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TOPS-20

Index TOPS-20

The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers. [1]

49 relations: Artificial intelligence, Assembly language, AT&T Corporation, Backward compatibility, BBN Technologies, Berkeley Software Distribution, CAR and CDR, Command-line completion, Command-line interface, Daniel G. Bobrow, Daniel Murphy (computer scientist), DARPA, DECSYSTEM-20, Device driver, Digital Equipment Corporation, Drum memory, English language, Foonly, Hacker culture, Incompatible Timesharing System, Lisp (programming language), List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni, Living Computers: Museum + Labs, Magnetic-core memory, Mainframe computer, Mark Crispin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, OpenVMS, Operating system, Paging, Paul Allen, PDP-1, PDP-10, PDP-6, Portmanteau, Processor register, Proprietary software, Random-access memory, Stanford University, Swedish language, Tcsh, TOPS-10, Unix, VAX, Virtual memory, WAITS, XKL, 18-bit, 36-bit.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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AT&T Corporation

AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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BBN Technologies

BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.

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Berkeley Software Distribution

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.

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CAR and CDR

In computer programming, car and cdr are primitive operations on cons cells (or "non-atomic S-expressions") introduced in the Lisp programming language.

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Command-line completion

Command-line completion (also tab completion) is a common feature of command line interpreters, in which the program automatically fills in partially typed commands.

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Command-line interface

A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).

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Daniel G. Bobrow

Daniel Gureasko Bobrow (29 November 1935 – 20 March 2017) was an American computer scientist who was a Research Fellow in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory of the Palo Alto Research Center and created an oft-cited artificial intelligence program STUDENT, with which he earned his PhD.

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Daniel Murphy (computer scientist)

Daniel L. Murphy is an American computer scientist.

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DARPA

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

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DECSYSTEM-20

The DECSYSTEM-20 was a 36-bit Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 mainframe computer running the TOPS-20 operating system (products introduced in 1977).

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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Drum memory

Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Foonly

Foonly was a short-lived American computer company formed by Dave Poole, one of the principal Super Foonly designers as well as one of hackerdom's more colourful personalities.

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Hacker culture

The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.

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Incompatible Timesharing System

Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) is a time-sharing operating system developed principally by the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, with help from Project MAC.

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Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.

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List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni

This list of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni includes students who studied as undergraduates or graduate students at MIT's School of Engineering; School of Science; MIT Sloan School of Management; School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences; School of Architecture and Planning; or Whitaker College of Health Sciences.

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Living Computers: Museum + Labs

Living Computers: Museum + Labs (LCM+L) is a computer and technology museum located in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle, Washington.

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Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Mark Crispin

Mark Reed Crispin (July 19, 1956 in Camden, New Jersey – December 28, 2012 in Poulsbo, Washington) is best known as the father of the IMAP protocol, having invented it in 1985 during his time at the Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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OpenVMS

OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Paging

In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.

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Paul Allen

Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21, 1953) is an American business magnate, investor and philanthropist.

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PDP-1

The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.

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PDP-10

The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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PDP-6

The PDP-6 (Programmed Data Processor-6) was a computer model developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1963.

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Portmanteau

A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tcsh

tcsh (“tee-see-shell”, “tee-shell”, or as “tee see ess aitch”) is a Unix shell based on and compatible with the C shell (csh).

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TOPS-10

The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.

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Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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VAX

VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.

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Virtual memory

In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.

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WAITS

WAITS was a heavily modified variant of Digital Equipment Corporation's Monitor operating system (later renamed to, and better known as, "TOPS-10") for the PDP-6 and PDP-10 mainframe computers, used at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) from the mid-1960s up until 1991; the mainframe computer it ran on also went by the name of "SAIL".

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XKL

Based in Redmond, Washington XKL, LLC, was founded in 1991 and develops optical transport technologies.

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18-bit

18 binary digits have (1000000 octal, 40000 hexadecimal) distinct combinations.

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36-bit

Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.

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Redirects here:

DecSystem 20, Decsystem 20, PA1050, TOPS 20, TWENEX, Tops-20, Twenex.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOPS-20

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