126 relations: Alternative Investment Market, AT&T, Atari, SA, Balance sheet, Bank, Bank of America, Bankmail, Berkshire Hathaway, Board of directors, Bond (finance), Breakup fee, Canada, Capital gains tax, CBS Corporation, Chief executive officer, China, City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, Companies Act 1985, Company, Concentration of media ownership, Concert party (business), Consideration, Continental Airlines, Control premium, Corporate raid, Crown Jewel Defense, Darwen Group, David R. Henderson, Delaware General Corporation Law, Display window, Distribution (marketing), Dividend, Dual board, Due diligence, Economies of scale, Externality, Fire sale, Flip-in, Flipover, France, Germany, Gillette, Golden handshake, Golden parachute, Goodwill (accounting), Greenmail, High-yield debt, Holding company, Information asymmetry, ..., Initial public offering, Italy, Japan, Jonestown defense, Keiretsu, Killer bees (business), L'Oréal, Leverage (finance), Leveraged buyout, Leveraged recapitalization, Liberty Fund, Loan, Loan note, Lobster trap (finance), Lock-up provision, Louis Wolfson, Majority, Management, Market price, Mergers and acquisitions, Nancy Reagan defense, NationsBank, Non-voting stock, Off-balance-sheet, Oligopoly, Optare, Pac-Man defense, Pension parachute, PeopleSoft, Perverse incentive, Piercing the corporate veil, Principal–agent problem, Privately held company, Privatization, Procter & Gamble, Profit (economics), Proxy fight, Public company, Public float, Reverse takeover, Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc., Safe harbor (commerce), Scorched-earth defense, Scrip bid, Security (finance), Share (finance), Shareholder, Slipgate Studios, Southwestern Bell, Spain, Squeeze-out, Staggered elections, Stakeholder (corporate), Standstill agreement, State-owned enterprise, Stock exchange, Subsidiary, Takeover Directive, Targeted repurchase, Tax, Tender offer, Texas Air Corporation, The Body Shop, THQ, THQ Nordic, Top-ups, Transformational acquisition, Treasury stock, United Kingdom, United States, Voting plan, Wells Fargo, Westinghouse Licensing Corporation, White knight (business), Williams Act, 3D Realms. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
AIM (formerly the Alternative Investment Market) is a sub-market of the London Stock Exchange that was launched on 19 June 1995.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
Atari, SA (formerly Infogrames Entertainment, SA) is a French holding company headquartered in Paris.
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
Bank of America Corporation (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
In a bankmail agreement, a company engaged in a takeover bid makes an agreement with a bank that the bank would only finance their possible bid, and not that of a rival attempt to acquire the takeover target.
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
A breakup fee (sometimes called a termination fee) is a penalty set in takeover agreements, to be paid if the target backs out of a deal (usually because it has decided instead to accept a more attractive offer).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
CBS Corporation is an American mass media corporation focused on commercial broadcasting, publishing, and television production, with most of its operations in the United States.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The City Code on Takeovers and Mergers is a binding set of rules that apply to listed companies in the United Kingdom, such as those trading on the London Stock Exchange.
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (codified at), was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency.
The Companies Act 1985 (c.6) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, enacted in 1985, which enabled companies to be formed by registration, and set out the responsibilities of companies, their directors and secretaries.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation or media convergence) is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media.
A 'concert party' is a group of people acting in concert in a takeover bid.
Consideration is a concept of English common law and is a necessity for simple contracts but not for special contracts (contracts by deed).
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas.
A control premium is an amount that a buyer is sometimes willing to pay over the current market price of a publicly traded company in order to acquire a controlling share in that company.
In business, a corporate raid is the process of buying a large stake in a corporation and then using shareholder voting rights to require the company to undertake novel measures designed to increase the share value, generally in opposition to the desires and practices of the corporation's current management.
In business, when a company is threatened with takeover, the crown jewel defense is a strategy in which the target company sells off its most attractive assets to a friendly third party or spin off the valuable assets in a separate entity.
The Darwen Group was a bus manufacturer located in Blackburn, Lancashire, England.
David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.
The Delaware General Corporation Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the U.S. state of Delaware.
A display window, also shop window (British English) or store window (American English), is a window in a shop displaying items for sale or otherwise designed to attract customers to the store.
Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.
A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.
A Dual Board or Two Tier system is a corporate structure system that consists of two separate Boards of directors that govern a corporation.
Due diligence is an investigation of a business or person prior to signing a contract, or an act with a certain standard of care.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
A fire sale is the sale of goods at extremely discounted prices, typically when the seller faces bankruptcy.
In business, the flip-in is one of the five main types of poison pill defenses against corporate takeovers.
A flip-over is one of five types of poison pills in which current shareholders of a targeted firm will have the option to purchase discounted stock after the potential takeover.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gillette is a brand of men's and women's safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G).
A golden handshake is a clause in an executive employment contract that provides the executive with a significant severance package in the case that the executive loses their job through firing, restructuring, or even scheduled retirement.
A golden parachute is an agreement between a company and an employee (usually upper executive) specifying that the employee will receive certain significant benefits if employment is terminated.
Goodwill in accounting is an intangible asset that arises when a buyer acquires an existing business.
Greenmail or greenmailing is the action of purchasing enough shares in a firm to challenge a firm's leadership with the threat of a hostile takeover to force the target company to buy the purchased shares back at a premium in order to prevent the potential takeover.
In finance, a high-yield bond (non-investment-grade bond, speculative-grade bond, or junk bond) is a bond that is rated below investment grade.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other.
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jonestown defense is an extreme corporation defense against hostile takeovers.
A is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings.
Killer bees are firms or individuals that are employed by a target company to fend off a takeover bid.
L'Oréal S.A. is a French personal care company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris.
In finance, leverage (sometimes referred to as gearing in the United Kingdom and Australia) is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost.
A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a financial transaction in which a company is purchased with a combination of equity and debt, such that the company's cash flow is the collateral used to secure and repay the borrowed money.
In corporate finance, a leveraged recapitalization is a change of the company's capital structure, usually substitution of equity for debt.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
A loan note is a type of financial instrument; it is a contract for a loan that specifies when the loan must be repaid and usually also the interest payable.
A lobster trap, in corporate finance, is an anti-takeover strategy used by target firms.
Lock-up provision is a term used in corporate finance which refers to the option granted by a seller to a buyer to purchase a target company’s stock as a prelude to a takeover.
Louis Elwood Wolfson (January 28, 1912 – December 30, 2007) was a Wall Street financier and one of the first modern corporate raiders, labeled by Time Magazine as such in a 1956 article.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
In economics, market price is the economic price for which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
The Nancy Reagan defense is a tactic in corporate finance used to counter a takeover or merger bidder who has made a formal bid to shareholders to buy their shares.
NationsBank was one of the largest banking corporations in the United States, based in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Non-voting stock is stock that provides the shareholder very little or no vote on corporate matters, such as election of the board of directors or mergers.
Off-balance sheet (OBS), or Incognito Leverage, usually means an asset or debt or financing activity not on the company's balance sheet.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
Optare is a British bus manufacturer based in Sherburn-in-Elmet, North Yorkshire.
The Pac-Man defense is a defensive business strategy used to stave off a hostile takeover, in which a company that is threatened with a hostile takeover "turns the tables" by attempting to acquire its would-be buyer.
A pension parachute is a form of poison pill that prevents the raiding firm of a hostile takeover from utilizing the pension assets to finance the acquisition.
PeopleSoft, Inc. was a company that provided human resource management systems (HRMS), Financial Management Solutions (FMS), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), and enterprise performance management (EPM) software, as well as software for manufacturing, and student administration to large corporations, governments, and organizations.
A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result which is contrary to the interests of the incentive makers.
Piercing the corporate veil or lifting the corporate veil is a legal decision to treat the rights or duties of a corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders.
The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions and/or take actions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
A proxy fight, proxy contest or proxy battle, sometimes also called a proxy war, is an unfriendly contest for the control over an organization.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
Public float or free float represents the portion of shares of a corporation that are in the hands of public investors as opposed to locked-in stock held by promoters, company officers, controlling-interest investors, or government.
A reverse takeover or reverse merger takeover (reverse IPO) is the acquisition of a public company by a private company so that the private company can bypass the lengthy and complex process of going public.
In the context of commercial takeovers, safe harbors function as a form of shark repellent used to thwart hostile takeovers.
The scorched-earth defense is a form of risk arbitrage and anti-takeover strategy.
In Australia, a scrip bid is a takeover offer where shares are offered partly or wholly in place of cash.
A security is a tradable financial asset.
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
Slipgate Studios (formerly Interceptor Entertainment) is a Danish video game developer headquartered in Aalborg, Denmark.
Southwestern Bell Telephone Company is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A squeeze-out or squeezeout, sometimes synonymous with freeze-out (freezeout), is the compulsory sale of the shares of minority shareholders of a joint-stock company for which they receive a fair cash compensation.
In staggered elections, not all places in an elected body are up for election at the same time.
In a corporation, as defined in its first usage in a 1963 internal memorandum at the Stanford Research Institute, a stakeholder is a member of the "groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist".
The term standstill agreement refers to various forms of agreement which businesses may enter into in order to delay action which might otherwise take place.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.
The Takeover Directive is an EU Directive dealing with European company law's treatment of mergers and acquisitions.
A targeted repurchase is a technique used to thwart a hostile takeover in which the target firm purchases back its own stock from an unfriendly bidder, usually at a price well above market value.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
In corporate finance, a tender offer is a type of public takeover bid.
Texas Air was an airline holding company incorporated in 1980 in the United States created to hold and invest in airlines, starting with Texas International Airlines as its core.
The Body Shop International Limited, trading as The Body Shop, is a British cosmetics, skin care and perfume company that was founded in 1976 by Dame Anita Roddick.
THQ Inc. was an American video game developer and publisher.
THQ Nordic GmbH (formerly Nordic Games GmbH) is an Austrian video game publisher based in Vienna.
In business, a top-up is a variation of a company’s stock repurchase program for common shareholders.
Transformational acquisition is an acquisition of a company or a division of it with the aim to jointly establish a new business model or to enrich the offer for its customers by different expertise and new solutions.
A treasury stock or reacquired stock is stock which is also bought back by the issuing company, reducing the amount of outstanding stock on the open market ("open market" including insiders' holdings).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A voting plan or voting rights plan is one of five main types of poison pills that a target firm can issue against hostile takeover attempts.
Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with central offices throughout the country.
Westinghouse Licensing Corporation (commonly known as Westinghouse Electric Corporation) is a Delaware General Corporation Law organized subsidiary that was founded in 1998 by Westinghouse-CBS (the renamed "original Westinghouse" and predecessor of the current CBS Corporation) in managing the intellectual property assets relating to the Westinghouse trademarks produced from 1886 until 1996.
In business, a white knight is a friendly investor that acquires a corporation at a fair consideration with the support from the corporation's board of directors and management.
The Williams Act (USA) refers to 1968 amendments to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 enacted in 1968 regarding tender offers.
Apogee Software, Ltd., since 1996 doing business as 3D Realms, is an American video game developer and publisher based in Garland, Texas.
Acquiration, Anti-takeover, Capture plan, Corporate takeover, Dawn raid (financial), Friendly takeover, Hositle Takeover, Hostile bid, Hostile take over, Hostile take-over, Hostile takeover, Hostile takeovers, Hostile tender, Mandatory Offer, Taken over, Takeover attempt, Takeover battle, Takeover bid, Takeover offer, Takeovers, Unfriendly takeover.