68 relations: Antibody, Antigen, Antigen processing, Antigen-presenting cell, Avidity, B-cell receptor, Beta sheet, Bone marrow, C-terminus, Cancer immunotherapy, CD247, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CD8, Checkpoint inhibitor, Chimeric antigen receptor, Co-receptor, Co-stimulation, Complementarity-determining region, Cytoplasm, Cytotoxic T cell, Degeneracy (biology), Framework region, FYN, Gamma delta T cell, Genetic recombination, Heteromer, Homology (biology), ImmTAC, Immunoglobulin domain, Immunoglobulin superfamily, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, Lck, Leukemia, Linker for Activation of T cells, Locus (genetics), Lymphocyte, Major histocompatibility complex, Mark M. Davis, MHC class I, MHC class II, MHC multimer, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, N-terminus, NF-κB, NFAT, Ontogeny, Palindrome, Peptide, Protein dimer, ..., PTPRC, RAG1, RAG2, Regulatory T cell, Signal transduction, Src family kinase, Superantigen, Surface plasmon resonance, T cell, T cell receptor revision, T helper cell, Tak Wah Mak, Thymus, TRA (gene), TRD (gene), TRG (gene), V(D)J recombination, ZAP70. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
In biochemistry, avidity refers to the accumulated strength of multiple affinities of individual non-covalent binding interactions, such as between a protein receptor and its ligand, and is commonly referred to as functional affinity.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain also known as T-cell receptor T3 zeta chain or CD247 (Cluster of Differentiation 247) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD247 gene.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a form of cancer treatment immunotherapy currently under research.
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are engineered receptors that combine a new specificity with an immune cell to target cancer cells.
A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.
During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.
Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules bind to their specific antigen.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Within biological systems, degeneracy occurs when structurally dissimilar components/modules/pathways can perform similar functions (i.e. are effectively interchangeable) under certain conditions, but perform distinct functions in other conditions.
In molecular biology, a framework region is a subdivision of the variable region (Fab) of the antibody.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (p59-FYN, Slk, Syn, MGC45350, Gene ID 2534) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FYN gene.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
ImmTACs (Immune mobilising monoclonal T-cell receptors Against Cancer) are a class of bispecific biological drug being investigated for the treatment of cancer and viral infections which combines engineered cancer-recognizing TCRs with immune activating complexes.
The immunoglobulin domain is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer sandwich of 7-9 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets with a Greek key topology, consisting of about 125 amino acids.
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in the recognition, binding, or adhesion processes of cells.
An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (in the antagonistic case ITIM, I for inhibition) is a conserved sequence of four amino acids that is repeated twice in the cytoplasmic tails of certain cell surface proteins of the immune system.
Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune system called lymphocytes.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The Linker for Activation of T cells, also known as Linker of Activated T cells or LAT, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAT gene.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Mark Morris Davis (born 27 November 1952) ForMemRS is Director and Avery Family Professor of Immunology in the Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection at Stanford University.
MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
A palindrome is a word, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
Recombination activating gene 1 also known as RAG-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAG1 gene.
Recombination activating gene 2 also known as RAG-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAG2 gene.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Src kinase family is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that includes nine members: Src, Yes, Fyn, and Fgr, forming the SrcA subfamily, Lck, Hck, Blk, and Lyn in the SrcB subfamily, and Frk in its own subfamily.
Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is the resonant oscillation of conduction electrons at the interface between negative and positive permittivity material stimulated by incident light.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity based on rearranged T cell receptors (TCR).
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Tak Wah Mak, (麥德華; born October 4, 1946 in China) is a Canadian medical researcher, geneticist, oncologist, and biochemist.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
T-cell receptor alpha locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA gene, also known as TCRA or TRA@.
T cell receptor delta locus (symbol TRD), also known as TCRD or TRD@, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRD gene.
T cell receptor gamma locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRG gene, also known as TCRG or TRG@.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a protein normally expressed near the surface membrane of T cells and natural killer cells.