walter F. Buckley, Warden's Five Rings. Expand index (78 more) »

A Greek–English Lexicon

A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.

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Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.

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Action research

Action research is either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.

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Béla H. Bánáthy

Béla Heinrich Bánáthy (Bánáthy Béla; December 1, 1919 – September 4, 2003) was an Hungarian-American linguist, and Professor at San Jose State University and UC Berkeley.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Biosphere 2

Biosphere 2 is an American Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona.

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Black box

In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.

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Boundary (topology)

In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of S not belonging to the interior of S. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set.

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Brian Wilson (systems scientist)

Brian Wilson (born 1933 in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire) is a British systems scientist and honorary professor at Cardiff University, known for his development of soft systems methodology (SSM) and enterprise modelling.

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Business process

A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that in a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal) for a particular customer or customers.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Closed system

A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.

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Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Complex adaptive system

A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Complexity theory and organizations

Complexity theory and organizations, also called complexity strategy or complex adaptive organizations, is the use of the study of complexity systems in the field of strategic management and organizational studies.

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Component (UML)

A component in the Unified Modeling Language "represents a modular part of a system, that encapsulates its content and whose manifestation is replaceable within its environment.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computing platform

A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.

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Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Conceptual system

A conceptual system is a system that is composed of non-physical objects, i.e. ideas or concepts.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

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A corollary is a statement that follows readily from a previous statement.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Dewey Decimal Classification

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876.

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Distribution (marketing)

Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Educational assessment

Educational assessment is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs to refine programs and improve student learning.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Environment (systems)

In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system.

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Formal system

A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Boole

George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.

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George Klir

George Jiří Klir (April 22, 1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia – May 27, 2016 Binghamton, USA) was a Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at Binghamton University in Binghamton, New York.

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Glossary of systems theory

A glossary of terms relating to systems theory.

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In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Hybrid system

A hybrid system is a dynamical system that exhibits both continuous and discrete dynamic behavior – a system that can both flow (described by a differential equation) and jump (described by a state machine or automaton).

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Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.

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Information science

Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

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Information system

An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.

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Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Inter-process communication

In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isolated system

In physical science, an isolated system is either of the following.

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John A. Warden III

John Ashley Warden III (born December 21, 1943) is a retired colonel in the United States Air Force.

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John Henry Holland

John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929 – August 9, 2015) was an American scientist and Professor of psychology and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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Kenneth D. Bailey (sociologist)

Kenneth D. Bailey (born 1943) is an American sociologist, systems scientist and professor of sociology at the University of California in Los Angeles.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Living systems

Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment.

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Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (19 September 1901 – 12 June 1972) was an Austrian biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory (GST).

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Management science

Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Marshall McLuhan

Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Meg Wheatley

Meg Wheatley (born Margaret J. Wheatley in 1944) is an American writer and management consultant who studies organizational behavior.

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Meta-systems have several definitions.

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Michel Crozier

Michel Crozier (6 November 1922, Sainte-Menehould, Marne – 24 May 2013, Paris) was a French sociologist and member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques from 1999 until his death.

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Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".

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Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Open system (systems theory)

An open system is a system that has external interactions.

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Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

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Organic (model)

Organic describes forms, methods and patterns found in living systems such as the organisation of cells, to populations, communities, and ecosystems.

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Organization development

Organization development (OD) is the study of successful organizational change and performance.

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Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself".

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Organizational studies

Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people", organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide alternative frame for understanding in the field.

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A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.

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Peter Checkland

Peter Checkland (born 18 December 1930, in Birmingham, UK) is a British management scientist and emeritus professor of systems at Lancaster University.

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Peter Senge

Peter Michael Senge (born 1947) is an American systems scientist who is a senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of Management, co-faculty at the New England Complex Systems Institute, and the founder of the Society for Organizational Learning.

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Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Process modeling

The term process model is used in various contexts.

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Production (economics)

Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).

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Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.

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Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Robert L. Flood

Robert Louis (Bob) Flood (born 1955) is British organizational scientist, former Professor of Management Sciences at the University of Hull,Flood, Robert Louis.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.

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Santa Fe Institute

The Santa Fe Institute (SFI) is an independent, nonprofit theoretical research institute located in Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) and dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of the fundamental principles of complex adaptive systems, including physical, computational, biological, and social systems.

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Scientific modelling

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.

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Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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Service (economics)

In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Social system

In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Soft systems methodology

Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach to organizational process modeling (business process modeling) and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change.

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Software system

A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

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System dynamics

System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.

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System of systems

System of systems is a collection of task-oriented or dedicated systems that pool their resources and capabilities together to create a new, more complex system which offers more functionality and performance than simply the sum of the constituent systems.

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System of systems engineering

System of systems engineering (SoSE) is a set of developing processes, tools, and methods for designing, re-designing and deploying solutions to system-of-systems challenges.

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Systems analysis

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".

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Systems architecture

A system architecture or systems architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system.

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Systems art

Systems art is art influenced by cybernetics, and systems theory, that reflects on natural systems, social systems and social signs of the art world itself.

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Systems design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.

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Systems engineering

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.

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Systems modeling

Systems modeling or system modeling is the interdisciplinary study of the use of models to conceptualize and construct systems in business and IT development.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.

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The Real

In philosophy, the Real is that which is the authentic, unchangeable truth.

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In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.

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Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Unbounded system

In the theory of dynamical systems, an unbounded system is a system that has no bound; i.e., one that can expand forever with no limit.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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View model

A view model or viewpoints framework in systems engineering, software engineering, and enterprise engineering is a framework which defines a coherent set of views to be used in the construction of a system architecture, software architecture, or enterprise architecture.

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W. Ross Ashby


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Walter F. Buckley

Walter Frederick Buckley (1922 – January 26, 2006) was an American sociologist, and professor of sociology at the University of New Hampshire.

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Warden's Five Rings

Warden's Five Rings represent a theory of military strategic attack, based on five levels of system attributes.

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Redirects here:

Part (system), Referent system, Sub-system, Subsystem, Subsystems, Systems, Systems concept, Syſtem, Syſtems.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System

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