20 relations: Antigen, Autoimmunity, Central tolerance, Complementarity-determining region, Gamma delta T cell, Gene conversion, Gene knock-in, Genetic recombination, Genetically modified organism, Major histocompatibility complex, Peripheral tolerance, RAG1, RAG2, Receptor editing, Regulatory T cell, T cell, T helper 17 cell, T-cell receptor, Thymus, V(D)J recombination.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Central tolerance, also known as negative selection, is the process of eliminating any developing T or B lymphocytes that are reactive to self.
Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules bind to their specific antigen.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.
Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event.
In molecular cloning and biology, a knock-in (or gene knock-in) refers to a genetic engineering method that involves the one-for-one substitution of DNA sequence information in a genetic locus or the insertion of sequence information not found within the locus.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Peripheral tolerance is the second branch of immunological tolerance, after central tolerance.
Recombination activating gene 1 also known as RAG-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAG1 gene.
Recombination activating gene 2 also known as RAG-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAG2 gene.
Receptor editing is a process that occurs during the maturation of B cells, which are part of the adaptive immune system.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.