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T–V distinction

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In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee. [1]

396 relations: Abitur, Acadian French, Accusative case, Acts of the Apostles, Adjective, African Americans, Afrikaans, Agreement (linguistics), Albanian language, Alemannic German, Alessandro Manzoni, Amharic, Ancient Greek, Andalusia, Andalusian Spanish, Ansó, Anthem, Arabic, Aragonese language, Armenian language, Australian English, Auxiliary verb, Azerbaijani language, Étienne Pasquier, Baoulé language, Basque language, BBC News Online, Beer, Beijing dialect, Belarusian language, Ben Jonson, Bengali language, Bernese German, Bible, Blog, Blumenau, Bogotá, Bokmål, Bosnian language, Boston, Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese, Breton language, Bulgarian language, Calque, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian French, Canarian Spanish, Canary Islands, Cantonese, ..., Carioca, Carnival, Catalan language, Catholic Church, Central American Spanish, Central Kurdish, Chilean Spanish, Chinese culture, Chinese economic reform, Chinese honorifics, Chinese language, Chinese name, Christopher Marlowe, Clitic, Colombia, Comrade, Constantinople, Cornish language, Costa Rica, Croatian language, Cultural Revolution, Culture of Japan, Culture of Vietnam, Cypriot Greek, Cyprus, Czech language, Dallin H. 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Abitur

Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.

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Acadian French

Acadian French (français acadien) is a dialect of Canadian French originally associated with the Acadian people of what is now the Canadian Maritimes.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Agreement (linguistics)

Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.

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Alemannic German

Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.

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Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.

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Amharic

Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Andalusian Spanish

The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.

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Ansó

Ansó is a town and municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.

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Anthem

An anthem is a musical composition of celebration, usually used as a symbol for a distinct group, particularly the national anthems of countries.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aragonese language

Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Australian English

Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).

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Étienne Pasquier

Étienne Pasquier (7 June 1529 – 1 September 1615) was a French lawyer and man of letters.

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Baoulé language

Baoulé, also called Baule or Bawule, is a Central Tano language spoken in Ivory Coast.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Beijing dialect

The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Ben Jonson

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Bernese German

Bernese German (Standard German: Berndeutsch, Bärndütsch) is the dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Blog

A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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Blumenau

Blumenau is a city in Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, in the South Region of Brazil.

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Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bokmål

Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Boston

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian Portuguese

Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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Calque

In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Canadian French

Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.

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Canarian Spanish

Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de las Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, dialecto canario or vernacular canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cantonese

The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.

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Carioca

Carioca is a demonym used to refer to anything related to the City of Rio de Janeiro as well as its eponymous State of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil.

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Carnival

Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central American Spanish

Central American Spanish (español centroamericano or castellano centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language dialects spoken in Central America.

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Central Kurdish

Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.

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Chilean Spanish

Chilean Spanish (español chileno, español de Chile or castellano de Chile) is any of several varieties of Spanish spoken in most of Chile.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese economic reform

The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.

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Chinese honorifics

Chinese honorifics are words and phrases that indicate social respect or deference in the spoken or written language.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Christopher Marlowe

Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Comrade

The term comrade is used to mean "friend", "mate", "colleague", or "ally", and derives from the Iberian Romance language term camarada, literally meaning "chamber mate", from Latin camera "chamber" or "room".

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.

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Culture of Japan

The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.

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Culture of Vietnam

The cultural of Vietnam (Văn hóa Việt Nam The culture of Vietnam) is one of the oldest in Southeast Asia, with the ancient Bronze age Đông Sơn culture being widely considered one of its most important progenitors.

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Cypriot Greek

Cypriot Greek (Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Dallin H. Oaks

Dallin Harris Oaks (born August 12, 1932) is an American jurist, educator, and religious leader who serves as the First Counselor in the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

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Daniel Bomberg

Daniel Bomberg (d. circa 1549) was one of the most important printers of Hebrew books.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Danish royal family

The Danish royal family consists of the dynastic family of the monarch.

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Danmark (ship)

The Danmark is a full-rigged ship owned by the Danish Maritime Authority and based at the Maritime Training and Education Centre in Frederikshavn, Denmark.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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David Crystal

David Crystal, (born 6 July 1941) is a British linguist, academic and author.

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Deity

A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Diglossia

In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Don (honorific)

Don (Dom, from Latin dominus, roughly 'Lord'), abbreviated as D., is an honorific title used in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Iberoamerica, and the Philippines.

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DSB (railway company)

DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways), is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia.

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Du-reformen

Du-reformen (the you-reform) was the process in the late 1960s of popularization of the second-person singular pronoun du as a universal form of address in Sweden.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dyfed

Dyfed is a preserved county of Wales. It was created on 1 April 1974, as an amalgamation of the three pre-existing counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. It was abolished twenty-two years later, on 1 April 1996, when the three original counties were reinstated, Cardiganshire being renamed Ceredigion the following day. The name "Dyfed" is retained for certain ceremonial and other purposes. It is a mostly rural county in southwestern Wales with a coastline on the Irish Sea and the Bristol Channel.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Dyula language

Jula (or Dyula, Dioula) is a Mande language spoken in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Mali.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Egyptian Arabic

Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.

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Ekoka !Kung

Ekoka !Kung (Ekoka !Xuun, Ekoka-!Xû, !Kung-Ekoka) or Western !Xuun (North-Central Ju) is a variety of the !Kung dialect cluster, spoken originally in the area of the central Namibian–Angolan border, west of the Okavango River, but since the Angolan Civil War also in South Africa.

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Emperor of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English language in Northern England

The English language in Northern England has been shaped by the region's history of settlement and migration, and today encompasses a group of related dialects known as Northern England English (or, simply, Northern English in the United Kingdom).

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Ensign (LDS magazine)

The Ensign of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly shortened to Ensign, is an official periodical of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

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Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.

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Esperanto

Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Estates of the realm

The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Eucharist

The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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European Portuguese

European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.

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Faroese language

Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

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Ferenc Gyurcsány

Ferenc Gyurcsány (born 4 June 1961) is a Hungarian entrepreneur and politician.

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Filipino language

Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.

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Finland Swedish

Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (finlandssvenska, suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Florianópolis

Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil.

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Folketing

The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Four Olds

The Four Olds or the Four Old Things was a term used during the Cultural Revolution of 1966–76 in the People's Republic of China to refer to elements of Chinese culture and thinking that proponents of the Cultural Revolution felt needed to be eradicated in order for China to progress.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Dürrenmatt

Friedrich Dürrenmatt (5 January 1921 – 14 December 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist.

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Fundamento de Esperanto

Fundamento de Esperanto (English: Foundation of Esperanto) is a 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author explains the basic grammar rules and vocabulary that constitute the basis of the constructed language Esperanto.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Gang of Four

The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

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Generic you

In English grammar and in particular in casual English, generic you, impersonal you, or indefinite you is the use of the pronoun you to refer to an unspecified person, as opposed to its use as the second person pronoun.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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German dialects

German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Given name

A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Gone with the Wind (film)

Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.

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Grace (style)

His Grace or Her Grace is an English style used for various high-ranking personages.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Greater Manila Area

The Greater Manila Area generally refers to the contiguous urbanization surrounding Metro Manila, and ambiguously there are several terms.

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Greater Rio de Janeiro

Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gujarati language

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Herod Agrippa II

Herod Agrippa II (AD 27/28 – or 100) officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the eighth and last ruler of Judea from the Herodian dynasty.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Hierarchical organization

A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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History of Poland (1945–1989)

The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.

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Honorific

An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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Honorifics (linguistics)

In linguistics, an honorific (abbreviated) is a grammatical or morphosyntactic form that encodes the relative social status of the participants of the conversation.

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Housekeeper (domestic worker)

A housekeeper is an individual responsible for the supervision of a house's cleaning staff.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hypocorism

A hypocorism (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition: "hypocorism". Retrieved 24 June 2008.) is a diminutive form of a name.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Ido language

Ido is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds.

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IKEA

IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group, that designs and sells, kitchen appliances and home accessories.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Infinitive

Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

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Inflected preposition

In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

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Insular Scots

Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into.

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Interlingua

Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).

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Irony

Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese pronouns

Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at.

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Javanese language

Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.

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Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jewish humour

Jewish humour is the long tradition of humour in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash from the ancient Middle East, but generally refers to the more recent stream of verbal and often anecdotal humour of Ashkenazi Jewry which took root in the United States over the last hundred years, including in secular Jewish culture.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

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Jutland

Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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Kalevala

The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.

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Kangxi Dictionary

The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Kannada

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.

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Kazakh language

Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Knesset

The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Kyrgyz language

Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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List of monarchs of Vietnam

This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam.

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List of Norwegian monarchs

The list of Norwegian monarchs (kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872: the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which victorious King Harald Fairhair merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Liverpool

Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Lombard language

Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.

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Louisiana French

Louisiana French (français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn), also known as Cajun French (français cadien/français cadjin) is a variety of the French language spoken traditionally in colonial Lower Louisiana but as of today it is primarily used in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes, though substantial minorities exist in southeast Texas as well.

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Lower Sorbian language

No description.

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Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (3 December 1684 – 28 January 1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy.

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Macau

Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Macedonian language

Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.

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Madam

Madam, or, as French, madame or, is a polite form of address for women, often contracted to ma'am.

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Maersk

A.P. Moller–Maersk Group (Danish: A.P. Møller–Mærsk A/S), also known as Maersk, is a Danish business conglomerate with activities in the transport, logistics and energy sectors.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malayalam

Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.

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Maltese language

Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Marathi language

Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Metro Manila

Metropolitan Manila (Kalakhang Maynila, Kamaynilaan) is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines.

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Mexican Spanish

Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada.

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Middle Dutch

Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Middle French

Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.

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Modern Greek

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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Modern Scots

Modern Scots comprises the varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland Scotland, and parts of Ulster, from 1700.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Montenegrin language

Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.

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Mormons

Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mr.

Mister, usually written in its abbreviated form Mr. (US) or Mr (UK), is a commonly used English honorific for men under the rank of knighthood.

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Mrs.

Mrs. (American English) or Mrs (British English) (Standard English pronunciation) is a commonly used English honorific used for women, usually for those who are married and who do not instead use another title (or rank), such as Dr, Professor, President, Dame, Prime Minister, etc.

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Naming taboo

A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.

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Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.

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Nine familial exterminations

The nine familial exterminations or nine kinship exterminations (also known as zú zhū (族誅), literally "family execution" and miè zú (灭族/滅族), literally "family extermination" or "execution of nine relations") was the most serious punishment for a capital offense in Ancient China.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Norman language

No description.

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North Northern Scots

North Northern Scots refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in Caithness, the Black Isle and Easter Ross.

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Northeast Region, Brazil

The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.

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Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.

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Northern Kurdish

Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Nynorsk

Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Oblique case

In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.

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Odia language

Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.

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Old Dutch

In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Ontario

Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Paston Letters

The Paston Letters are a collection of correspondences between members of the Paston family of Norfolk gentry and others connected with them in England between the years 1422 and 1509.

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Patronymic

A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Peninsular Spain

Peninsular Spain refers to that part of Spanish territory located within the Iberian peninsula, thus excluding other parts of Spain: the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, and a number of islets and crags off the coast of Morocco known collectively as plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty).

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Peninsular Spanish

Peninsular Spanish (español peninsular), also known as Spanish of Spain (español de España) European Spanish (español europeo) and Iberian Spanish (español ibérico), sometimes inaccurately referred to as Castilian Spanish (español castellano) refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands.

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Perfect (grammar)

The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Peruvian Spanish

Peruvian Spanish is a family of dialects of the Spanish language that have been spoken in Peru since 1532.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phonaesthetics

Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.

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Pluperfect

The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.

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Pluractionality

Pluractionality, or verbal number, if not used in its aspectual sense, is a grammatical device that indicates that the action or participants of a verb is/are plural.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Pope Gregory I

Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese language in Africa

Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.

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Portuguese language in Asia

The Portuguese language is spoken in Asia by small communities either in regions which formerly served as colonies to Portugal, notably Macau and East Timor where the language is official albeit not widely spoken, or of Lusophone immigrants, notably the Brazilians in Japan.

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Portuguese-speaking African countries

The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.

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Possessive

A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Possessive affix

In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate it is possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Prince Joachim of Denmark

Prince Joachim of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, (Joachim Holger Waldemar Christian; born 7 June 1969 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen) is the younger son of Queen Margrethe II and the late Prince Henrik.

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Protests of 1968

The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.

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Punjabi language

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Quebec French

Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.

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Quenya

Quenya is a fictional language devised by J. R. R. Tolkien and used by the Elves in his legendarium.

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Radical (Chinese characters)

A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.

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Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is a term used in Christian theology to express the doctrine that Jesus is really or substantially present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically.

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Reflexive pronoun

In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.

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Regional Italian

Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rioplatense Spanish

Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.

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Robert Estienne

Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.

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Roger Brown (psychologist)

Roger William Brown (April 14, 1925 – December 11, 1997), an American social psychologist, was born in Detroit.

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Role

A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Royal we

The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person who is a monarch.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Rust Belt

The Rust Belt is a region of the United States, made up mostly of places in the Midwest and Great Lakes, though the term may be used to include any location where industry declined starting around 1980.

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Rusyn language

Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.

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Sack of Rome (1527)

The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Santa Catarina (state)

Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.

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Santos, São Paulo

Santos (Saints) is a municipality in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, founded in 1546 by the Portuguese nobleman Brás Cubas.

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Scouse

Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Shanghainese

No description.

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Shetland Scots

Shetlandic, usually referred to as (auld or braid) Shetland by native speakers, and referred to as Modern Shetlandic Scots (MSS) by linguists, is spoken in Shetland, to the north of mainland Scotland and is, like Orcadian, a dialect of Insular Scots.

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Silent Generation

The Silent Generation is the demographic cohort following the cohort known in the USA as the G.I. Generation.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sir

Sir is an honorific address used in a number of situations in many anglophone cultures.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social distance

Social distance describes the distance between different groups in society and is opposed to ''locational distance''.

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Social equality

Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.

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Social media

Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Sociolect

In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.

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Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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South African English

South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.

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South Region, Brazil

The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.

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South Yorkshire

South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.

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Southern Min

Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.

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Southern Scots

Southern Scots is the dialect (or group of dialects) of Scots spoken in the Scottish Borders counties of mid and east Dumfriesshire, Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire, with the notable exception of Berwickshire and Peeblesshire, which are, like Edinburgh, part of the SE Central Scots dialect area.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish dialects and varieties

Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Stadsfries dialects

Stadsfries, Stadfries, Stedfrysk or Town Frisian is a set of dialects spoken in certain cities in the province of Friesland in the northern Netherlands, namely Leeuwarden, Sneek, Bolsward, Franeker, Dokkum, Harlingen, Stavoren, and to some extent in Heerenveen.

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Standard English

Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.

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Standard French

Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français normé, le français neutre or le français international, the last being a Quebec invention) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language.

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Style (manner of address)

A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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Summons

A summons (also known in England and Wales as a claim form and in the Australian state of New South Wales as a Court Attendance Notice (CAN)) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes.

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Surname

A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swiss German

Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.

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Synthetic language

In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese Mandarin

Taiwanese Mandarin is a dialect of Chinese and the de facto official language of Taiwan.

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Tajik language

Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Telugu language

Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.

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Testimony of simplicity

The testimony of simplicity is a shorthand description of the actions generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) to testify or bear witness to their beliefs that a person ought to live a simple life in order to focus on what is most important and ignore or play down what is least important.

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Thai language

Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.

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The Betrothed (Manzoni novel)

The Betrothed (I promessi sposi) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827, in three volumes.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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The Lord of the Rings

The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.

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Theodore Beza

Theodore Beza (Theodorus Beza; Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Reformed Protestant theologian, reformer and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation.

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Thou

The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Tuscan dialect

Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.

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TV 2 (Denmark)

TV 2 is a government-owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense, Funen.

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Ubykh language

Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Unua Libro

International Language (язык), usually referred to as Unua Libro (English: First Book) and translated into English as Dr.

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Upper Sorbian language

No description.

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Uruguayan Portuguese

Uruguayan Portuguese (português uruguaio), also known as fronteiriço and portunhol riverense, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish.

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Uyghur language

The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

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Uzbek language

Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.

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Varieties of Arabic

There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.

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Varieties of Modern Greek

The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voseo

In Spanish grammar, voseo is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects.

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Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.

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Wang Xihou

Wang Xihou (17131777) was a Chinese scholar from Xinchang County (modern-day Yifeng County, Jiangxi) who lived during the Qing dynasty.

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Weekendavisen

Weekendavisen (meaning The Weekend Newspaper in English) is a Danish weekly broadsheet newspaper published on Fridays in Denmark.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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Westron

Westron, or the Common Speech, is a fictional language in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Y'all

Y'all) is a contraction of you and all (sometimes combined as you-all). It is usually used as a plural second-person pronoun, but the usage of y'all as an exclusively plural pronoun is a perennial subject of discussion. Y'all is strongly associated with Southern American English, and appears in other English varieties, including African American Vernacular English and South African Indian English.

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Yeshiva

Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.

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Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Youth

Youth is the time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity).

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

Address (language), Address (linguistics), Dutzen, Duzen, Formal you, Per tu, Polite form, Siezen, Singular you, Sinuttelu, T - V distinction, T-V distinction, T-V-distinction, T-v distinction, T/V distinction, TV distinction, Teitittely, Thou-you distinction, Tu-vos distinction, Tutear, Tutoiement, Tutoyer, Vousvoyer, Vouvoiement, Vouvoyer.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T–V_distinction

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