80 relations: Acid, Alpharetrovirus, Amino acid, Apoptosis, ATM serine/threonine kinase, Base (chemistry), Base pair, BRCA1, C-terminus, Cancer, Carcinogenesis, Cell cycle, Cell death, Chromosome, Chromosome instability, Conserved sequence, Cre recombinase, Cross-link, DAPI, Dimer (chemistry), DNA, DNA repair, DNA synthesis, Downregulation and upregulation, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Gastric mucosa, Gene knockout, Homology directed repair, Immunoprecipitation, Ku70, Leukemia, MAPK/ERK pathway, MAPK1, MAPK3, Melanoma, Metaphase, MRE11A, Muller's morphs, Mutation, MYB (gene), N-terminus, Natural killer cell, Neoplasm, Nibrin, Non-homologous end joining, Nuclease, Nucleoprotein, P53, Phenotype, ..., Phenylalanine, Phosphorylation, Protein, Protein complex, Protein dimer, Protein domain, Protein production, Protein quaternary structure, Protein–protein interaction, Rad50, Rap1, Scaffold protein, Sequence motif, Shelterin, Signal transduction, SLX4, Stomach cancer, Telomerase, Telomerase reverse transcriptase, Telomere, TERF1, TERF2IP, TINF2, Titia de Lange, Tumor reversion, Tyrosine, Upstream and downstream (DNA), Viral protein, Werner syndrome helicase, XRCC3. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Alpharetrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a type of genomic instability in which chromosomes are unstable, such that either whole chromosomes or parts of chromosomes are duplicated or deleted.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
Cre recombinase is a tyrosine recombinase enzyme derived from the P1 bacteriophage.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
DAPI, or 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to adenine–thymine rich regions in DNA.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
Homology directed repair (HDR) is a mechanism in cells to repair double strand DNA lesions.
Immunoprecipitation (IP) is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein.
Ku70 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XRCC6 gene.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as MAPK1, p42MAPK, and ERK2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK1 gene.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK3 gene.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).
Double-strand break repair protein MRE11A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRE11A gene.
Hermann J. Muller (1890–1967), who was a 1946 Nobel Prize winner, coined the terms amorph, hypomorph, hypermorph, antimorph and neomorph to classify mutations based on their behaviour in various genetic situations, as well as gene interaction between themselves.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nibrin, also known as NBN or NBS1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NBN gene.
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.
A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.
Nucleoproteins are any proteins that are structurally associated with nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.
Protein quaternary structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
DNA repair protein RAD50, also known as RAD50, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD50 gene.
Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1) is a small GTPase, which are small cytosolic proteins that act like cellular switches and are vital for effective signal transduction.
In biology, scaffold proteins are crucial regulators of many key signalling pathways.
In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.
Shelterin (also called telosome) is a protein complex known to protect telomeres in many eukaryotes from DNA repair mechanisms, as well as regulate telomerase activity.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
SLX4 (also known as BTBD12 and FANCP) is a protein involved in DNA repair, where it has important roles in the final steps of homologous recombination.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (abbreviated to TERT, or hTERT in humans) is a catalytic subunit of the enzyme telomerase, which, together with the telomerase RNA component (TERC), comprises the most important unit of the telomerase complex.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TERF1 gene.
Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TERF2IP gene.
TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TINF2 gene.
Titia de Lange (born 11 November 1955, in Rotterdam) is an American Cancer Society professor and head of Laboratory Cell Biology and Genetics at Rockefeller University.
Tumor reversion history started in the early 1960s with the flat revertant cells when researchers used the NIH3T3 cells to assay the transforming potential of oncoviruses and oncogenes.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, upstream and downstream both refer to relative positions of genetic code in DNA or RNA.
A viral protein is both a component and a product of a virus.
"Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase" also known as DNA helicase, RecQ-like type 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the WRN gene.
DNA repair protein XRCC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC3 gene.