138 relations: Adaptive immune system, Affinity maturation, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Amgen, Anaphylaxis, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Antigen processing, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Asthma, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, B cell, Bacteria, Bactericide, Bone marrow, C-C chemokine receptor type 7, Cardiff University, Caspase 1, CD154, CD28, CD3 (immunology), CD31, CD4, CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, CD40 (protein), CD8, CD80, CD86, Cell growth, Cell-mediated immunity, Clonal anergy, Co-receptor, Co-stimulation, Complement receptor 1, Complement receptor 2, Corticosteroid, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, Dendritic cell, Dermatitis, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Disease, Endocytosis, Eosinophil, ..., Extracellular, Follicular B helper T cells, Follicular dendritic cells, Geisel School of Medicine, Germinal center, Graves' disease, Helminths, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hives, Humoral immunity, Hyper IgM syndrome, Hypersensitivity, IL-2 receptor, IL2RA, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin class switching, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunology, Inflammasome, Inflammation, Intercellular adhesion molecule, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 17, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Interleukin 9, Intracellular, Kinase, L-selectin, Lupus erythematosus, Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, Lymphocytopenia, Lymphotoxin alpha, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, Management of HIV/AIDS, Mast cell, Memory T cell, MHC class II, Montelukast, Myasthenia gravis, Naive T cell, Natural killer cell, Opportunistic infection, Paracrine signalling, Pathogen, Peptide, Phagocyte, Phosphorylation, Plasma cell, Pleiotropy, Protein, PTK7, PTPRC, Pyroptosis, Regulatory T cell, Rheumatoid arthritis, Seth Lederman, Spleen, T cell, T helper 17 cell, T helper 3 cell, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Th 9 cell, Thymus, Transforming growth factor beta, Transplant rejection, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Type I hypersensitivity, Type II hypersensitivity, Type III hypersensitivity, Type IV hypersensitivity, Vaccination, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Virus. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which Tfh cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
C-C chemokine receptor type 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR7 gene.
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides.
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules.
CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
Understanding of the antitumor immunity role of CD4+ T cells has grown substantially since the late 1990s.
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells.
Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their activation.
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.
Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.
A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.
During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35 (cluster of differentiation 35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene.
Complement receptor type 2 (CR2), also known as complement C3d receptor, Epstein-Barr virus receptor, and CD21 (cluster of differentiation 21), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR2 gene.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.
Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue.
The Geisel School of Medicine is the medical school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Germinal centers or germinal centres (GCs) are sites within secondary lymphoid organs – lymph nodes and the spleen where mature B cells proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells affecting class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.
Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (also called CD25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
The inflammasome is a multiprotein oligomer responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
In molecular biology, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are part of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
Interleukin 9, also known as IL-9, is a pleiotropic cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
L-selectin, also known as CD62L, is a cell adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes and the preimplantation embryo.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a cellular adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes.
Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.
Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-α) or tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Memory T cells are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
Montelukast (trade name Singulair) is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
A naïve T cell (Th0 cell) is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion, "more", and τρόπος tropos, "way") occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Tyrosine-protein kinase-like 7 also known as colon carcinoma kinase 4 (CCK4) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that in humans is encoded by the PTK7 gene.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Seth Lederman, MD (born July 30, 1957) is a physician, scientist and specialty pharmaceuticals entrepreneur.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).
T helper 3 cells (Th3) are white blood cells of the lymphocyte type.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
In cell biology, TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ −) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9).
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.
Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.
In type II hypersensitivity (also tissue-specific, or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces.
Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is accumulation of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) that have not been adequately cleared by innate immune cells, giving rise to an inflammatory response and attraction of leukocytes.
Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, colloquially known as P&S and formerly Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, is a graduate school of Columbia University that is located in the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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