74 relations: Adjective, Agreement (linguistics), Allophone, Alveolar clicks, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Bilabial clicks, Bilabial consonant, Botswana, Causative, Click consonant, Consonant cluster, Contour (linguistics), Creaky voice, ǂ’Amkoe language, Dental clicks, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, Diphthong, Egressive sound, Ejective consonant, Fricative consonant, Gǀui dialect, Genitive case, Ghanzi District, Glottal consonant, Glottalization, Hardap Region, Homorganic consonant, Ingressive sound, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Kalahari Basin, Kgalagadi District, Khoisan languages, Kweneng District, Labial consonant, Lateral clicks, Lateral consonant, Lower Nossob language, Mora (linguistics), Murmured voice, Namibia, Nasal consonant, Nǁng language, Noun, Omaheke Region, Palatal clicks, Palatal consonant, Pharyngealization, ..., Phonation, Phoneme, Preposition and postposition, Pulmonic-contour clicks, Reduplication, Relative clause, Segment (linguistics), Serial verb construction, Sonorant, Southern District (Botswana), Sprachbund, Stop consonant, Strident vowel, Subject–verb–object, Tenuis consonant, Tone (linguistics), Tuu languages, Uvular consonant, Vaal–Orange language, Vaalpens, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The labial or bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants that sound something like a smack of the lips.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
In phonetics, contour describes speech sounds which behave as single segments, but which make an internal transition from one quality, place, or manner to another.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
ǂ’Amkoe, formerly called by the dialectal name ǂHoan (ǂHȍã, ǂHûân, ǂHua, ǂHû, or in native orthography ǂHȍȁn), is a severely endangered Kx'a language of Botswana.
Dental (or more precisely denti-alveolar) clicks are a family of click consonants found, as constituents of words, only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
In human speech, egressive sounds are sounds by which the air stream is created by pushing air out through the mouth or nose.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gǀui or Gǀwi (pronounced in English, and also spelled ǀGwi, Dcui, Gcwi, or Cgui) is a Khoe dialect of Botswana with 2,500 speakers (2004 Cook).
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Ghanzi (sometimes Gantsi) is a district in western Botswana, bordering Namibia in the west and extending east into much of the interior of the country.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Hardap is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, its capital is Mariental.
In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.
In phonetics, ingressive sounds are sounds by which the airstream flows inward through the mouth or nose.
Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.
The Kalahari Basin or Kalahari Depression is a large lowland area covering over 2.5 million km2 covering most of Botswana and parts of Namibia, South Africa, Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Kgalagadi is a district in southwest Botswana, lying along the country's border with Namibia and South Africa.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Kweneng is one of the districts of Botswana and is the recent historical homeland of the Bakwena people, the first group in Botswana converted to Christianity by famed missionary David Livingstone.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Lower Nossob an extinct Khoisan language once spoken along the Nossob River on the border of South Africa and Botswana, near Namibia.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nǁng or Nǁŋǃke, commonly known by its primary dialect Nǀuu (Nǀhuki), is a moribund Tuu (Khoisan) language once spoken in South Africa.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Omaheke is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, its capital is Gobabis.
The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Pulmonic-contour clicks, also called sequential linguo-pulmonic consonants, are consonants that transition from a click to an ordinary pulmonic sound, or more precisely, have an audible delay between the front and rear release of the click.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
The serial verb construction, also known as (verb) serialization or verb stacking, is a syntactic phenomenon in which two or more verbs or verb phrases are strung together in a single clause.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Southern is one of the districts of Botswana.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly-pharyngealized vowels accompanied by (ary)epiglottal trill, with the larynx being raised and the pharynx constricted.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tuu languages, or Taa–ǃKwi (Taa–ǃUi, ǃUi–Taa, Kwi) languages, are a language family consisting of two language clusters spoken in Botswana and South Africa.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Vaal–Orange, also known as Seroa, is an extinct ǃKwi language of South Africa and Lesotho.
Vaalpens (dusty-bellies), as of the beginning of the 20th century, a little-known nomadic people of South Africa, who survive in small groups in the Zoutpansberg and Waterberg districts of the Transvaal, especially along the Magalakwane river.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
!Xoo, !Xoo language, !Xoon language, !Xoong language, !Xóõ, !Xóõ language, !Xõó, !xoo, !xoo language, !Ô language, Auni dialect, ISO 639:nmn, Iso 639:nmn, Kakia dialect, Masarwa dialect, N/amani language, N/gamani language, Ng/amani language, Ng/u//en language, Ngamani language, Ngǀuǁen language, Nǀgamani language, Ta'a language, Taa, Tsasi, Tsasi language, Xoo, Xoo language, Xoo!, Xóõ, ǃXoon, ǃXoon language, ǃXóõ, ǃXóõ language.