567 relations: Adamson-Eric, Aegviidu, Ain Lutsepp, Albert Kusnets, Alexander Friedrich von Hueck, Alexander Goldstein (writer), Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn, Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Alexandra of Denmark, Alexela, Alfred Rosenberg, Aljona Malets, Allan Murdmaa, Allspice, Almoravid dynasty, Anastassia Kovalenko, Anatomy, Andres Mustonen, Andres Oper, Andres Siim, Andres Tarand, Andrus Johani, Anglo-Russian Convention, Annapolis, Maryland, Ants Oras, Anu Lamp, Anu Tali, Aquifer, Arabs, Archaeology, Ardo Kreek, Argillite, Armenia, Arnold Rüütel, Art Museum of Estonia, Arvato, Arvo Mets, Asia-Pacific, Astangu, Austria, Åland Islands, Ülemiste, Ülemiste Tunnel, Balti jaam, Baltic Film and Media School, Baltic Germans, Baltic Klint, Baltic Sea cruiseferries, Baroque, Beer, ..., Beijing, Belarusian language, Belgium, Berlin, Berlin International Film Festival, Black pepper, Blank verse, BLRT Grupp, Bombing of Tallinn in World War II, Buried valley, California, Cambrian, Cannes Film Festival, Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia, Carcassonne, Carl Hiekisch, Carl Timoleon von Neff, Carmen Kass, Cartography, Cartoonist, Catholic Church, Chengdu, China, Choir, Church of the Holy Spirit, Tallinn, City, Clay, Clove, Coast, Commander (order), Conducting, Congress of Estonia, Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Copterline, Copterline Flight 103, Corded Ware culture, Counties of Estonia, Danes (Germanic tribe), Daniel Novikov, Daniil Ratnikov, Danish language, Dartford, Demonstration (protest), Deniss Karpak, Denmark, Diana Arno, DNB ASA, Dominions of Sweden, Doris Kareva, Dramaturge, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eckerö Line, Ediacaran, Edmund Russow, Edmund S. 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Erich Carl Hugo Adamson (18 August 1902 – 2 December 1968), more commonly known as Adamson-Eric, was an Estonian artist who worked mainly within the medium of painting in applied art.
Aegviidu (Estonian for "Timespend") is a borough (alev) in Anija Parish, in Harju County.
Ain Lutsepp (born 6 May 1954) is an Estonian actor and politician.
Albert Eduard Kusnets (12 August 1902 – 1942) was a middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler from Estonia.
Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842) was a Baltic-German professor of anatomy at the University of Tartu, and a notable estophile.
Alexander Leonidovich Goldstein (Александр Леонидович Гольдштейн; born, Tallinn, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic —, Tel-Aviv, Israel) — was a Russian writer and essayist.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Aleksander Nevski katedraal) is an orthodox cathedral in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia.
Alexandra Feodorovna (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918) was Empress of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II—the last ruler of the Russian Empire—from their marriage on 26 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.
Alexela Group is a group of companies located in Estonia.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Aljona Malets (born 6 May 1987) is an Estonian football player, who plays as a defender for Naiste Meistriliiga club Pärnu JK and the Estonia women's national football team.
Allan Murdmaa (4 August 1934 – 15 November 2009) was an Estonian architect.
Allspice, also called pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, or myrtle pepper, is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Anastassia Kovalenko (born 21 September 1991) is an Estonian motorcycle road racer.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Andres Mustonen (born September 1, 1953) is an Estonian conductor and violinist.
Andres Oper (born 7 November 1977) is an Estonian football coach and former professional player.
Andres Siim (born February 25, 1962) is an Estonian architect.
Andres Tarand (born 11 January 1940) is an Estonian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Estonia from 1994 to 1995.
Andrus Johani (1 Setpember 1906 – 18 August 1941) was a painter from Estonia.
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Ants Oras (8 December 1900 – 21 December 1982) was an Estonian translator and writer.
Anu Lamp (born 29 March 1958) International Competition Programme EurAsia Jury.
Anu Tali (born June 18, 1972) is an Estonian conductor.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Ardo Kreek (born 7 August 1986) is an Estonian volleyball player, a member of Estonia men's national volleyball team and French club Paris Volley.
Argillite is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed predominantly of indurated clay particles.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arnold Rüütel OIH (born 10 May 1928) served as the last Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR from April 8, 1983, to March 29, 1990, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR (from May 8, 1990: Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia) from March 29, 1990, to October 6, 1992, and was the third President of Estonia from October 8, 2001, to October 9, 2006.
The Art Museum of Estonia (Eesti Kunstimuuseum) was established in 1919.
Arvato is a global services company headquartered in Gütersloh, Germany.
Arvo Antonovich Mets (Арво Антонович Метс; 29 April 1937 – 1997) was an Estonian-born Russian poet.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
Astangu (Estonian for "Terrace") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Haabersti, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Ülemiste is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Lasnamäe, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
The Ülemiste Tunnel is a road tunnel in Tallinn, Estonia.
Baltic Station (Balti jaam) is the main railway station in Tallinn, Estonia.
Baltic Film and Media School of Tallinn University (BFM) is a film and media school created in 2005 as a college of Tallinn University, one of the biggest educational institutions in Estonia.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic Klint (Clint, Glint; Balti klint, Балтийско-Ладожский уступ, Глинт) is an erosional limestone escarpment on several islands of the Baltic Sea, in Estonia, in Leningrad Oblast of Russia and in the islands of Gotland and Öland of Sweden.
The Baltic Sea is crossed by several cruiseferry lines.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always in iambic pentameter.
BLRT Grupp (Balti Laevaremonditehas) is a shipbuilding company headquartered in Tallinn, Estonia.
The German Luftwaffe and Soviet Long Range Aviation bombed the Estonian capital Tallinn several times during World War II.
A buried valley is an ancient river or stream valley that has been filled with glacial or unconsolidated sediment.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
Carl Wilhelm Hiekisch (–) was a Baltic German geographer.
Carl Timoleon von Neff, also Timofey Andreyevich Neff (Тимофей Андреевич Нефф, &ndash) was an artist of Baltic German descent, from present-day Estonia.
Carmen Kass (born 14 September 1978) is an Estonian model and former political candidate.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
A cartoonist (also comic strip creator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
The Church of the Holy Ghost or Church of the Holy Spirit is a medieval Lutheran church in the old town district of Tallinn, Estonia.
A city is a large human settlement.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
Commander (Commendatore, Commandeur, Komtur, Comandante, Comendador), or Knight Commander, is a title of honor prevalent in chivalric order and fraternal orders.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
The Congress of Estonia was an innovative grassroots parliament established in Estonia as a part of the process of regaining of independence from the Soviet Union.
NATO CCD COE, officially the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (K5 or NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus) is one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Tallinn, Estonia.
Copterline was a Finnish-Estonian helicopter airline that flew a regular 18-minute service on the Helsinki–Tallinn route.
Copterline Flight 103 (AAQ103) was a Copterline helicopter flight en route to Helsinki, Finland from Tallinn, Estonia that crashed into the Tallinn Bay on 10 August 2005, at 12:45 local time.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Daniel Novikov (born June 6, 1989) is an Estonian track cyclist, who specialized in the individual sprint events.
Daniil Ratnikov (born 10 February 1988) is an Estonian professional footballer who plays mainly as an attacking midfielder.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, Kent, England.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
Deniss Karpak (born 18 July 1986) is an Estonian sailor.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Diana Arno (born 29 January 1984) is an Estonian beauty queen, fashion designer and model, who won the title of Miss Tallinn 2009 and Miss Estonia 2009 and represented her country at the Miss Universe 2009 pageant.
DNB ASA (formerly DnB NOR ASA) is Norway's largest financial services group with total combined assets of more than NOK 1.9 trillion and a market capitalisation NOK 164 billion as per 20 May 2016.
The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.
Doris Kareva (28 November 1958) is an Estonian poet and translator.
A dramaturge or dramaturg is a literary adviser or editor in a theatre, opera, or film company that researches, selects, adapts, edits, and interprets scripts, libretti, texts, and printed programs (or helps others with these tasks), consults with authors, and does public relations work.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eckerö Line is a Finnish shipping company owned by the Åland-based Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
Edmund August Friedrich Russow (24 February 1841 – 11 April 1897) was a Baltic German biologist born in Tallinn (Reval), in present-day Estonia.
Edmund S. Valtman (May 31, 1914 – January 12, 2005) was an Estonian and American editorial cartoonist and winner of the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning.
Eduard Ole (20 May 1898 – 24 November 1995) was an Estonian painter.
Eduard Wiiralt (real name, Eduard Viiralt; March 20, 1898, Saint Petersburg Governorate – January 8, 1954, Paris) was a well-known Estonian graphic artist.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Eero Endjärv (born 24 January 1973) is an Estonian architect.
Eesti Energia AS is a private limited energy company in Estonia with its headquarters in Tallinn.
Eesti Gaas AS is a natural gas company with headquarters in Tallinn, Estonia.
Eili Sild (born 26 October 1942) is an Estonian stage, film, television and radio actress whose career began on the theatre stage in the early 1960s and has spanned over fifty years.
Eino Tamberg (27 May 1930 – 24 December 2010) was an Estonian composer.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
Elering (former name: Põhivõrk) is a national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas with headquarters in Tallinn, Estonia.
Ellen Liiger (26 June 1918 – 4 August 1987), was an Estonian stage, television, radio and film actress and theatre teacher.
Elmo Tiisvald (born 13 June 1967) is an Estonian conductor born in Tallinn.
AS Eesti Liinirongid, operating as Elron, is a government-owned passenger train operator in Estonia.
Ene Riisna (born 27 June 1938) is an Estonian-born American television producer.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
Enn Vetemaa (June 20, 1936 – March 28, 2017) was an Estonian writer sometimes referred as a "forgotten classic" Estonian Literature Information Centre as well as "the unofficial master of the Estonian Modernist short novel".
Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway.
Eri Klas (7 June 1939 – 26 February 2016) was an Estonian conductor.
Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonia men's national volleyball team (Eesti meeste võrkpallikoondis) is controlled by the Estonian Volleyball Federation (Eesti Võrkpalli Liit) and represents Estonia in international volleyball competitions.
The Estonia national football team (Eesti jalgpallikoondis) represents Estonia in international football and is controlled by the Estonian Football Association (Eesti Jalgpalli Liit), the governing body for football in Estonia.
The Jugendstil building was designed by Finnish architects Armas Lindgren and Wivi Lönn.
The Estonia women's national football team (Eesti naiste jalgpallikoondis) represents Estonia in international women's association football competitions and is controlled by the Estonian Football Association (Eesti Jalgpalli Liit), the governing body for football in Estonia.
The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration.
The Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia) began as a mixed choir of the Estonia Society Musical Department (EMD) on the eve of World War I. The assembly of the Estonia Society created the Tallinn Higher Music School on November 17, 1918.
Estonian Academy of Security Sciences (Sisekaitseakadeemia) is a public vocational university in Estonia, established on 15 April 1992.
Estonian Business School is a private, higher-education institution situated in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond) is a centrist, social-liberal, and populist political party in Estonia.
The Estonian Dance Festival is a national dance and gymnastics celebration currently held every five years at the Kalevi Keskstaadion in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Estonian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Manifesto to the Peoples of Estonia (Manifest Eestimaa rahvastele), is the founding act of the Republic of Estonia from 1918.
The Estonian Defence Forces (Eesti Kaitsevägi) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
The Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (Estonian: Eesti Evangeelne Luterlik Kirik, abbreviated EELK) is a Lutheran church in Estonia.
The Estonian History Museum (Eesti Ajaloomuuseum) is a museum about the history of Estonia in Tallinn.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Estonian Maritime Academy of TUT (Estonian: TTÜ Eesti Mereakadeemia) is a vocational university in Estonia.
The Estonian Maritime Museum (Eesti Meremuuseum) is located in the Fat Margaret tower in the old town of Tallinn.
Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design (ETDM) is a museum dedicated to the history of applied arts and design in Estonia.
The Estonian Museum of Natural History (Eesti Loodusmuuseum in Estonian) is the Estonian national museum for natural history.
Estonian National Opera (Rahvusooper Estonia) is the national opera company of Estonia.
The Estonian Open Air Museum (Eesti Vabaõhumuuseum) is a life-sized reconstruction of an 18th-century rural/fishing village, which comes complete with church, inn, schoolhouse, several mills, a fire station, twelve farmyards and net sheds.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
Estophilia (from Greek: φίλος, filos - "dear, loving") refers to the ideas and activities of people not of Estonian descent who are sympathetic to or interested in Estonian language, Estonian literature or Estonian culture, the history of Estonia and Estonia in general.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.
The European Film Awards have been presented annually since 1988 by the European Film Academy to recognize excellence in European cinematic achievements.
ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators, represents 43 electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) from 36 countries across Europe, thus extending beyond EU borders.
European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2002 was the 47th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Eva Paalma (born 21 December 1994) is an Estonian tennis player.
Evald Okas (28 November 1915 – 30 April 2011) was an Estonian painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes.
Evi Rauer (29 October 1915 – 17 September 2004) was an Estonian stage, film and television actress and television director whose career spanned more than sixty years.
A factory ship, also known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish or whales.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films; International Federation of Film Producers Associations) based in Paris, created in 1933, is an organization composed with 36 member associations from 30 of the leading audiovisual production countries.
filmportal.de is an online database of information related to German film.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, Army Group North reached Estonia in July.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gert Kullamäe (born 3 June 1971) is an Estonian basketball coach and a former professional basketball player who currently coaches Estonian League team Tallinna Kalev/TLÜ.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Glam punk (sometimes called mock rock) is a term used retrospectively to describe a short lived trend for bands which produced a form of proto-punk that incorporated elements of glam rock, initially in the early to mid-1970s.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.
The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
Haabersti is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.
Harriet Toompere (born 22 May 1975) is an Estonian stage, television, and film actress.
Harry Männil (May 17, 1920 – January 11, 2010), also known as Harry Mannil Laul, was an Estonian businessman, art collector, and cultural benefactor in several countries.
Härjapea (Härjapea jõgi, lit. oxhead) was a river in Tallinn, Estonia.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Latvian map showing a tunnel from Helsinki to Tallinn which could connect to Rail Baltica. The Helsinki to Tallinn Tunnel is a proposed rail undersea tunnel that would span the Gulf of Finland and connect the Finnish and Estonian capitals.
Henry of Latvia (Henricus de Lettis, Heinrich von Lettland, Latviešu Indriķis, Läti Henrik; before 1188, Magdeburg, Landgraviate of Thuringia – after 1259 in Papendorf, Livonia (currently Rubene, Kocēni parish, Kocēni Municipality, Latvia)), also known in the English speaking world as Henry of Livonia, was a priest, missionary and historian.
Hiiu is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Nõmme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.
Indrek Pertelson (born April 21, 1971) is an Estonian judoka.
Indrek Sirel (born 16 January 1970) is a general of the Estonian Defence Forces.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Ingrid Rüütel (Ruus; born 3 November 1935) is an Estonian folklorist and philologist.
The Institute of Theology of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (Eesti Evangeelse Luterliku Kiriku Usuteaduse Instituut) is a private university in Tallinn, Estonia, established in 1946.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivo Lill (born 24 June 1953, in Tallinn) is an Estonian glass artist.
Ivo Uukkivi (born 11 October 1965) is an Estonian stage, film, radio, and television actor, television producer, and founder and singer known by the nickname Munk with the punk band Velikije Luki.
Jan Koort (6 November 1883, Sootaga Parish (Äksi), Tartu – 14 October 1935 in Moscow) was an Estonian sculptor, painter and ceramicist.
Jaan Kross (19 February 1920 – 27 December 2007) was an Estonian writer.
Jacob Johan Hastfer (11 December 1647 Tallinn – 24 December 1695 Riga) was a Swedish officer and governor of the Livonia province between 1687 and 1695.
Jan Uuspõld (born 14 December 1973) is an Estonian stage, television, radio and film actor and musician.
Jüri Arrak (born 24 October 1936) is an Estonian artist, a painter whose works with distinguished and recognizable style have won acclaim around the world.
Joel Lindpere (born 5 October 1981) is an Estonian football coach and former professional player.
Johann Köler (8 March 1826 – 22 April 1899) was a leader of the Estonian national awakening and a painter.
Johann Urb (born 24 January 1977) is an Estonian-born American actor, producer and former model.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Juhan Parts (born 27 August 1966) is an Estonian politician who was Prime Minister of Estonia from 2003 to 2005 and Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications from 2007 to 2014. Juhan Parts is a member of the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica party.
Julius Gottlieb Iversen (Юлиус Готлиб Иверсен) (1823–1900) was a Russian phalerist (scholar of medals).
Kadriorg (Estonian for "Catherine's Valley") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Kesklinn (Midtown), Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kadriorg Palace (Kadrioru loss, Schloss Katharinental) is a Petrine Baroque palace built for Catherine I of Russia by Peter the Great in Tallinn, Estonia.
Kaisa Roose (Music Conductor) was born in Tallinn, Estonia on 15 April 1969.
Kakumäe (Estonian for "Owl Hill") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Haabersti, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
AS Kalev (2006–2012 Kalev Chocolate Factory AS) is an Estonian confectionery company.
In Estonian mythology and Kreutzwald's epic poem Kalevipoeg, King Kalev was the father of King Kalevipoeg and the husband of Linda.
Kalevipoeg (Kalev's Son) is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic.
Kaljo Raid (4 March 1921 – 21 January 2005) was an Estonian composer, cellist and pastor.
Kalle Lasn (born March 24, 1942) is an Estonian-Canadian film maker, author, magazine editor, and activist.
Kalle Randalu (born 25 November 1956) is an Estonian pianist.
Karl-Martin Rammo (born 6 June 1989) is an Estonian sailor, born in Tallinn.
Katrin Koov (born 17 April 1973) is an Estonian architect.
Katrin Pärn (born 20 May 1977) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress and singer.
Katrin Siska (born December 10, 1983) is an Estonian celebrity, vlogger, musician and member of the Estonian pop-rock band Vanilla Ninja.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keila (Kegel) is a town and an urban municipality in Harju County in north-western Estonia.
Ken-Marti Vaher (born 5 September 1974) is a leading member of the Estonian Pro Patria and Res Publica Union party.
Kesklinn (Estonian for "Central Town") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kiek in de Kök (Low German: Peep into the Kitchen) is an artillery tower in Tallinn, Estonia, built in 1475.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
Kiiri Tamm (born 7 January 1962) is an Estonian stage, television and film actress and stage manager.
Klaudia Tiitsmaa (born 9 September 1990) is an Estonian stage, television and film actress.
Kloogaranna is a village in Lääne-Harju Parish, Harju County, Estonia.
Koidula is a village in Setomaa Parish, Võru County, in southeastern Estonia, on the border with Russia.
Konrad Vilhelm Mägi (1 November 1878 – 15 August 1925) was an Estonian painter, primarily known for his landscape work.
Kopli (Estonian for "Paddock") is a subdistrict of the district of Põhja-Tallinn (Northern Tallinn) in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kristen Michal (born 12 July 1975) is an Estonian politician.
Kristen Viikmäe (born 10 February 1979) is a retired Estonian footballer who last played in the Estonian Meistriliiga for JK Nõmme Kalju as a striker.
Kristiine (Estonian for "Christina") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Kristina Karjalainen (born 15 August 1989) is an Estonian-Finnish beauty queen who won Eesti Miss Estonia 2013 and represented Estonia at the Miss Universe 2013 pageant.
Kuehne + Nagel International AG (or Kühne + Nagel) is a global transport and logistics company based in Schindellegi, Switzerland.
Kultuurikatel aka Tallinn Creative Hub is a non-profit foundation and cultural organisation in Tallinn, Estonia situated in the Tallinn Power Plant and a medium between international culture, creative industry and private sector.
Kumu (Kumu kunstimuuseum) is an art museum in Tallinn, Estonia.
Lagopus is a small genus of birds in the grouse subfamily commonly known as ptarmigans.
Lake Ülemiste (Ülemiste järv) is the largest of the lakes surrounding Tallinn, Estonia.
Lake Harku (Harku järv; also known as Lake Haabersti, Loodjärv and Lake Argo) is a lake on the western border of Tallinn, Estonia.
Lasnamäe is the most populous administrative district of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lauri Lagle (12 February 1981), is an Estonian stage and film actor, screenwriter and stage producer, director and playwright.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Like any other medieval city, Tallinn (known as Reval from the 13th century until the 1920s) has inspired many legends.
Lehmja is a village in Rae Parish, Harju County, in northern Estonia.
Leila Säälik (born 4 December 1941) is an Estonian stage, film and radio actress.
Lennart Georg Meri (29 March 1929 – 14 March 2006) was an Estonian statesman, writer, and film director.
Lepo Sumera (8 May 1950 – 2 June 2000) was an Estonian composer and teacher.
LHV Pank (originally Lõhmus, Haavel & Viisemann) is an Estonian banking and financial services company headquartered in Tallinn.
Liina Tennosaar (born 23 May 1965) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
In the Estonian mythology and Kreutzwald's epic Kalevipoeg, Linda was the mother of Kalevipoeg and the wife of Kalev.
Linda Line was the brand name of Lindaliini AS, an Estonian ferry company operating between Tallinn, Estonia and Helsinki, Finland.
Linnahall (Tallinna Linnahall, 'Tallinn City Hall') (originally the V. I. Lenin Palace of Culture and Sport) is a multi-purpose venue in Tallinn, Estonia.
Linnart Mäll (7 June 1938 – 14 February 2010) was an Estonian historian, orientalist, translator and politician.
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).
The following is a list of cities and towns in Estonia.
From the Middle Ages until the advent of the skyscraper, Christian church buildings were often the world's tallest buildings.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Liviko is an Estonian distillery.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Los Gatos (Spanish for "The Cats") is an incorporated town in Santa Clara County, California, United States.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maiasmokk (Sweet lip) is an old café in the capital city of Tallinn, Estonia that is located at the address of Pikk tn 16.
Mailis Reps (née Rand, born 13 January 1975 in Tallinn) is an Estonian politician, a member of the Estonian Centre Party.
The technical meaning of maintenance involves operational and functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations.
Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.
Malmö Opera (Swedish: Malmö opera) is an opera house in Malmö, Sweden.
Margit Mutso (born February 11, 1966) is an Estonian architect.
Mari Lill (born 21 December 1945) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress whose career began onstage in the late 1960s.
Marie Under (– 25 September 1980) was one of the greatest Estonian poets.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
Marina Kaljurand (née Rajevskaja; born 6 September 1962) is an Estonian politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.
Mart Poom (born 3 February 1972) is an Estonian football coach and former professional player.
Martin Müürsepp (born 26 September 1974) is an Estonian retired professional basketball player and current coach.
Martin Puhvel (9 December 1933 – 7 December 2016) was a literature researcher of Estonian origin.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar or honey and almond meal (ground almonds), sometimes augmented with almond oil or extract.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Meistriliiga (known as the A. Le Coq Premium Liiga for sponsorship reasons) is the highest division of the Estonian Football Association annual football championship.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Michael Sittow (1469 – 1525), also known as Master Michiel, Michel Sittow, Michiel, Miguel and many other variants, was a painter from Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia) who was trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikk Mikiver (4 September 1937 – 9 January 2006) was a prominent Estonian stage and film actor and theater director.
Mikk Murdvee (born March 20, 1980) is an Estonian-Finnish conductor and violinist living in Helsinki, Finland.
The Mikkel Museum (Mikkeli muuseum) is a branch of the Art Museum of Estonia, located in Kadriorg park in Tallinn.
During World War II, Nazi Germany created military-led regimes in occupied territories which were known as a Military administration or Military administration authority (de: Militärverwaltung).
The Minister of Defence (Estonian: Kaitseminister) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Defence (Kaitseministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
The Minister of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure of Estonia (Majandus- ja taristuminister) is a minister at the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications (Majandus- ja Kommunikatsiooniministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
The Minister of Education and Research is the senior minister at the Ministry of Education and Research (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs (välisminister) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Eesti Vabariigi Välisministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
The Minister of Justice (justiitsminister) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Justice (Eesti Vabariigi Justiitsministeerium) in the Estonian Government.
The Ministry of the Interior of Estonia (Eesti Siseministeerium) is a Ministry in the Estonian Government.
Miss Estonia is a national beauty pageant in Estonia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
The Museum of Occupations (Okupatsioonide muuseum) in Tallinn, Estonia, is located at the corner of Toompea St.
A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance.
Mustamäe (Estonian for Black Hill) is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Muuga Harbour (Muuga sadam) is the largest cargo port in Estonia, located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, northeast of the capital Tallinn, in Maardu.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Nasdaq Nordic is the common name for the subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc. that provide financial services and operate marketplaces for securities in Nordic, Baltic, and Caucasus countries.
Natalie Korneitsik (born 30 December 1990 in Tallinn) is an Estonian beauty queen, student and model who won the title of Miss Tallinn 2012 and Miss Estonia and represented her country at Miss Universe 2012.
Natalia Aleksandrovna Zabiiako (Наталья Александровна Забияко, born 15 August 1994) is a Russian-Estonian pair skater.
National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (NICPB; Estonian Keemilise ja Bioloogilise Füüsika Instituut,'KBFI) is public non-profit research institute that carries out fundamental and applied research and engages in the development of the novel directions in material sciences, physics, chemistry, gene- and biotechnology, environmental technology, and computer science.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nõmme (Estonian for "Heath") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Nõmme Kalju FC, commonly known as Nõmme Kalju, or simply as Kalju, is a professional football club, based in Nõmme, Tallinn, Estonia, that competes in the Meistriliiga, the top flight of Estonian football.
Neeme Järvi (born 7 June 1937) is an Estonian American conductor.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra (NRSO) was a Dutch radio orchestra.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Njáls saga (modern Icelandic pronunciation) (also Njála, Brennu-Njáls saga or "The Story of Burnt Njáll") is a thirteenth-century Icelandic saga that describes events between 960 and 1020.
Nord Pool AS runs the largest market for electrical energy in Europe, measured in volume traded (TWh) and in market share.
Nordea Bank AB, commonly referred to as Nordea, is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A novella is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel, somewhere between 7,500 and 40,000 words.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Old Thomas (Vana Toomas) is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
An open sandwich, also known as an open-face/open-faced sandwich, bread baser, bread platter or tartine, consists of two or more slices of bread with one or more food items on top.
Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
Orava is a village in Võru Parish, Võru County, South East Estonia.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Orkla is a Norwegian conglomerate operating in the Nordic region, Eastern Europe, Asia and the US.
Otepää (formerly Nuustaku) is a town in Valga County, southern Estonia, it is the administrative centre of Otepää Parish.
Ott Sepp (born 29 June 1982) is an Estonian actor, singer, writer and television presenter.
An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.
Paavo Järvi (born 30 December 1962) is an Estonian American conductor.
Pair skating is a figure skating discipline.
Paldiski is a town and Baltic Sea port situated on the Pakri peninsula of north-western Estonia.
Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.
Paljassaare (Estonian for "Bare Island") is the name of the Paljassaare Peninsula in the Tallinn Bay, and the name of a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Põhja-Tallinn (Northern Tallinn) in the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paul Kuusberg (30 April 1916 – 21 January 2003) was an Estonian writer.
Paul-Eerik Rummo (born January 19, 1942) is an Estonian poet and politician who was the former Estonian Minister of Culture and Education, as well as the former Estonian Minister of Population Affairs.
Pääru Oja (born 16 May 1989) is an Estonian stage, film, voice, and television actor.
Pääsküla (Estonian for "Passage Village") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Nõmme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Põhja-Tallinn (Estonian for "Northern Tallinn") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.
Peeter Järvelaid (born 28 November 1957) is an Estonian legal scholar and historian.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Peter Peet Silvester (January 25, 1935 – October 11, 1996) was an electrical engineer who contributed to understanding of numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields and authored a standard textbook on the subject.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Phaleristics (from the Greek mythological hero Φάληρος Phaleros "Phalerus" via the Latin phalera "heroics"; sometimes spelled faleristics) is an auxiliary science of history which studies military, chivalric, dynastic, fraternal, civil and student orders, awards, medals and decorations and their systems of awards in differing countries (such as the British honours system).
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Pikk Hermann or Tall Hermann (Langer Hermann) is a tower of the Toompea Castle, on Toompea hill in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
The Pirita (Pirita jõgi) is a long river in northern Estonia that drains into Tallinn Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland) in Pirita, Tallinn.
Pirita is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Pirita, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Pirita Convent (Pirita klooster) was a monastery for both monks and nuns dedicated to St. Brigitta, located in the district of Pirita in Tallinn, Estonia, between the 1417 and 1575.
The Pit–Comb Ware culture or Comb Ceramic culture was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Port of Tallinn (Tallinna Sadam) is the biggest port authority in Estonia.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Priit Loog (born 6 January 1984) is an Estonian stage, television and film actor.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
Pro Patria (Isamaa) is a conservative political party in Estonia.
Propeller is an Estonian punk band formed in 1978.
A protolith is the original, unmetamorphosed rock from which a given metamorphic rock is formed (proto-: first; lithos: rock; both Greek).
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
The Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartoons is one of the fourteen Pulitzer Prizes that is annually awarded for Journalism.
Punk rock (or "punk") is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
The Raeapteek (Town Hall Pharmacy; Ratsapotheke) is in the center of Tallinn city, Estonia.
Raekoja plats (Town Hall Square) is a town square beside Tallinn Town Hall (Raekoda) in the center of the Tallinn Old Town in Tallinn, Estonia.
Rail Baltica (in Estonia also known as Rail Baltic and the Baltic part referred to as the Rail Baltica Global Project) is a greenfield railway infrastructure project to link Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland with a European standard gauge rail line, providing passenger and freight service between the countries and improving rail connections between Central and Northern Europe as well as acting as a catalyst for building the economic corridor in the Northeastern Europe.
Rakvere (Wesenberg or Wesenbergh) is a town in northern Estonia and the county seat of Lääne-Viru County, 20 km south of the Gulf of Finland.
Rapakivi granite is a hornblende-biotite granite containing large rounded crystals of orthoclase each with a rim of oligoclase (a variety of plagioclase).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Revala (also Rävälä, Revalia, by Henry of Livonia Revele, by Danish Census Book Revælæ) was an Ancient Estonian county.
Revaltoppe is one of the highest mountains in Queen Louise Land, NE Greenland.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
Riisipere (Riesenberg) is a small borough (alevik) in the county of Harju, Estonia, and is the Nissi Parish administrative center.
Rocca al Mare is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Haabersti, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Ruja was one of the foremost Estonian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.
Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
The Sarasota Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra located in Sarasota, Florida.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Seaplane Harbour (Estonian: Lennusadam) is a maritime museum in Tallinn, Estonia, opened in spring 2012.
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (Scandinavian Individual Bank), abbreviated SEB, is a Swedish financial group for corporate customers, institutions and private individuals with headquarters in Stockholm.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Sergei Pareiko (born 31 January 1977) is a retired Estonian footballer.
Siiri Oviir (born 3 November 1947) is an Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament.
Siiri Vallner (born 9 April 1972) is an Estonian architect.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently.
The Original Sokos Hotel Viru Tallinn is a hotel in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, also called Tallinn disaster or Russian Dunkirk, was a Soviet operation to evacuate the 190 ships of the Baltic Fleet, units of the Red Army, and pro-Soviet civilians from the fleet's encircled main base of Tallinn in Soviet-occupied Estonia during August 1941.
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The First Lady of Estonia or First Gentleman of Estonia is the unofficial title given to the wife or husband of the President of Estonia.
St Mary's Cathedral, Tallinn (full name: Tallinna Neitsi Maarja Piiskoplik Toomkirik, Ritter- und Domkirche,, also known as Dome Church) is a cathedral church located on Toompea Hill in Tallinn, Estonia.
Stadler FLIRT (Fast Light Innovative Regional Train; 1) is a diesel or electric multiple unit railcar made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Studio glass is the modern use of glass as an artistic medium to produce sculptures or three-dimensional artworks.
Sulev Mäeltsemees (born 7 August 1947) is an Estonian public administration and local government scholar and generally held to be the father of Municipal Autonomy in Estonia.
The summer solstice (or estival solstice), also known as midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun.
Swedbank AB is a Nordic-Baltic banking group based in Stockholm, Sweden, offering retail banking, asset management, financial, and other services.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
Taavi Aas (born 10 January 1966) is the Mayor of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, since 9 November 2017.
Tallink is an Estonian shipping company operating Baltic Sea cruise ferries and ropax ships from Estonia to Finland, Estonia to Sweden, Latvia to Sweden and Finland to Sweden.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tallinn Airport (Tallinna lennujaam) or Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport (Lennart Meri Tallinna lennujaam) is the largest airport in Estonia and serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for AirBaltic and LOT Polish Airlines.
Tallinn Botanic Garden (Tallinna Botaanikaaed), is a botanical garden in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Tallinn Card is a time-limited ticket available to visitors to Tallinn, Estonia.
The Tallinn Marathon is an annual road marathon, held in Tallinn, Estonia.
Tallinn Music Week (TMW) is a weeklong city festival, contemporary music showcase and music industry conference, held every spring in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Tallinn Passenger Port or the Old City Harbour (Vanasadam) is the main passenger harbour in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) are the grounds on which the Estonian Song Festival is held every five years.
The Nasdaq Tallinn Stock Exchange is a stock exchange operating in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Tallinn Town Hall (Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square.
The Tallinn TV Tower (Tallinna teletorn) is a free-standing structure with an observation deck, built to provide better telecommunication services for the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics regatta event (see Sailing at the 1980 Summer Olympics).
Tallinn University (TU; Tallinna Ülikool, TLÜ) is a public research university in Estonia.
Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TTÜ; Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, abbreviated TTÜ) is the only technical university in Estonia.
Tallinn Zoo is a zoo in Tallinn, Estonia, that was founded in 1939.
Tanel Ingi (born 26 November 1976) is an Estonian stage and film actor who performs primarily at the Ugala theatre.
Tapa is a town in Tapa Parish, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Tõnis Lukas (born 5 June 1962 in Tallinn) is an Estonian politician.
Tõnu Õnnepalu (born 13 September 1962), also known by the pen names Emil Tode and Anton Nigov, is an Estonian poet, author and translator.
Tõnu Kaljuste (born August 28, 1953) is an Estonian conductor.
Tõnu Trubetsky (born 24 April 1963), also known as Tony Blackplait, is an Estonian punk rock/glam punk musician, film and music video director, and individualist anarchist.
Türi (Turgel) is a town in Järva County, Estonia.
TechCrunch is an American online publisher of technology industry news founded in 2005 by Archimedes Ventures whose partners were Michael Arrington and Keith Teare.
Tehumardi is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, Estonia, on the island of Saaremaa.
Telia Company AB is a Swedish dominant telephone company and mobile network operator present in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Baltic States.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
Tiiu Kuik (born 16 March 1987) is an Estonian fashion model.
Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.
Toomas Kallaste (born 27 January 1971) is a former Estonian professional footballer.
Toomas Krõm (born 22 September 1971 in Tallinn) is a former professional footballer from Estonia, playing as a forward.
Toompea (from Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Toompea Castle (Toompea loss) (Castrum Danorum) is a castle on Toompea hill in the central part of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Tartu Peace Treaty (Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu is a peace treaty between Estonia and Soviet Russia signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Udo Kasemets (November 16, 1919 – January 19, 2014) was an Estonian-born Canadian composer of orchestral, chamber, vocal, piano and electroacoustic works.
Ugala is a theatre in the city of Viljandi in Estonia.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
Urjo Kareda (February 9, 1944 – December 26, 2001) was an Estonian-born Canadian theatre and music critic, dramaturge and stage director.
Urmas Alender (22 November 1953 – 28 September 1994) was an Estonian singer and musician, the vocalist of popular Estonian bands Ruja and Propeller.
Urmas Paet (born 20 April 1974) is an Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Estonia.
Urmas Reinsalu (born 22 June 1975) is an Estonian politician who has been the Minister of Justice since 2015.
Ursula Ratasepp (born 17 June 1982) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress.
Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241.
Valga (Walk) is a town in southern Estonia and the capital of Valga County.
Valter Palm (alias Walter Palm) (December 10, 1905 – November 3, 1994) was an Estonian welterweight professional boxer, born in Tallinn, who competed in the 1930s.
Valve Pormeister née Ulm (13 April 1922 – 27 October 2002) was an Estonian landscape architect who became an architect.
Vana Tallinn (Estonian for Old Tallinn) is a dark brown and robust rum-based liqueur developed in the 1960s and produced by the Estonian company Liviko.
Vanalinn (Estonian for "Old Town") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Kesklinn (Midtown), Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Vanilla Ninja was an Estonian all-female rock trio which enjoyed chart success in a number of countries across Europe, especially in Estonia, Germany and Austria.
A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock.
Vello Viisimaa (1 January 1928 – 14 February 1991) was an Estonian opera singer and stage actor who appeared mostly in operettas.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.
Vidrik "Frits" Rootare (born in Tallinn, Estonia August 20, 1906 – March 5, 1981) was an Estonian chess player.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viking Line is a Finnish shipping company that operates a fleet of ferries and cruiseferries between Finland, the Åland Islands, Sweden and Estonia.
Viljandi (Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,473 in 2013.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vincent Zigas, also known as Vin, (1920–1983) was a medical officer of the Kainantu Sub-District in Papua New Guinea during the 1950s and was one of the first Western medical officials to note the uniqueness of kuru and begin to investigate it.
Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar (born Vladimir-Georg-Julian Orgusaar, from 1953 to 1976 Vladimir Karasjov) 14 December 1931 – 27 January 2015) was an Estonian film director. Georg Karassev-Orgusaar was born in Tallinn. He studied history and literature at the Tomsk University and cinematography at the Moscow All-Union State Institute of Cinematography. In the Estonian SSR, he produced a number of documentary films. His trilogy on Soviet history consists of films "Precursor" (Estonian: "Eelkäija", 1967) on Viktor Kingissepp, "Solstice" ("Pööripäev", 1968) on June 1940 'revolution' in Estonia, a central myth of Soviet mythology in Estonia, and "Commander" ("Väejuht", 1968) on August Kork, an Estonian Bolshevik military leader and victim of 1937 Stalinist purges. The trilogy covers those moments of Soviet history in an ostensibly pro-Soviet manner, but leaves possibilities for other interpretations (e.g. parallels with 1968 events in Czechoslovakia; juxtaposing August Kork and Joseph Stalin; the tragedy of Estonian revolutionaries etc.). Other documentaries by Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar include "Forge" ("Sepikoda", 1974); in collaboration with Uno Maasikas), "New Era" ("Uus aeg", 1969) and "Hard Times" ("Rasked aastad", 1973). His only feature film, "The Outlaws" ("Lindpriid"; based on Jaan Anvelt's unfinished novel) is sometimes considered as Karassev's masterpiece. The 4 hour film shows members of the Estonian Bolshevik underground acting in 1920s and feature innovative techniques. Communist authorities disapproved of the work and ordered the film tapes to be destroyed. However, copies did survive, and the film was first shown in 1989. Georg Karassev-Orgusaar himself had emigrated to France after he was banned from making movies in the USSR. In emigration, he worked as a publicist and film critic. In 1990, Karassev-Orgussaar was elected to Estonian Congress. He was the founder of Association France–Estonie—Pont de la Démocratie and its co-president.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography), is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
The Walls of Tallinn are the medieval defensive walls constructed around the city of Tallinn in Estonia.
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind.
The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
20/20 is an American television newsmagazine that has been broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
Capital of Estonia, Danepils, Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn, History of Tallinn, Kesaneeme, Kesoniemi, Kolovan, Koluvan, Kolõvan, Ledenets, Lindanaes, Lindanas, Lindanisa, Lindanise, Lindanäs, Lyndanisse, Names of Tallinn, Reval, Rewel, Taanilinn, Talinn, Tallin, Tallinn City, Tallinn City Council, Tallinn, Estonia, Tallinna, Talllinn, UN/LOCODE:EETLL.