16 relations: Antigen, B cell, CTLA-4, Cytokine, Dendritic cell, Immune response, In vitro, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Lymphocyte, Mucous membrane, Phagocytosis, Regulatory T cell, T helper cell, Transforming growth factor beta.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.