237 relations: Affricate consonant, All caps, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, American Community Survey, Amoy dialect, Aspirated consonant, Austronesian languages, Back vowel, Battle of Penghu, Beigang, Yunlin, Bible society, Bible translations into Chinese, Bilabial consonant, Bird vocalization, Bopomofo, Bread, Cantonese, Central vowel, Changhua, Charis SIL, Chữ Nôm, Chen (surname), Chen Shui-bian, Chiayi, Chinese characters, Chinese Civil War, Chinese input methods for computers, Chinese language, Chongzhen Emperor, Classical Chinese, Clitic, Close vowel, Clusivity, Code-switching, Cognate, Collective, Consonant, Control Yuan, Conversation, Daighi tongiong pingim, Dajia District, Datong District, Taipei, De facto, Diacritic, Diphthong, Drama, Dutch Formosa, Dynamic and formal equivalence, False friend, ..., First language, First Sino-Japanese War, Formosan languages, Fort Provintia, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fujian, Geography of Taiwan, Glottal consonant, Glove puppetry, Government Information Office, Executive Yuan, Grammatical aspect, Guangdong, Hakka Chinese, Hakka people, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Hangul, Hanja, High commissioner, History, Hokkien, Hokkien entertainment media, Hoklo people, Houlong, Miaoli, Hsinchu, Huang (surname), Huang Shujing, Interpunct, James Laidlaw Maxwell, James Soong, Japanese language, Kana, Kanji, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Kerygma, Keyboard layout, Kingdom of Tungning, Kinmen, Koxinga, Kuomintang, Labiodental consonant, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Legislative Yuan, Li Dan (pirate), Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters, Liu, Loanword, Longjing District, Lukang, Changhua, Ma Ying-jeou, Mainland China, Mainland Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Martial law in Taiwan, Maryknoll, Metre (poetry), Mid vowel, Middle Chinese, Min Chinese, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Education (Taiwan), Missionary, Modern Literal Taiwanese, Morpheme, Music, Music of Taiwan, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, National Day of the Republic of China, National Languages Committee, Naturalization, Noun, Object–subject–verb, O͘, Ong Iok-tek, Open vowel, OxfordDictionaries.com, Pan-Blue Coalition, Pan-Green Coalition, Part of speech, Passive voice, Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Penghu, Phofsit Daibuun, Phonology, Plural, Poetry, Portuguese language, Preposition and postposition, Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, Presbyterianism, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Profanity, Pronoun, Prosodic unit, Pyeong, Qing dynasty, Qingshui District, Quanzhou, Quanzhou dialect, Reduplication, Register (sociolinguistics), Royal we, Rural area, Second Sino-Japanese War, Sentence (linguistics), Shi Lang, Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Siraya people, Soap opera, Southern Min, Southern Min Wikipedia, Speak Hokkien Campaign, Spelling, Standard Chinese, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Syntax, Tael, Tai languages, Taibao, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, Taitung City, Taiwan, Taiwan independence movement, Taiwan Solidarity Union, Taiwan Strait, Taiwan under Japanese rule, Taiwan under Qing rule, Taiwanese cuisine, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet, Taiwanese opera, Taiwanese people, Taiwanese Romanization System, Taiwanese units of measurement, Taiwanization, Taixi, Yunlin, Tale of the Lychee Mirror, Tang dynasty, Television, Thomas Barclay (missionary), Tone (linguistics), Tone number, Tone sandhi, Traditional Chinese characters, Triphthong, Tsai Ing-wen, Unicode, United States Census, Universal Coded Character Set, Urban area, Utterance, Varieties of Chinese, Variety show, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Word, Working group, Writing system, Written Cantonese, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu (surname), Wuqi District, Xiamen, Yilan City, Yilan County, Taiwan, Yuan dynasty, Yue Chinese, Zhang (surname), Zhangpu County, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou dialect, Zheng Zhilong, Zhuang (surname). Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
The Amoy dialect or Xiamen dialect, also known as Amoynese, Amoy Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian province.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Battle of Penghu was a naval battle fought in 1683 between the Kingdom of Tungning based in Taiwan and the Manchu-led Qing Empire of China.
Beigang or Peikang is an urban township in Yunlin County, Taiwan.
A Bible Society is a non-profit organization, usually ecumenical in makeup, devoted to translating, publishing, and distributing the Bible at affordable costs.
Bible translations into Chinese include translations of the whole or parts of the Bible into any of the levels and varieties of the Chinese language.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Changhua, officially known as Changhua City, is a county-controlled city and the county seat of Changhua County in Taiwan.
Charis SIL is a transitional serif typeface developed by SIL International based on Bitstream Charter, one of the first fonts designed for laser printers.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
Chen is one of the most common East Asian surnames of Chinese origin.
Chen Shui-bian (born October 12, 1950) is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008.
Chiayi, officially known as Chiayi City and sometimes as Chia-I, is a provincial city located in the plains of southwestern Taiwan.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese input methods are methods that allow a computer user to input Chinese characters.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Control Yuan (CY) one of the five branches of the Government of the Republic of China, is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government.
Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people.
Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin.
Dajia District is a coastal suburban district in Taichung, Taiwan.
Datong District or Tatung is a district of Taipei City, Taiwan.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s also commonly known as Formosa, was partly under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662.
Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence, terms coined by Eugene Nida, are two dissimilar translation approaches, achieving differing level of literalness between the source text and the target text, as employed in biblical translation.
False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
Fort Provintia or Providentia was a Dutch outpost on Formosa at a site now located in the West Central District of Tainan in Taiwan.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glove puppetry is a type of opera using cloth puppets that originated during the 17th century in Quanzhou or Zhangzhou of China's Fujian province, and historically practised in the Min Nan-speaking areas such as Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, the Chaoshan region of Guangdong, and other parts of southern China.
The Government Information Office, Executive Yuan (GIO) was a cabinet-level agency of the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China in charge of promoting government policies and regulating domestic media.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Hokkien media is the mass media produced in Hokkien.
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, South China.
Houlong Township is an urban township in western Miaoli County, Taiwan.
Hsinchu officially known as Hsinchu City, is a provincial city in northern Taiwan.
Huang is a Chinese surname that means "Yellow".
Huáng Shújǐng (黃叔璥) was the first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan (1722).
An interpunct (·), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.
James Laidlaw Maxwell Senior (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Má Ngá-kok;; born 18 March 1836 in Scotland – March 1921) was the first Presbyterian missionary to Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan).
James Soong Chu-yu (born 16 March 1942) is a Taiwanese politician.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
Keelung, officially known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan.
Kerygma (from the ancient Greek word κῆρυγμα kêrugma) is a Greek word used in the New Testament for "preaching" (see Luke 4:18-19, Romans 10:14). It is related to the Greek verb κηρύσσω kērússō, literally meaning "to cry or proclaim as a herald" and being used in the sense of "to proclaim, announce, preach".
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.
Li Dan (Christian name: Andrea Dittis; died 1625) was a prominent early 17th century Chinese merchant originally from Quanzhou in Fujian province.
Differing literary and colloquial readings for certain Chinese characters are a common feature of many Chinese varieties, and the reading distinctions for these linguistic doublets often typify a dialect group.
劉 / 刘 (Liu, Lao, Lau, Low, Lauv, Lieh, Lieu, Liew, Loo, Lew, Liou or Yu) is a Chinese surname.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Longjing District is a coastal suburban district in western Taichung, Taiwan.
Lukang or Lugang, is an urban township in northwestern Changhua County, Taiwan.
Ma Ying-jeou (born 13 July 1950), also spelled as Ma Yingjiu, is a Hong Kong-born Taipei-based politician who served as the eighteenth President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016 as well as sixth under the 1947 Constitution.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in a region considered a "mainland".
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
On 19 May 1949, the Governor of Taiwan Province, Chen Cheng, and the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China (ROC) promulgated the "Order of Martial Law" to announce the imposition of Taiwan martial law.
Maryknoll is a name shared by three organizations (one society of apostolic life, one religious institute and one lay ministry) that are part of the Roman Catholic Church: Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers (Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America; Maryknoll Society), Maryknoll Sisters (Maryknoll Sisters of St. Dominic), and Maryknoll Lay Missioners.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (MOE) is the ministry responsible for incorporating educational policies and managing public schools in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and has Overseas Education Divisions all over the world.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT), also known as Modern Taiwanese Language (MTL), is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese based on the Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS).
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The music of Taiwan reflects the diverse culture of Taiwanese people.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The National Day of the Republic of China, also referred to as Double Ten Day or Double Tenth Day, is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC). It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of 10 October 1911 (10-10 or double ten), which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the ROC on 1 January 1912. During the course of the Chinese Civil War, the government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China, fleeing to Taiwan Island in December 1949. The National Day is now mainly celebrated in ROC-controlled Taiwan, but is also celebrated by some overseas Chinese.
The National Languages Committee was established in 1928 by the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan (ROC) with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) in the Republic of China.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistic typology, object–subject–verb (OSV) or object–agent–verb (OAV) is a classification of languages, based on whether the structure predominates in pragmatically-neutral expressions.
O͘ is one of the six Taiwanese Hokkien vowels as written in the Peh-oe-ji (POJ) orthography.
Ong Iok-tek (January 30, 1924–September 9, 1985) was a Taiwanese scholar and early leader of the Taiwan independence movement.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
The pan-Blue coalition, pan-Blue force or pan-Blue groups is a loose political coalition in Taiwan (Republic of China), consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), New Party (CNP), and Minkuotang (MKT).
The pan-Green coalition, pan-Green force or pan-Green groups is a loose political coalition in Taiwan (Republic of China), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP), and Taiwan Constitution Association (TCA).
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
Phofsit Daibuun (PSDB) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based on Modern Literal Taiwanese.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination based in Taiwan.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Profanity is socially offensive language, which may also be called swear words, curse words, cuss words, bad language, strong language, offensive language, crude language, coarse language, foul language, bad words, oaths, blasphemous language, vulgar language, lewd language, choice words, or expletives.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).
A pyeong (abbreviationpy) is a Korean unit of area and floorspace, equal to a square kan or 36square Korean feet.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingshui District, also spelled as Chingshui District, is a coastal suburban district in western Taichung City, Taiwan.
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.
The Quanzhou dialect, also known as the Chin-chew dialect or the, is a Hokkien dialect that is spoken in southern Fujian (in southeast China), in the area centered on the city of Quanzhou.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person who is a monarch.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties in the 17th century.
The Siege of Fort Zeelandia of 1661-1662 ended the Dutch East India Company's rule over Taiwan and began the Kingdom of Tungning's rule over the island. Taiwanese scholar Lu Chien-jung described this event as "a war that determined the fate of Taiwan in the four hundred years that followed".
The Siraya people are an indigenous people in Taiwan.
A soap opera or soaper is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction presented in serial format on television, radio and in novels, featuring the lives of many characters and focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
The Southern Min Wikipedia (Pe̍h-ōe-jī) or Holopedia is the Southern Min edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Speak Hokkien Campaign is a social movement dedicated to the language revitalization of the Hokkien language.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
Taibao City is a county-controlled city and the county seat of Chiayi County, Taiwan.
Taichung, officially known as Taichung City, is a special municipality located in center-western Taiwan.
Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taitung City is a county-controlled city and the county seat of Taitung County, Taiwan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) is a political party in Taiwan which advocates Taiwan independence, Taiwanese localization movement and social liberalism.
The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China.
Taiwan under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and the Pescadores (Penghu) from 1683 to 1895.
Taiwanese cuisine has several variations.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
Taiwanese language Phonetic Alphabet, more commonly known by its initials TLPA, is a romanization for the Taiwanese language, Taiwanese Hakka language, and Formosan languages.
Taiwanese (folk) Ke-Tse opera is the only form of traditional drama known to have originated in Taiwan.
Taiwanese people (Mandarin: 臺灣人 (traditional), 台湾人 (simplified); Minnan: 臺灣儂; Hakka 臺灣人 (Romanization: Thòi-vàn ngìn)) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue.
The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn,; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien.
Taiwanese units of measurement are the customary and traditional units of measure used in Taiwan.
Taiwanization, also known as the Taiwanese localization movement, is a conceptual term used in Taiwan to emphasize the importance of a Taiwanese culture, society, economy, nationality, and identity rather than to regard Taiwan as solely an appendage of China.
Taixi Township or Taisi Township, is a rural township in Yunlin County, Taiwan, lying to the west of Dongshi, south of Mailiao and north of Sihu, and including a section of coastline on the Taiwan Strait.
The Tale of the Lychee Mirror is a play written by an unknown author in the Ming dynasty.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Thomas Barclay (21 November 1849 – 5 October 1935) was a missionary of the Presbyterian Church of England to Formosa (now called Taiwan) from 1875 until his death.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
Tsai Ing-wen (born 31 August 1956) is a Taiwanese politician, legal scholar, attorney, and the current President of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, since May 20, 2016.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
In spoken language analysis, an utterance is the smallest unit of speech.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Variety shows, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is entertainment made up of a variety of acts including musical performances, sketch comedy, magic, acrobatics, juggling, and ventriloquism.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Written Cantonese is the written form of Cantonese, the most complete written form of Chinese after that for Mandarin Chinese and Classical Chinese.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu is the pinyin transliteration of the Chinese surname 吳 (Traditional Chinese), 吴 (Simplified Chinese), which is the tenth most common surname in Mainland China.
Wuqi District is a coastal suburban district in southern Taichung, Taiwan.
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.
Yilan City is a city and the county seat of Yilan County, Taiwan.
Yilan County is a county in northeastern Taiwan.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Zhang is the pinyin romanization of the very common Chinese surname written 张 in simplified characters and 張 in traditional characters.
Zhangpu County is a county of Zhangzhou prefecture-level city in far southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China.
Zhangzhou, formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China.
The Zhangzhou dialect, also known as Changchew dialect or Changchow dialect, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in southern Fujian province (in southeast China), centered on the city of Zhangzhou.
Zheng Zhilong (1604–1661), also known as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard and Ching Chih-lung, was a Chinese merchant, pirate and military leader in the late Ming dynasty who later defected to the Qing dynasty.
Zhuang is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 庄 in simplified character and 莊 in traditional character.
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