322 relations: Aaron Parry, Abba Arika, Abraham Geiger, Abraham ibn Akra, Abraham Isaac Kook, Academy of the Hebrew Language, Achai Gaon, Adin Steinsaltz, Aggadah, Akiva Eger, Al Anbar Governorate, Al-Mada'in, Ambrosius Frobenius, Amoraim, Anthony Hancock (publisher), Anti-Defamation League, Antipope Benedict XIII, Apostles, Aramaic language, Argument from silence, Arnost Zvi Ehrman, ArtScroll, Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller, Asher ben Jehiel, Ashkenazi Jews, August Rohling, Averroes, Avraham Goldberg, Azriel Hildesheimer, Babylon, Babylonia, Baghdad, Baraita, Baruch Kimmerling, Basel, Benveniste, Bezalel Ashkenazi, Bnei Brak, Brandenburg, Brill Publishers, Brisker method, Caesarea, Cairo Geniza, Carel Hendrik Ver Huell, Chaim Soloveitchik, Chaim Yosef David Azulai, Chamber of Peers (France), Chananel ben Chushiel, Chiarini, Christian, ..., Christianity, Christopher Hitchens, Common Era, Compendium, Conservative Judaism, Constantine the Great, Creative Commons, Cremona, Daf Yomi, Daniel Bomberg, Daniel Boyarin, David Bar-Hayim, David ben Judah Messer Leon, David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra, David Duke, David Weiss Halivni, David Zvi Hoffmann, Denis Diderot, Disputation of Barcelona, Disputation of Paris, Disputation of Tortosa, Dominican Order, Ein Yaakov, Eliezer of Touques, Elizabeth Dilling, Emperor, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ephraim Moses Lilien, Exegesis, Exilarch, Frankism, Frederick I of Prussia, Gemara, Geonim, Geopolitics, Gershom ben Judah, Gil Student, Gospel, Hadran (Talmud), Hai Gaon, Halakha, Haredi Judaism, Hasidic Judaism, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Heinrich Graetz, Henry Malter, Hermann Strack, Hermeneutics, Hideaki Kase, Hillel the Elder, History of the Jews in Tunisia, Holocaust denial, HTML, Humanistic Judaism, Hyam Maccoby, Image map, Immanuel Benveniste, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Inquisition, Isaac Alfasi, Isaac ben Samuel, Isaac Canpanton, Isaac Hirsch Weiss, Isaac Lumbroso, Isaiah Horowitz, Isidore Epstein, Israel, Israel Shahak, Italian Jews, Jacob Hagiz, Jacob ibn Habib, Jacob Neusner, Jacob Pollak, Jason Aronson, Jerusalem Talmud, Jesus, Jesus in the Talmud, Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Jewish emancipation, Jewish ethics, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Joel Sirkis, Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, Johann Reuchlin, Johannes Buxtorf, Johannes Buxtorf II, Johannes Pfefferkorn, John Lightfoot, John Selden, Jordan, José Faur, Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin, Joseph ibn Migash, Joseph ibn Verga, Joseph Karo, Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch, Joshua dei Cantori, Judah ha-Nasi, Judah Loew ben Bezalel, Judaism, Judea, Justinas Pranaitis, Justinian I, Kairouan, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Karaite Judaism, Kisse Rahamim yeshivah, Kodashim, Koren Publishers Jerusalem, Kraków, Land of Israel, Late antiquity, Lazarus Goldschmidt, Lee I. Levine, List of Talmudic principles, List of Tosafists, Louis IX of France, Louis Jacobs, Lublin, Maharsha, Maimonides, Marvin Tokayer, Mary, mother of Jesus, Megillat Taanit, Meir Abulafia, Meir Lublin, Meir Shapiro, Menachem Meiri, Menachem Mendel Kasher, Messiah, Michael Levi Rodkinson, Midrash, Midrash halakha, Minor tractate, Mir Yeshiva (Belarus), Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew, Mishneh Torah, Mordechai ben Hillel, Mordechai Breuer, Moses, Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, Moses Mielziner, Moses Sofer, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, Mount Sinai, Nachman Krochmal, Nachmanides, Nasi (Hebrew title), Nathan ben Jehiel, National Library of Israel, Nehardea, New Testament, Nicholas Donin, Niddah, Nissim ben Jacob, Nissim of Gerona, Novellae Constitutiones, Nusaybin, Ohr Somayach, Jerusalem, Oral Torah, Oral tradition, Orthodox Judaism, Pablo Christiani, Padua, Papal bull, PDF, Petrus Cunaeus, Pharisees, Pilpul, Pirkei Avot, Pope Clement VIII, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Gregory XIII, Pope Leo X, Pope Pius IV, Pumbedita, Rabbeinu Tam, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Rashi, Rashi script, Rav Ashi, Ravina II, Raymond Martini, Rebbe, Reconstructionist Judaism, Recto and verso, Reductionism, Reform Judaism, Reformation, Renaissance, Rishonim, Rohr Jewish Learning Institute, Roman Empire, Rome, Romm publishing house, Sadducees, Samson of Chinon, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Samuel Holdheim, Samuel ibn Naghrillah, Saul Lieberman, Savoraim, Schechter Day School Network, Schottenstein Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Second Temple, Sefaria, Semantics, Semikhah, Semitic root, Sephardi Jews, Shalom Shachna, Shammai, Shas Pollak, Shaye J. D. Cohen, Sherira Gaon, Shev Shema'tata, Shlomo ibn Aderet, Shulchan Aruch, Siddur, Simeon Kayyara, Siyum, Siyum HaShas, Slavuta, Solomon Luria, Solomon Schechter, South Korea, State religion, Sura Academy, Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina, Talmudical hermeneutics, Tanakh, Tannaim, Targum, Telshe yeshiva, Term logic, The Talmud Unmasked, The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition, Theodosius II, Tiberias, Tohorot, Torah, Tosafot, Tosefta, Tzoah Rotachat, Tzvi Hersh Weinreb, University of Miami, Uriel da Costa, Vatican Library, Venice, Vernacular, Vienna, Vilna Edition Shas, Vilna Gaon, Western Aramaic languages, Wilhelm Bacher, Yaakov Chaim Sofer, Yair Bacharach, Yechiel of Paris, Yehudai Gaon, Yeshiva, Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor, Yom Tov Asevilli, Zechariah Aghmati, Zecharias Frankel, Zerachiah ha-Levi of Girona, Zoroastrianism, Zvi Hirsch Chajes. Expand index (272 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Parry is an American synagogue rabbi, counter-missionary expert, and author of several beginners books on Judaism.
Abba Arikha (175–247) (Talmudic Aramaic: אבא אריכא; born: Abba bar Aybo, רב אבא בר איבו) was a Jewish Talmudist who was born and lived in Kafri, Sassanid Babylonia, known as an amora (commentator on the Oral Law) of the 3rd century who established at Sura the systematic study of the rabbinic traditions, which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud.
Abraham Geiger (24 May 181023 October 1874) was a German rabbi and scholar, considered the founding father of Reform Judaism.
Abraham ibn Akra or Abraham ben Solomon Akra was a Jewish-Italian scholar and editor of scientific works who lived at the end of the 16th century.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
The Academy of the Hebrew Language (הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית, Ha-Akademya la-Lashon ha-Ivrit) was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the Hebrew language in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of Givat Ram campus." It is an educational institution with the mission of creating new Hebrew words to ensure that the language does not die out.
Achai Gaon (also known as Ahai of Shabḥa or Aha of Shabḥa, Hebrew: רב אחא משַׁבָּחָא) was a leading scholar during the period of the Geonim, an 8th-century Talmudist of high renown.
Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (עדין שטיינזלץ) or Adin Even Yisrael (born 1937) is a teacher, philosopher, social critic, and spiritual mentor, who has been hailed by Time magazine as a "once-in-a-millennium scholar".
Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.
Rabbi Akiva Eger (also spelled as Akiva Eiger), or Akiva Güns, עקיבא אייגער, (Eisenstadt, 1761Poznań, 1837) was an outstanding Talmudic scholar, influential halakhic decisor and foremost leader of European Jewry during the early 19th century.
Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار; muḥāfaẓat al-’Anbār), or Anbar Province, is the largest governorate in Iraq by area.
Al-Mada'in ("The Cities"; al-Madāʾin; Aramaic: Māhōzē or Mahuza) was an ancient metropolis which lay between the ancient royal centers of Ctesiphon and Seleucia.
Ambrosius Froben, or in Latin Frobenius (1537–1602), was a Basel printer, and publisher of an almost complete Hebrew Talmud, 1578–1580.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
Anthony Hancock (5 May 1947 – 11 June 2012) was a publisher who created literature for British far right groups and a member of such organisations in the United Kingdom.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope (see Western Schism) by the Catholic Church.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
To make an argument from silence (Latin: argumentum ex silentio) is to express a conclusion that is based on the absence of statements in historical documents, rather than their presence.
Rabbi Dr Arnost Zvi Ehrman is best known for his work as editor of the Talmud El Am (cf below).
ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd., a publishing company based in Brooklyn, New York.
Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller (1745 – 1812) (אריה לייב בן יוסף הכהן הלר) was a Rabbi, Talmudist, and Halachist in Galicia.
Asher ben Jehiel (אשר בן יחיאל, or Asher ben Yechiel, sometimes Asheri) (1250 or 1259 – 1327) was an eminent rabbi and Talmudist best known for his abstract of Talmudic law.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
August Rohling (15 February 1839 at Neuenkirchen, Province of Westphalia, Prussia – 23 January 1931 in Salzburg) was a German Catholic theologian, student of anti-Semitic texts, and polemical author.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avraham Goldberg (Hebrew: אברהם גולדברג, January 22, 1913 – April 13, 2012) was an Israeli talmud scholar.
Azriel Hildesheimer (also Esriel and Israel, עזריאל הילדעסהיימער; 11 May 1820 – 12 July 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baraita (Aramaic: ברייתא "external" or "outside"; pl. Barayata or Baraitot; also Baraitha, Beraita; Ashkenazi: Beraisa) designates a tradition in the Jewish oral law not incorporated in the Mishnah.
Baruch Kimmerling (ברוך קימרלינג, 16 October 1939 – 20 May 2007) was an Israeli scholar and professor of sociology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Benveniste, is the surname, byname (see below - the origin of the name) of an old, noble, rich, and scholarly Jewish family of Narbonne, France and northern Spain from the 11th century.
Bezalel ben Abraham Ashkenazi (בצלאל בן אברהם אשכנזי) (1520 – 1592) was a rabbi and talmudist who lived in Ottoman Palestine during the 16th century.
Bnei Brak (בְּנֵי בְרַק, bənê ḇəraq) is a city located on the central Mediterranean coastal plain in Israel, just east of Tel Aviv.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Brisker method, or Brisker derech, is a reductionistic approach to Talmud study innovated by Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk (Brest, Belarus), as opposed to the traditional approach which was rather holistic.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
The Cairo Genizah, alternatively spelled Geniza, is a collection of some 300,000 Jewish manuscript fragments that were found in the genizah or storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat or Old Cairo, Egypt.
Carel Hendrik count Ver Huell (also Verhuell) (Doetinchem, 4 February 1764 – Paris, 25 October 1845) was a Dutch, and later French, admiral and statesman.
Chaim (Halevi) Soloveitchik (Yiddish: חיים סאָלאָווייטשיק, Chaim Sołowiejczyk), also known as Reb Chaim Brisker (1853 – 30 July 1918), was a rabbi and Talmudic scholar credited as the founder of the popular Brisker approach to Talmudic study within Judaism.
Haim Yosef David Azulai ben Yitzhak Zerachia (1724 – 1 March 1806), commonly known as the Hida (the acronym of his name), was a Jerusalem born rabbinical scholar, a noted bibliophile, and a pioneer in the publication of Jewish religious writings.
The Chamber of Peers (French: Chambre des Pairs) was the upper house of the French parliament from 1814 to 1848.
Chananel ben Chushiel or Ḥananel ben Ḥushiel (חננאל בן חושיאל), an 11th-century Kairouanan Rabbi and Talmudist, was a student of one of the last Geonim.
Chiarini is an Italian surname.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A compendium (plural: compendia) is a concise compilation of a body of knowledge.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
Daf Yomi (דף יומי, Daf Yomi, "page of the day" or "daily folio") is a daily regimen of learning the Oral Torah and its commentaries (also known as the Gemara), in which each of the 2,711 pages of the Babylonian Talmud are covered in sequence.
Daniel Bomberg (d. circa 1549) was one of the most important printers of Hebrew books.
Daniel Boyarin (דניאל בוירין; born 1946) is a historian of religion.
David Bar-Hayim (דוד חנוך יצחק ב"ר חיים, born David Mandel on February 24, 1960) is an Israeli Orthodox rabbi who heads the Shilo Institute (Machon Shilo), a Jerusalem-based rabbinical court and institute of Jewish education dedicated to the Torah of Israel.
David ben Judah Messer Leon (c. 1470 in Venice – c. 1526 in Salonica) was an Italian rabbi, physician and writer, who defended the value of secular disciplines and the Renaissance humanities as an important part of traditional Jewish studies.
Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn (Abi) Zimra (דוד בן שלמה אבן אבי זמרא), also called Radbaz (רדב"ז) after the initials of his name, Rabbi David iBn Zimra, was an early Acharon of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries who was a leading posek, rosh yeshiva, chief rabbi, and author of more than 3,000 responsa (halakhic decisions) as well as several scholarly works.
David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is an American white supremacist and white nationalist politician, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier, convicted felon, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Weiss Halivni (דוד וייס הלבני) (born 1927) is a European-born American-Israeli rabbi, scholar in the domain of Jewish Sciences and professor of Talmud.
David Zvi Hoffmann (November 24, 1843, Verbó, Austrian Empire – November 20, 1921, Berlin) (Hebrew: דוד צבי הופמן), was an Orthodox Rabbi and Torah Scholar.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
The Disputation of Barcelona (July 20–24, 1263) was a formal ordered medieval debate between representatives of Christianity and Judaism regarding whether or not Jesus was the Messiah.
The Disputation of Paris, also known as the Trial of the Talmud, took place in 1240 at the court of the King Louis IX of France.
The Disputation of Tortosa was one the famous ordered disputations between Christians and Jews of the Middle Ages, held in the years 1413–1414 in the city of Tortosa, Catalonia, Crown of Aragon (part of modern-day Spain).
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Ein Yaakov is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries.
Eliezer (ben Solomon) of Touques was a French tosafist, who lived at Touques in the second half of the thirteenth century.
Elizabeth Eloise Kirkpatrick Dilling (April 19, 1894 – May 26, 1966) was an American writer and political activist.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Ephraim Moses Lilien (1874–1925) was an art nouveau illustrator and printmaker particularly noted for his art on Jewish themes.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The Exilarch (ראש גלות Rosh Galut, ריש גלותא Reysh Galuta or Resh Galvata lit. "head of the exile", رأس الجالوت Raas al-Galut, Greek: Αἰχμαλωτάρχης Aechmalotarches lit. "leader of the captives") was the leader of the Diaspora Jewish community in Babylon following the deportation of King Jeconiah and his court into Babylonian exile after the first fall of Jerusalem in 597 BCE and augmented after the further deportations following the destruction of the kingdom of Judah in 587 BCE.
Frankism was a Jewish religious movement of the 18th and 19th centuries,.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Gershom ben Judah, (c. 960 -1040) best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (רבנו גרשום, "Our teacher Gershom") and also commonly known to scholars of Judaism by the title Rabbeinu Gershom Me'Or Hagolah ("Our teacher Gershom the light of the exile"), was a famous Talmudist and Halakhist.
Gil Ofer Student (born August 8, 1972) is the Book Editor of the Orthodox Union's Jewish Action magazine, and former Managing Editor of OU Press, and an Orthodox Jewish blogger who writes about the interface between different facets of Judaism, specifically Orthodox Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Hadran (Aramaic: הַדְרָן, "we will return") is a short prayer recited upon the completion of study of a tractate of the Talmud or a Seder of Mishnah.
Hai ben Sherira (or Hai b. Sherira (Gaon), Hebrew: האי בר שרירא; better known as Hai Gaon, Hebrew: האיי גאון), was a medieval Jewish theologian, rabbi and scholar who served as Gaon of the Talmudic academy of Pumbedita during the early 11th century.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Heinrich Graetz (31 October 1817 – 7 September 1891) was amongst the first historians to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective.
Henry Malter (March 23, 1867 at Zabno, Galicia – 1925) was an American rabbi and scholar.
Hermann Leberecht Strack (6 May 1848 – 5 October 1922) was a German Protestant theologian and orientalist; born in Berlin.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
is a Japanese diplomatic critic known for promoting historical revisionism.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
The history of the Jews in Tunisia extends over nearly two thousand years and goes back to the Punic era.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
Humanistic Judaism (Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life.
Hyam Maccoby (חיים מכובי, 1924–2004) was a British Jewish scholar and dramatist specialising in the study of the Jewish and Christian religious tradition.
In HTML and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination).
Immanuel Benveniste (also Manuel Benveniste) (Venice 1608-Amsterdam c.1660) was an Italian Jewish printer in Amsterdam who printed many Hebrew works including an edition of the Talmud from 1644-48.
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi ha-Cohen (1013–1103) (ר' יצחק אלפסי, إسحاق الفاسي) - also known as the Alfasi or by his Hebrew acronym Rif (Rabbi Isaac al-Fasi), was an Algerian Talmudist and posek (decider in matters of halakha - Jewish law).
Isaac ben Samuel the Elder (c. 1115 – c. 1184), also known as the Ri ha-Zaken (Hebrew: ר"י הזקן), was a French tosafist and Biblical commentator.
Isaac ben Jacob Canpanton (1360–1463) (Hebrew: יצחק קנפנטון) was a Spanish rabbi.
Isaac (Isaak) Hirsch Weiss, also Eisik Hirsch Weiss (February 9, 1815 – June 1, 1905), was an Austrian Talmudist and historian of literature born at Groß Meseritsch, Habsburg Moravia.
Isaac Lumbroso (died 1752) was a chief rabbi of Tunis and rabbinical author.
Isaiah ben Abraham Horowitz (ישעיה בן אברהם הלוי הורוויץ), (c. 1555 – March 24, 1630), also known as the Shelah haqQaddosh ("the holy Shelah") after the title of his best-known work, was a prominent Levite rabbi and mystic.
Rabbi Ezekiel Isidore Epstein (1894–1962), was an Orthodox rabbi and rabbinical scholar in England.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Shahak (ישראל שחק; B. Israel Himmelstaub, 28 April 1933 – 2 July 2001) was an Israeli professor of organic chemistry, at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a Holocaust survivor, a public intellectual of Liberal political bent, and a civil-rights advocate and activist on behalf of Jew and gentile.
Italian Jews (Ebrei italiani, יהודים איטלקים Yehudim Italkim) can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews living or with roots in Italy, or, in a narrower sense, to mean the Italkim, an ancient community who use the Italian liturgy as distinct from the communities dating from medieval or modern times who use the Sephardic liturgy or the Nusach Ashkenaz.
Jacob Hagiz (1620–1674) was a Jewish Talmudist born of a Sephardi Jewish family at Fez.
Jacob ben Solomon ibn Habib (Hebrew: יעקב בן שלמה אבן חביב) (c. 1460 – 1516) was a rabbi and talmudist born at Zamora, Spain.
Jacob Neusner (July 28, 1932 – October 8, 2016) was an American academic scholar of Judaism.
Rabbi Jacob Pollak (other common spelling Yaakov Pollack) was the founder of the Polish method of halakhic and Talmudic study known as the Pilpul; born about 1460; died at Lublin in 1541.
Jason Aronson is an American publisher of books in the field of psychotherapy.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Talmud contains passages that some scholars have concluded are references to Christian traditions about Jesus (through mentions of several individuals called "Yeshu", the native Aramaic form of Jesus' Hebrew name Yeshua).
Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish religion and peoples.
Jewish Palestinian Aramaic was a Western Aramaic language spoken by the Jews during the Classic Era in Judea and the Levant, specifically in Hasmonean, Herodian and Roman Judea and adjacent lands in the late first millennium BCE and later in Syria Palaestina and Palaestina Secunda in the early first millennium CE.
The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a religious education organization located in New York, New York.
Joel ben Samuel Sirkis (יואל בן שמואל סירקיש) also known as the Bach - בית חדש) ב"ח)—an abbreviation of his magnum opus, Bayit Chadash—was a prominent Jewish posek and halakhist. He lived in central Europe and held rabbinical positions in Belz, Brest-Litovsk and Kraków. He lived from 1561 to 1640.
Johann Andreas Eisenmenger (Mannheim, 1654 – Heidelberg, December 20, 1704) was a German Orientalist from the Electorate of the Palatinate, now best known as the author of Entdecktes Judenthum (Judaism Unmasked).
Johann Reuchlin (sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy and France.
Johannes Buxtorf (December 25, 1564September 13, 1629) was a celebrated Hebraist, member of a family of Orientalists; professor of Hebrew for thirty-nine years at Basel and was known by the title, "Master of the Rabbis".
Johannes Buxtorf the Younger, (August 13, 1599 – August 16, 1664) was son of the scholar Johannes Buxtorf, and a Protestant Christian Hebraist.
Johannes (Josef) Pfefferkorn (1469–1523) was a German Catholic theologian and writer who converted from Judaism.
John Lightfoot (29 March 1602 – 6 December 1675) was an English churchman, rabbinical scholar, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge and Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge.
John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
José Faur (חכם יוסף פאור הלוי) is a Sephardi Hakham (rabbi), teacher and scholar.
Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin (1150 – c. 1220) was a Jewish writer of numerous treatises, mostly on the Mishnah and the Talmud.
Joseph ibn Migash or Joseph ben Meir HaLevi ibn Migash or Yosef Ibn Meir Ha-Levi Ibn Megas or José ben Meir ibn Megas (early 1077 – c. 1141) (יוסף בן מאיר הלוי אבן מיגאש) was a Rabbi, Posek, and Rosh Yeshiva in Lucena (actually Spain).
Joseph ibn Verga (Hebrew: יוסף אבן וירגה) was a Turkish rabbi and historian who lived at Adrianople at the beginning of the 16th century.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch (died 1557), also known as the Shiltei Giborim after a work he authored, was a prominent Talmudist who lived at Sabbioneta, and later at Savigliano.
Joshua dei Cantori was a converted Italian Jew who attacked the Talmud at Cremona in 1559.
Judah ha-Nasi (יהודה הנשיא, Yehudah HaNasi or Judah the Prince) or Judah I, also known as Rabbi or Rabbenu HaQadosh ("our Master, the holy one"), was a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah.
Judah Loew ben Bezalel, alt.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Justinas Bonaventura Pranaitis or PronaitisScapegoat on Trial: The Story of Mendel Beilis - The Autobiography of Mendel Beilis the Defendant in the Notorious 1912 Blood Libel in Kiev, Beilis, Mendel, Introd.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kisse Rahamim yeshivah is an Orthodox yeshivah in Bnei Brak, which perpetuates the traditions of the Tunisian Jews.
Kodashim (קדשים, "Holy Things") is the fifth of the six orders, or major divisions, of the Mishnah, Tosefta and the Talmud, and deals largely with the services within the Temple in Jerusalem, its maintenance and design, the korbanot, or sacrificial offerings that were offered there, and other subjects related to these topics, as well as, notably, the topic of kosher slaughter of animals for non-sacrificial purposes.
Koren Publishers Jerusalem is an Israeli publisher of Jewish religious texts.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Lazarus Goldschmidt (born at Plungė, December 17, 1871; died in England, 1950) was a Lithuanian-born German Jewish writer and translator.
Lee I. Levine is an American-born rabbi, archaeologist and historian of classical Judaism.
The Talmud uses many types of logical arguments.
Tosafists were medieval rabbis from France and Germany who are among those known in Talmudical scholarship as Rishonim (there were Rishonim in Spain also) who created critical and explanatory glosses (questions, notes, interpretations, rulings and sources) on the Talmud.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis Jacobs CBE (17 July 1920 – 1 July 2006) was the founder of Masorti (Conservative) Judaism in the United Kingdom, and a leading writer and theologian.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Shmuel Eidels (1555 – 1631) (שמואל אליעזר הלוי איידלס), was a renowned rabbi and Talmudist famous for his commentary on the Talmud, Chiddushei Halachot.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Marvin Tokayer (born 1936) is an American rabbi and author.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Megillat Taanit (Hebrew: מגילת תענית), lit.
Meir ben Todros HaLevi Abulafia (c. 1170 – 1244), also known as the Ramah (הרמ"ה) (an acronym of his Hebrew name), was a major Sephardic Talmudist and Halachic authority in medieval Spain.
Meir Lublin or Meir ben Gedalia (1558 – 1616) was a Polish rabbi, Talmudist and Posek ("decisor of Jewish law").
Yehuda Meir Shapiro (or Shapira) (March 3, 1887 – October 27, 1933), was a prominent Polish Hasidic rabbi and rosh yeshiva, also known as the Lubliner Rav.
Menachem ben Solomon Meiri (1249 – 1306) was a famous Catalan rabbi, Talmudist and Maimonidean.
Menachem Mendel Kasher (מנחם מנדל כשר; March 7, 1895 – November 3, 1983) was a Polish-born Israeli rabbi and prolific author who authored an encyclopedic work on the Torah entitled Torah Sheleimah.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Michael Levi Rodkinson (1845–1904) was an American-Jewish publisher, known for being the first to translate the Babylonian Talmud to English.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Midrash halakha (הֲלָכָה) was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.
The minor tractates (Hebrew: מסכתות קטנות, masechtot qetanot) are essays from the Tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah.
The Mir Yeshiva (ישיבת מיר, Yeshivas Mir), commonly known as the Mirrer Yeshiva or The Mir, was a Lithuanian yeshiva located in the town of Mir, Russian Empire (now Belarus).
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Mishnaic Hebrew is one of the few Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Mordechai ben Hillel HaKohen (c. 1250–1298), also known as The Mordechai, was a 13th-century German rabbi and posek.
Mordechai Breuer (מרדכי ברויאר; May 14, 1921 – February 24, 2007) was a German-born Israeli Orthodox rabbi.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, also known as Moses Mikkotsi (משה בן יעקב מקוצי; Moses Kotsensis), was a French Tosafist and authority on Halakha (Jewish law).
Moses Mielziner (August 12, 1828 in Schubin, Grand Duchy of Posen, Prussia - February 18, 1903 in Cincinnati) was an American Reform rabbi and author.
Moses Schreiber (1762–1839), known to his own community and Jewish posterity in the Hebrew translation as Moshe Sofer, also known by his main work Chatam Sofer, Chasam Sofer or Hatam Sofer, (trans. Seal of the Scribe and acronym for Chiddushei Torat Moshe Sofer), was one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (משה חיים לוצאטו, also Moses Chaim, Moses Hayyim, also Luzzato) (1707 in Padua – 16 May 1746 in Acre (26 Iyar 5506)), also known by the Hebrew acronym RaMCHaL (or RaMHaL), was a prominent Italian Jewish rabbi, kabbalist, and philosopher.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
Nachman HaKohen Krochmal (born in Brody, Galicia, on 17 February 1785; died at Ternopil on 31 July 1840) was a Jewish Galician philosopher, theologian, and historian.
Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
() is a Hebrew title meaning "prince" in Biblical Hebrew, "Prince " in Mishnaic Hebrew, or "president" in Modern Hebrew.
Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome (Hebrew: נתן בן יחיאל מרומי; Nathan ben Y'ḥiel Mi Romi according to Sephardic pronunciation), known as the Arukh, (1035 – 1106) was a Jewish Italian lexicographer.
The National Library of Israel (NLI; translit; المكتبة الوطنية في إسرائيل), formerly Jewish National and University Library (JNUL; translit), is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage.
Nehardea or Nehardeah (nəhardəʿā "river of knowledge") was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicholas Donin (Nicolas Donin) of La Rochelle, a Jewish convert to Christianity in early thirteenth-century Paris, is known for his role in the 1240 Disputation of Paris, which resulted in a decree to publicly burn all available manuscripts of the Talmud.
Niddah (or nidah; נִדָּה), in Judaism, describes a woman during menstruation, or a woman who has menstruated and not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in a mikveh (ritual bath).
Nissim ben Jacob (Hebrew: ניסים בן יעקב, also known as Rav Nissim Gaon or in Hebrew: רבנו נסים, lit. Nissim our teacher; 990–1062), was a rabbi best known today for his Talmudic commentary ha-Mafteach, by which title he is also known.
Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, Hebrew: נסים בן ראובן) of Girona, Catalonia was an influential talmudist and authority on Jewish law.
The Novellae Constitutiones ("new constitutions"; Novellæ constitutiones, Νεαραί διατάξεις), or Justinian's Novels, are now considered one of the four major units of Roman law initiated by Roman Emperor Justinian I in the course of his long reign (AD 527–565).
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
Ohr Somayach (also Or Samayach or Ohr Somayach International) is a yeshiva based in Jerusalem founded in 1970 catering mostly to young Jewish men, usually of college age, who are already interested in learning about Judaism.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Pablo Christiani (or Paul Christian; né "Saúl" or "?שאול בן") was a controversial Sephardic Jewish Christian who used his position as a Dominican friar to endeavor to convert other Jews in Europe to Roman Catholicism.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Petrus Cunaeus (1586, in Vlissingen – 2 December 1638, in Leiden) was the pen name of the Dutch Christian scholar Peter van der Kun.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
The Hebrew term pilpul (פלפול, from "pepper," loosely meaning "sharp analysis") refers to a method of studying the Talmud through intense textual analysis in attempts to either explain conceptual differences between various halakhic rulings or to reconcile any apparent contradictions presented from various readings of different texts.
Pirkei Avot (פרקי אבות) (also spelled as Pirkei Avoth or Pirkei Avos or Pirke Aboth), which translates to English as Chapters of the Fathers, is a compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims passed down to the Rabbis, beginning with Moses and onwards.
Pope Clement VIII (Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 5 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.
Pumbedita (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumpedita, or Pumbedisa; פומבדיתא), literally meaning in Aramaic: "The Mouth of the River," was the name of a city in ancient Babylonia close to the modern-day city of Fallujah, in Anbar Province.
Jacob ben Meir (1100 in Ramerupt – 9 June 1171 (4 tammuz) in Troyes), best known as Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם), was one of the most renowned Ashkenazi Jewish rabbis and leading French Tosafists, a leading halakhic authority in his generation, and a grandson of Rashi.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Shlomo Yitzchaki (רבי שלמה יצחקי; Salomon Isaacides; Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (רש"י, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the ''Tanakh''.
Rashi script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet.
Rav Ashi (רב אשי) ("Rabbi Ashi") (352–427) was a Babylonian Amoraic Talmid Chacham, who reestablished the Academy at Sura and was first editor of the Babylonian Talmud.
Ravina II (Hebrew: רב אבינא בר רב הונא or רבינא האחרון) was a Jewish Talmudist and rabbi, accounted as an Amora sage of the 8th generation of the Amoraim era.
Raymond Martini, or Ramon Martí was a 13th-century Catalan Dominican friar and theologian.
Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
The terms recto and verso refer to the text written or printed on the "right" or "front" side and on the "back" side of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a codex, book, broadsheet, or pamphlet.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rishonim (ראשונים; sing. ראשון, Rishon, "the first ones") were the leading rabbis and poskim who lived approximately during the 11th to 15th centuries, in the era before the writing of the Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: שׁוּלחָן עָרוּך, "Set Table", a common printed code of Jewish law, 1563 CE) and following the Geonim (589-1038 CE).
The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute (JLI) is a provider of adult Jewish courses on Jewish history, law, ethics, philosophy and rabbinical literature worldwide.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Romm publishing house was a famous publisher of Jewish religious literature, especially known for its 1886 Vilna Talmud, which still serves as a definitive edition.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Samson ben Isaac of Chinon (c. 1260 – c. 1330) (Hebrew: שמשון מקינון) was a French Talmudist who lived at Chinon.
Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.
Samuel Holdheim (1806 – 22 August 1860) was a German rabbi and author, and one of the more extreme leaders of the early Reform Movement in Judaism.
Samuel ibn Naghrillah (Sh'muel HaLevi ben Yosef HaNagid; Abu Iṣḥāq Ismā‘īl bin an-Naghrīlah), also known as Samuel HaNagid (Shmuel HaNagid, lit. Samuel the Prince) (born 993; died after 1056), was a medieval Spanish Talmudic scholar, grammarian, philologist, soldier, merchant, politician, and an influential poet who lived in Iberia at the time of the Moorish rule.
Saul Lieberman (Hebrew: שאול ליברמן, May 28, 1898 – March 23, 1983), also known as Rabbi Shaul Lieberman or, among some of his students, The Gra"sh (Gaon Rabbeinu Shaul), was an Israeli rabbi and a scholar of Talmud.
A Savora (Aramaic: סבורא, "a reasoner", plural Savora'im, Sabora'im, סבוראים) is a term used in Jewish law and history to signify one among the leading rabbis living from the end of period of the Amoraim (around 500 CE) to the beginning of the Geonim (around 600 CE).
The Schechter Day School Network, formerly the Solomon Schechter Day School Association, located at 820 Second Avenue, New York, New York, is the organization of Jewish day schools that identify with Conservative Judaism.
Schottenstein Edition of the Babylonian Talmud is a 20th-century, 73-volume edition of the Babylonian Talmud or Talmud Bavli.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Sefaria is an online open source free content digital library of Jewish texts.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Smicha or semikhah (סמיכה, "leaning "), also smichut ("ordination"), smicha lerabbanut ("rabbinical ordination"), or smicha lehazzanut ("cantorial ordination"), is derived from a Hebrew word which means to "rely on" or "to be authorized".
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Shalom Shachna (1510 – 1558) was a rabbi and Talmudist, and Rosh yeshiva of several great Acharonim including Moses Isserles, who was also his son-in-law.
Shammai (50 BCE – 30 CE, שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.
Shas Pollak were Jewish mnemonists who, according to the 1917 report of George Stratton in the Psychological Review, memorized the exact layout of words in more than 5,000 pages of the 12 books of the standard edition of the Babylonian Talmud.
Shaye J. D. Cohen (born October 21, 1948) is the Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University.
Rav Sherira Gaon (Hebrew: רב שרירא גאון or R. Sherira Gaon bar Ḥanina, Hebrew: רב שרירא גאון בר חנינא or merely Sherira b. Ḥanina) was the head (gaon) of the Academy of Pumbeditha.
Shev Shema'tata (שב שמעתתא), sometimes pronounced Shev Shmaytsa, is a work on Talmudic logic and methodology by R. Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller.
Shlomo ben Avraham ibn Aderet (שלמה בן אברהם אבן אדרת or Solomon son of Abraham son of Aderet) (1235–1310) was a medieval rabbi, halakhist, and Talmudist.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
A siddur (סדור; plural siddurim סדורים) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.
Simeon Kayyara, also spelled Shimon Kiara (Hebrew: שמעון קיירא), was a Jewish-Babylonian halakhist of the first half of the 8th century.
A siyum (סיום) (“completion”) is the completion of any unit of Torah study, or book of the Mishnah or Talmud in Judaism.
Siyum HaShas (lit. "completion of the Six Orders ") is the celebration of the completion of the Daf Yomi (daily Talmud folio) program, a seven-and-a-half-year cycle of learning the Oral Torah and its commentaries, in which each of the 2,711 pages of the Babylonian Talmud are covered in sequence.
Slavuta (Славу́та) is a city of oblast subordinance in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, located on the Horyn River.
Solomon Luria (1510 – November 7, 1573) (שלמה לוריא) was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time.
Solomon Schechter (שניאור זלמן הכהן שכטר‎; 7 December 1847 – 19 November 1915) was a Moldavian-born American rabbi, academic scholar and educator, most famous for his roles as founder and President of the United Synagogue of America, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, and architect of American Conservative Judaism.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sura Academy (Hebrew: ישיבת סורא) was a Jewish yeshiva in Babylonia, with Pumbedita Academy one of the two major Jewish academies from the year 225 AD at the beginning of the era of the Amora sages until 1033 AD at the end of the era of the Gaonim.
The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM) in what is called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources, at the time otherwise known as Asōristān (under the Sasanian Empire) or Iraq (under the Muslim caliphate until the 11th century).
The Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina were yeshivot that served as centers for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Syria Palaestina (and later Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda) between the destruction of the Second Temple circa 70 CE and the deposition of Raban Gamliel VI circa 425 CE.
Talmudical hermeneutics (Hebrew: מידות שהתורה נדרשת בהן) defines the rules and methods for the investigation and exact determination of the meaning of the Scriptures, within the framework of Rabbinic Judaism.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
Telshe Yeshiva (also spelled Telz) is the American transplant of a famous European yeshiva of the same name.
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.
The Talmud Unmasked (Latin: Christianus in Talmud Iudaeorum: sive, Rabbinicae doctrinae Christiani secreta) is a book published in 1892 by Justinas Bonaventure Pranaitis (1861–1917).
The Steinsaltz Edition is a Hebrew translation of the Babylonian Talmud, that has a literal direct translation of the Talmud along with halacha summaries and commentaries by Torah Scholar Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Tohorot (Hebrew: טָהֳרוֹת, literally "Purities") is the sixth and last order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud).
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Tosafot or Tosafos (תוספות) are medieval commentaries on the Talmud.
The Tosefta (Talmudic Aramaic: תוספתא, "supplement, addition") is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah.
Tzoah Rotachat (Hebrew: צוֹאָה רוֹתֵחַת, tsoah rothachath — "boiling excrement") in the Talmud and Zohar is a location in Gehenna (Gehinnom) where the souls of Jews who committed certain sins are sent for punishment.
The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, U of M, or The U) is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, Florida, United States.
Uriel da Costa (c. 1585 – April 1640) or Uriel Acosta (from the Latin form of his Portuguese surname, Costa, or da Costa) was a Jewish philosopher and skeptic who questioned the Catholic and Rabbinic institutions of his time.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vilna Edition of the Talmud, printed in Vilna (now Vilnius), Lithuania, is by far the most common printed edition of the Talmud still in use today as the basic text for Torah study in yeshivas and by all scholars of Judaism.
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, (ר' אליהו בן שלמה זלמן Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman) known as the Vilna Gaon (דער װילנער גאון, Gaon z Wilna, Vilniaus Gaonas) or Elijah of Vilna, or by his Hebrew acronym HaGra ("HaGaon Rabbenu Eliyahu") or Elijah Ben Solomon (Sialiec, April 23, 1720 – Vilnius October 9, 1797), was a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of misnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries.
Western Aramaic languages is a group of several Aramaic languages developed and once widely spoken throughout the ancient Levant, as opposed to those from in and around Mesopotamia, which make up what is known as the Eastern Aramaic languages, which are still spoken as mother tongues by the Assyrians and Mandaeans of Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey and north western Iran.
Wilhelm Bacher (Bacher Vilmos; בִּנְיָמִין־זְאֵב בּאַככֿר, בִּנְיָמִין־זְאֵב בכר Benjamin Ze'ev Bacher; 12 January 1850 – 25 December 1913) was a Jewish Hungarian scholar, rabbi, Orientalist and linguist, born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary to the Hebrew writer Simon Bacher.
Yaakov Chaim Sofer (1870–1939) (Hebrew: יעקב חיים סופר) was a Sephardi rabbi, Kabbalist, Talmudist and posek.
Yair Chayim Bacharach (1639, Lipník nad Bečvou, Moravia — 1702) was a German rabbi and major 17th century posek, who lived first in Koblenz and then remainder of his life in Worms and Metz.
Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris (Jehiel of Paris; called Sire Vives in French (Judeo-French) and Vivus Meldensis ("Vives of Meaux") in Latin) was a major Talmudic scholar and Tosafist from northern France, father-in-law of Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil.
Yehudai ben Nahman (or Yehudai Gaon; Hebrew: יהודאי גאון, sometimes: Yehudai b. Nahman) was the head of the yeshiva in Sura from 757 to 761, during the Gaonic period of Judaism.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor (or Isaac Elhanan Spector) (1817–March 6, 1896) (יצחק אלחנן ספקטור) was a Russian rabbi, Posek and Talmudic sage of the 19th century.
Yom Tov ben Avraham Asevilli (1260s – 1320s), commonly known by the Hebrew acronym as the Ritva, (ריטב"א) was a medieval rabbi and Halakhist famous for his commentary on the Talmud.
Zechariah ben Judah Aghmati (זכריה אגמאתי), also spelled Agamati, was a Rabbi and Talmudist who lived from 1120 CE - 1195 CE in Morocco.
Zecharias Frankel, also known as Zacharias Frankel (30 September 1801 – 13 February 1875) was a Bohemian-German rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development of Judaism.
Zerachiah ben Isaac ha-Levi Gerondi (זרחיה הלוי), called the ReZaH, RaZBI or Baal Ha-Maor (author of the book Ha-Maor) was born about 1125 in the town of Girona, Spain – hence the name Gerondi – and died after 1186 in Lunel.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zvi Hirsch Chajes (צבי הירש חיות - November 20, 1805 - October 12, 1855; also Chayes or Hayot) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars.
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