70 relations: Acute accent, Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Bilabial nasal, Bopomofo, Central vowel, Circumflex, Close back rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Close vowel, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Grave accent, Hakka Chinese, International Phonetic Alphabet, Kaohsiung, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Letter case, Loanword, Macron (diacritic), Mid central vowel, Mid vowel, Ministry of Education (Taiwan), Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, Open front unrounded vowel, Open vowel, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Palatalization (phonetics), Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Stop consonant, Syllabic consonant, Tainan, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet, ..., Tetragraph, Tone (linguistics), Trigraph (orthography), Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Vowel. Expand index (20 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (MOE) is the ministry responsible for incorporating educational policies and managing public schools in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and has Overseas Education Divisions all over the world.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Taiwanese language Phonetic Alphabet, more commonly known by its initials TLPA, is a romanization for the Taiwanese language, Taiwanese Hakka language, and Formosan languages.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.