80 relations: Absorption (skin), Acetylcholinesterase, Aerosol, Agar plate, Agriculture, Alexander Haig, Apoptosis, Asphyxia, Barley, Biological agent, Birth defect, Bone marrow, Cartilage, Cell membrane, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Circulatory system, DNA synthesis, Edema, Enzyme catalysis, Epoxide, Ester, European Food Safety Authority, Food contaminant, Fungus, Fusarium, Gastroenteritis, George P. Shultz, Glottis, Glucuronide, Grain, Gulf War, Gulf War syndrome, High-performance liquid chromatography, Hydrolysis, Hydroxylation, Immune system, In vitro, In vivo, Larynx, Lethal dose, Leukopenia, Luteal phase, Lymphadenopathy, Matthew Meselson, Median lethal dose, Metabolism, Metabolite, Microbiota, Mold, ..., Mortality rate, Mycotoxin, Necrosis, Nucleophile, Oat, Orenburg Oblast, Ovarian follicle, Ovulation, Peptidyl transferase, Peroxidase, Petechia, Phospholipid, Pneumonia, Pollen, Protein, Reactivity (chemistry), Red blood cell, Sesquiterpene, Shortness of breath, Soviet–Afghan War, Sperm motility, Stenosis, Toxicity, Transcription (biology), Trichothecene, United States Secretary of State, Wheat, White blood cell, Yellow rain, Zebrafish. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 22.214.171.124) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alexander Meigs "Al" Haig Jr. (December 2, 1924February 20, 2010) was the United States secretary of state under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gulf War syndrome (GWS), also known as Gulf War illnesses (GWI) and chronic multisymptom illness (CMI), is a chronic and multisymptomatic disorder affecting returning military veterans and civilian workers of the 1990–91 Gulf War.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
Matthew Stanley Meselson (born May 24, 1930) is a geneticist and molecular biologist currently at Harvard University, known for his demonstration, with Franklin Stahl, of the semi-conservative DNA replication.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Orenburg Oblast (Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The peptidyl transferase is an aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process of protein biosynthesis.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units and often have the molecular formula C15H24.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Sperm motility describes the ability of sperm to move properly through the female reproductive tract (internal fertilization) or through water (external fertilization) to reach the egg.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Cephalosporium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Yellow rain was the subject of a 1981 political incident in which the United States Secretary of State Alexander Haig accused the Soviet Union of supplying T-2 mycotoxin to the Communist states in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia for use in counterinsurgency warfare.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.