101 relations: Aberdeen Proving Ground, Active protection system, AMX Leclerc, AMX-30, Anti-tank missile, Anti-tank warfare, Arena (countermeasure), Ariete, Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, Atlantic Ocean, Attack helicopter, Belarus, Black Eagle (tank), Boris Yeltsin, Catastrophic kill, Challenger 1, Challenger 2, Chechnya, Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, Cyprus, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Egypt, Europe, First Chechen War, Gas turbine, Glacis, Grozny, High-explosive anti-tank warhead, India, Indian Army, Jonathan Aitken, Josef Kotin, K1 88-Tank, K2 Black Panther, Kazakhstan, Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau, Kirov Plant, Kontakt-5, Kubinka Tank Museum, Lenta.ru, Leopard 2, List of main battle tanks by generation, List of tanks of the Soviet Union, Lists of armoured fighting vehicles, M1 Abrams, Main battle tank, Major, Malyshev Factory, Mikhail Gorbachev, Morocco, ..., Moscow, Multifuel, Nikolay Popov, Nizhny Tagil, Northern Cyprus, NSV machine gun, Omsk, Omsktransmash, Pakistan, Pakistan Army, Patriot Park, PK machine gun, PT-91 Twardy, Reactive armour, Rocket-propelled grenade, Russia, Russian Ground Forces, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russo-Georgian War, Saint Petersburg, Saratov, Second Chechen War, Shtora, South Korea, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Stridsvagn 122, Supreme Soviet of Russia, T-10 tank, T-64, T-72, T-84, T-90, T-95, Torsion bar suspension, Turkish Land Forces, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States dollar, Uralvagonzavod, Urban warfare, War in Donbass, Weapon mount, White House (Moscow), 125 mm smoothbore ammunition, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, 2A46 125 mm gun, 4th Guards Tank Division, 9K112 Kobra, 9M119 Svir/Refleks. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving Grounds) is a United States Army facility located adjacent to Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford County).
An active protection system is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent line-of-sight guided anti-tank missiles/projectiles from acquiring and/or destroying a target.
The Char Leclerc is a main battle tank (MBT) built by GIAT, now Nexter of France.
The AMX-30 is a main battle tank designed by Ateliers de construction d'Issy-les-Moulineaux (AMX, then GIAT) and first delivered to the French Army in 1966.
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
Arena (Арена) is an active protection system (APS) developed at Russia's Kolomna-based Engineering Design Bureau for the purpose of protecting armoured fighting vehicles from destruction by light anti-tank weapons, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), and missiles with top attack warheads.
The C1 Ariete is the main battle tank of the Italian Army, developed by a consortium formed by Iveco-Fiat and Oto Melara (CIO, Consorzio Iveco Oto Melara).
Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armour.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Black Eagle tank (Чёрный Орёл, Čërnyj Orël, or Object 640), was a presumed prototype main battle tank produced in the Russian Federation.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
A catastrophic kill, K-Kill or complete kill is damage inflicted on an armored vehicle that amounts to complete destruction of the vehicle, rendering it both permanently non-functional and irreparable.
The FV4030/4 Challenger 1 is a British main battle tank (MBT) used by the British Army from 1983 to the mid-1990s, when it was superseded by the Challenger 2.
The FV4034 Challenger 2 (MOD designation "CR2") is a British main battle tank (MBT) in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR (Съезд народных депутатов РСФСР) and since 1991 Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation (Съезд народных депутатов Российской Федерации) was the supreme government institution in the Russian SFSR and in the Russian Federation from 16 May 1990 to 21 September 1993.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect to penetrate thick tank armor.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
Jonathan William Patrick Aitken (born 30 August 1942) is a former Conservative Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom (1974–97), and a former Cabinet minister.
Josef Yakovlevich Kotin (Жозеф Яковлевич Котин; 10 March 1908, Pavlograd, Russian Empire, now Ukraine - 21 October 1979, Moscow).
The K1 is a South Korean main battle tank in use with the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, developed by Hyundai Precision (later Hyundai Rotem).
The K2 Black Panther (Hangul: K2 '흑표'; Hanja: K2 '黒豹') is a South Korean main battle tank that will replace most of the M48 Patton tanks and complement the K1 series of main battle tanks currently fielded by the Republic of Korea.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau (Харківське Конструкторське Бюро з Машинобудування ім.), often simply called Morozov Design Bureau or abbreviated KMDB, is a state-owned company in Kharkiv, Ukraine, which designs armoured vehicles, including the T-80UD and T-84 main battle tanks, as well as military prime movers.
The Kirov Plant, Kirov Factory or Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ) (Kirovskiy Zavod) is a major Russian machine-building manufacturing plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Kontakt-5 is a type of second-generation explosive reactive armour (ERA) originating in the Soviet Union.
The Kubinka Tank Museum is a large military museum in Kubinka, Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russia where tanks, armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) and their relevant information are displayed and showcased.
Lenta.ru (Лента.Ру; stylised as LƐNTA·RU) is a Moscow-based online newspaper in Russian language, owned by Rambler Media Group which belongs to Prof-Media.
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.
Main battle tanks are often classified as belonging to a particular generation, although the actual definition and membership in these generations is not clearly defined.
This List of tanks of the Soviet Union lists tanks produced by the Soviet Union.
This is a list of lists of armoured fighting vehicles.
The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank named for General Creighton Abrams.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
The Malyshev Factory (Zavod imeni V.O. Malysheva, Завод імені В.О. Малишева), formerly the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (KhPZ), is a state-owned manufacturer of heavy equipment in Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Multifuel, sometimes spelled multi-fuel, is any type of engine, boiler, or heater or other fuel-burning device which is designed to burn multiple types of fuels in its operation.
Nikolay Popov (December 14, 1931 – February 4, 2008) was a Russian engineer; he was chief designer of the T-80 tank, which was first built by the Soviet Union during the 1970s.
Nizhny Tagil (p) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
The NSV (Russian НСВ Никитина-Соколова-Волкова) is a 12.7mm caliber heavy machine gun of Soviet origin, named after the designers, G. I. Nikitin (Г. И. Никитин), Y. S. Sokolov (Ю. М. Соколов) and V. I. Volkov (В. И. Волков).
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
Omsktransmash (Omsk transport machine factory) is a wholly state-owned engineering company based in the city of Omsk, Russia.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Patriot Park is a theme park in Kubinka, Russia that is themed around equipment of the Russian military.
The PK (Пулемёт Калашникова, transliterated as Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or "Kalashnikov's Machinegun"), is a 7.62x54mmR general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in Russia.
The PT-91 Twardy ("resilient") is a Polish main battle tank.
Reactive armor is a type of vehicle armor that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saratov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, Russia, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream (north) of Volgograd.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
Shtora (Штора, "curtain") is an electro-optical active protection system or suite for tanks, designed to disrupt the laser designator and laser rangefinders of incoming anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs).
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Stridsvagn 122 (Strv 122) ("Tank 122") is a Swedish main battle tank based on the German Leopard 2.
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Верховный Совет РСФСР, Verkhovnıy Sovet RSFSR), later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (Верховный Совет Российской Федерации, Verkhovnıy Sovet Rossiyskoi Federatsii) was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation). The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR was established as similar structure as the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1938, instead of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) as the highest organ of power of Russia. In the 1940s, the Supreme Soviet Presidium and the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR were located in the former mansion of counts Osterman (str Delegatskaya, 3), which was later in 1991 given to a museum. The sessions were held in Grand Kremlin Palace. In 1981 the Supreme Soviet was moved to a specially constructed building on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment, The House of Soviets. The Supreme Soviet was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Council ones.
The T-10 (also known as Object 730 or, IS-8) was a Soviet heavy tank of the Cold War, the final development of the IS tank series.
The T-64 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank introduced in the early 1960s.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank (MBT), a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank.
The T-90 is a third-generation Russian battle tank that entered service in 1993.
T-95 is the common informal designation of a Russian fourth generation tank that was under development at Uralvagonzavod before being cancelled in May 2010.
A front VW Beetle suspension cross-section A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension (not to be confused with a torsion beam rear suspension), is a general term for any vehicle suspension that uses a torsion bar as its main weight-bearing spring.
The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
UralVagonZavod (Open Joint Stock Company “Research and Production Corporation “Uralvagonzavod”) is a Russian machine building company located in Nizhny Tagil, Russia.
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
A weapon mount is a weapon component used to affix an armament for stabilization.
The White House (p; officially: The House of the Government of the Russian Federation, r), also known as the Russian White House, is a government building in Moscow.
The following is a list of ammunition fired by the 125 mm smoothbore gun series used in the T-64, T-72, T-80, M-84, T-90, PT-91, T-14 Armata, and other tanks derived from those designs, as well as the 2A45 Sprut Anti-Tank gun.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The constitutional crisis of 1993 was a political stand-off between the Russian president Boris Yeltsin and the Russian parliament that was resolved by using military force.
The 2A46 (also called D-81TM) is a 125 mm/L48 smoothbore cannon of Soviet origin used in several main battle tanks.
The 4th Guards “Kantemirovskaya” Tank Division (Cyrillic: 4-я гвардейская танковая Кантемировская дивизия, Gvardeiskaya Tankovaya Kantemirovskaya Divisiya), commonly known as the Kantemirovskaya Division or Kantemir Division, is an elite Guards armoured division of the Russian Ground Forces.
The 9K112 Kobra (NATO reporting name: AT-8 Songster) is a SACLOS anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union.
The 9M119 Svir and 9M119M Refleks are laser beam riding, guided anti-tank missiles developed in the former Soviet Union.