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Tamil Nadu; literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country is one of the 29 states of India. [1]

760 relations: A. Maria Irudayam, A. R. 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A.

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Allah-Rakha Rahman (born A. S. Dileep Kumar on 6 January 1967) is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, music producer, musician and philanthropist.

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Aarthie Ramaswamy (born 28 June 1981) is a chess player from India.

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ACC Limited (Formerly The Associated Cement Companies Limited) one of the largest producers of cement in India.

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Accenture plc is a multinational management consulting, technology services, and outsourcing company.

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Aditya I (c. 870 – c. 907 CE), the son of Vijayalaya, was the Chola king who extended the Chola dominions by the conquest of the Pallavas and occupied the Western Ganga Kingdom.

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Adyar (அடையார்) or Adayar, originating near the Chembarambakkam Lake in Chengalpattu district, is one of the two rivers which winds through Chennai (Madras), Tamil Nadu, India, and joins the Bay of Bengal at the Adyar Estuary.

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The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve (ABR) was Established in 2001 and includes of which 1828 km² is in Kerala and 1672.36 km² is in Tamil Nadu.

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Agastya is one of the aryan saptarshis, a revered Vedic sage, and the earliest Siddhar.

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Airavatesvara Temple is a Hindu temple of Dravidian architecture located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Alam Ara (आलम आरा, عالم آراء, translation: The Ornament of the World) is a 1931 film directed by Ardeshir Irani.

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Alanganallur is a panchayat town in Madurai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (lit. All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India.

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The alvars, also spelt as alwars or azhwars (ஆழ்வார்கள், āzvārkaḷ, ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.

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Amazon.com, Inc. is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington.

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Ambur (ஆம்பூர்) آمبور) is a town and state Assembly Constituency in the Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India. It is located on the banks of the Palar River on the Chennai-Bangalore National Highway. Ambur is home to a major part of India's leather tanning industry, earning it the nickname Leather City of South India. A few of India's largest and finest tanneries are located here, making it one of the leading exporters of finished and unfinished leather goods (such as shoes, garments, and gloves) in the country. Due to this, the leather industry occupies pride of place in the industrial map of Tamil Nadu and places it high in the rankings of the nation's exports. It is also known for Biryani, a tasty rice dish, varieties of chicken dishes, non-vegetarian curries, etc. Sweet dishes like Gulab Jamun, Gajar ka halwa and Mutanjan, a dessert in Muslim weddings after the feast & at Muslims Eid, have become popular since the reign of the Nawabs of Arcot.

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The Anaimalai Hills is a range of mountains in the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of South India.

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The arts of ancient Greece have exercised considerable influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture.

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The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India.

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Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country.

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Andipatti or Aundipatty is a town in Theni district in Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Annadurai can refer to.

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Annamalaiyar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located at the base of Annamalai hills in the town of Thiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Anogeissus latifolia is a species of small to medium-sized tree native to the India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.

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The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.

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Aparajitavarman (fl. c. 880-897 CE) was a king of the Pallava dynasty.

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Apollo Tyres Ltd is the world's 17th biggest tyre manufacturer, with annual consolidated revenues of Rs 121.5 billion (US$2.5 billion) in 2011.

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Appam is a type of pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.

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The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Arakkonam is a municipality town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, with a population of about 101,626 as per the census 2011.

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Arasu Cable TV is the Tamil Nadu state government owned Cable Television network which operated within the state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency attached to the Ministry of Culture that is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.

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Arcot is a city and urban of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Ardisia (coralberry or marlberry) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Primulaceae.

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Aricent is a pure-play product engineering service and software firm.

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Arignar Anna Zoological Park (abbreviated AAZP), also known as the Vandalur Zoo, is a zoological garden located in Vandalur, a suburb in the southwestern part of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, about from the city centre and from Chennai Airport.

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Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, more specifically Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry.

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Ariyalur is a town and district headquarters of Ariyalur district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Ariyalur district is an administrative district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

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Arni is a town and a municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Arunachala Kavi (அருணாசல கவி) (1711–1779) was a Tamil poet and a composer of Carnatic music.

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Aruppukottai is a town and a municipality in Virudhunagar district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Ashok Leyland is an Indian automobile manufacturing company based in Chennai, India.

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The Asian openbill or Asian openbill stork (Anastomus oscitans) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.

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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players.

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Avial (wikt:അവിയല്‍ is a dish, Which is believed to have been originated from the Indian state of Kerala and which is common in Kerala as well as Tamil cuisine and Udupi cuisine. It is a thick mixture of vegetables and coconut, seasoned with coconut oil and curry leaves. Avial is considered an essential part of the Sadya, the Keralite vegetarian feast.

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The Ay dynasty (I / Aioi dynasty) ruled parts of southern India from the early Sangam age to the 12th century AD.

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Ayyavazhi (அய்யாவழி, അയ്യാവഴി Ayyāvaḻi, "Path of the father") is an henotheistic belief that originated in South India.

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Balanoglossus is an ocean-dwelling acorn worm (Enteropneusta) genus of great zoological interest because, being a Hemichordate, it is an "evolutionary link" between invertebrates and vertebrates.

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A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.

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Bambusa is a large genus of clumping bamboos.

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Banana leaves have a wide range of applications because they are large, flexible, waterproof and decorative.

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Bannari is a small village located at a distance of 12 km from Sathyamangalam town and 35 km from Gobichettipalayam town in Erode District and 82 km from Coimbatore city on Coimbatore-Bangalore NH 209 and it is close to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka border (20 KM).

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The Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health is located at the small town of Velankanni in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.

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The Battle of Talikota (26 January 1565), a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates, resulted in a defeat of Vijayanagara, and ended in greatly weakening one of the greatest Indian Empires originating from the South before the Marathas.

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The Battle of Wandiwash was a decisive battle in India during the Seven Years' War.

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The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

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Bengal (বাংলা /baŋla/ or বঙ্গ Bônggo /bɔŋɡo/) is a geographical and ethno-linguistic region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.

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The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), is the most numerous tiger subspecies.

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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to (as a religious principle or means of salvation)".

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The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism.

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), owned by Government of India, is a power plant equipment manufacturer and operates as an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India.

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Bharathanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்) is a form of Indian classical dance that originated in the temples of Tamil Nadu.

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Kanakasabai Subburathinam (பாரதிதாசன்; 29 April 1891 – 21 April 1964), popularly called Bharathidasan) was a 20th-century Tamil poet and rationalist whose literary works handled mostly socio-political issues. His writings served as a catalyst for the growth of the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu. In addition to poetry, his views found expression in other forms such as plays, film scripts, short stories and essays. He was mentored by Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathiyar (after whom he called himself "Bharathidasan"). The Government of Puducherry union territory has adopted the song of invocation to Goddess Tamil written by Bharathidasan as the state song of Puducherry.

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The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major parties in the Indian political system, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Bhavani was the tutelary deity of the Maratha leader Shivaji,in whose veneration, he dedicated his sword, Bhavani Talwar.

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Bhavani is a second grade Municipality in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India.

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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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A biome is a community of plants and animals.

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The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along with buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.

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Biryani, sometimes spelt Biriyani or Biriani, is a mixed rice dish from the Indian Subcontinent.

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The black-headed ibis or Oriental white ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus) is a species of wading bird of the ibis family Threskiornithidae which breeds in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia from northern India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka east up to Japan.

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The black-winged stilt, common stilt, or pied stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a widely distributed very long-legged wader in the avocet and stilt family (Recurvirostridae).

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Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works), commonly known as BMW or BMW AG, is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.

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Bollywood is the sobriquet for the Hindi language film industry, based in Mumbai, India.

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Borassus flabellifer, the Asian palmyra palm, toddy palm, or sugar palm, is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, including Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

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The Peruvudaiyar Kovil (தஞ்சைப் பெருவுடையார் கோயில்.) is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva that is located in the city of Thanjavur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to all embryophytes (land plants) that do not have true vascular tissue and are therefore called "non-vascular plants".

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Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.

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A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

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Cassia fistula, known as the golden shower tree and by other names, is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae.

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Caterpillar Inc., is an American corporation which designs, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network.

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In archaeology, a celt is a long, thin, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool.

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The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

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The Champions League Twenty20, also referred to as the CLT20, was an annual international Twenty20 cricket competition played between the top domestic teams from major cricketing nations.

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Chennai (also known as Madras) is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Chennai Central, erstwhile Madras Central, is the main railway terminus in the city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras.

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Chennai district (சென்னை மாவட்டம்), also and formerly known as Madras district, is a district in the state of Tamil Nadu, in India.

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Chennai Egmore (formerly known as Madras Egmore) is a railway station in Egmore, Chennai (Madras), South India.

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Chennai International Airport is the primary airport serving the South Indian metropolis of Chennai.

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The Chennai Open (also known during its run as the Gold Flake Open and the Tata Open) is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts.

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Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) is an Indian state-owned oil and gas corporation headquartered in Chennai, India.

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Chennai Port, formerly known as Madras Port, is the second largest port of India, behind the Nhava Sheva Port, and the largest port in the Bay of Bengal.

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The Chennai Super Kings (abbreviated as CSK) are a franchise cricket team based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu that plays in the Indian Premier League (IPL).

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Chennimalai popularly known as the 'Handloom Town' is in Erode district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Cheras were an ancient Dravidian royal dynasty of Tamil origin who ruled in regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India.

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Chettinad cuisine is the cuisine of the Chettinad region of Tamil Nadu state in South India.

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The Chettinad Group is an Indian industrial conglomerate headquartered in Chennai.

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Chidambaram is a town and municipality in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Chief Justice is the name for the presiding member of a supreme court in many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.

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A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g. constituent federal) entity, notably a state (and sometimes a union territory) in India, a territory of Australia, provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan, Philippine Autonomous Regions or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government.

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The Chola dynasty (also called Choda and Cholan) was an ancient dynasty of southern India.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in the state of Tamil Nadu, India is believed to be almost 2000 years old.

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No description.

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Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.

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The Church of South India (CSI) is the successor of the Church of England in India after Indian Independence.

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Chutney (Hindi/ Nepali - "चटनी" also transliterated chatney or chatni, چٽڻي) is a side dish in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent that can vary from a tomato relish to a ground peanut garnish or a yoghurt, cucumber and mint dip, whereas in an offshoot that took root in Anglo-Indian cuisine, is usually a tart fruit such as sharp apples, rhubarb or damson pickle made milder by an equal weight of (usually demerera or brown sugar) and vinegar that traditionally aims to give a long shelf life so that fall fruit can be preserved for use throughout the year, as are jams, jellies and pickles, or else to be sold as a commercial product.

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Cinchona, common name quina, is a genus of about 25 recognized species in the family Rubiaceae, native to the tropical Andes forests of western South America.

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Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in San Jose, California, that designs, manufactures, and sells networking equipment.

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City Municipal Corporations of Tamil Nadu are the local governing bodies of the cities in Tamil Nadu.

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A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.

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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Classics (also Classical Studies) is the study of the languages, literature, laws, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other material culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; especially during Classical Antiquity (ca. BCE 600 – AD 600).

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The Coastline of Tamil Nadu is located on the southeast coast of Indian Peninsula, and forms a part of Coromandel Coast of Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean.

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A cockfight is a blood sport between two roosters (cocks), or more accurately gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.

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The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family).

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Cognizant Technology Solutions is an American multinational corporation that provides custom information technology, consulting, and business process outsourcing services.

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Coimbatore also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu.

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Coimbatore International Airport is the primary airport serving the city of Coimbatore in South India.

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Coimbatore Junction, also known as Coimbatore Main, is the primary railway station serving Coimbatore city.

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The College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG) is a public engineering college in Chennai, India.

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Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) is a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

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The common emerald dove is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and east through Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia, to northern and eastern Australia.

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Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) is an American multinational corporation that provides information technology (IT) services and professional services.

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Coonoor is a Taluk and a municipality in the Nilgiris district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Phalacrocoracidae is a family of some 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.

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Courtallam (குற்றாலம்) or Kutralam, Spa of South India, is a panchayat town situated at a mean elevation of on the Western Ghats in Tirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Cuddalore, is a town which is the headquarters of the Cuddalore District in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Cuddalore District (கடலூர் மாவட்டம்) is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.

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Alsophila is a section in the subgenus Cyathea.

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() is a German multinational automotive corporation.

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The Dalmia Group refers to a grouping of Indian companies, which trace their origin to the businesses established by Ramkrishna Dalmia and Jaidayal Dalmia.

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Darasuram or Dharasuram is a panchayat town located 3 kilometres from Kumbakonam in Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The darters or snakebirds are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae having a single genus Anhinga.

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The Day of Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Aşure Günü) is on the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram. Shiite celebrations of the Day of Ashura have traditionally included masochistic rituals which have been condemned by many religious authorities recently under the claim that such practices are wrong or unislamic. This day is commemorated by Sunni Muslims (who refer to it as The Day of Atonement) as the day on which the Israelites were freed from the Pharaoh (called 'Firaun' in Arabic) of Egypt. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrates that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, “What is this?” They said, “This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day.” He said, “We are closer to Musa than you.” So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast.Sahih Bukhari Book 31 Hadith 222, Book 55 Hadith 609, and Book 58 Hadith 279,; Sahih Muslim Book 6 Hadith 2518, 2519, 2520 Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan,, Al-Mawrid However, Shi'a Muslims reject these stories and maintain that Ashura is a day of great sorrow due to the tragic events of Karbala. It is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). The massacre of Husayn with small group of his companions and family members had great impact on the religious conscience of Muslims. Especially Shia Muslims have ever remembered it with sorrow and passion. Mourning for Husayn and his companions began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala, by his survivor relatives and supporters. Popular elegies were made by poets to commemorate Battle of Karbala during Umayyads and Abbasids era. The earliest public mourning rituals happened in 963 CE during Buyid dynasty. Nowadays, in some countries such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Pakistan, the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and most ethnic and religious communities participate in it. Even in a predominantly Hindu majority but secular country like India, Ashura (10th day in the month of Muharram) is a public holiday due to the presence of a significant Indian Shia Muslim population (2-3% of total population, 20-25% of Indian Muslim population).

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DD Podhigai (பொதிகை தொலைக்காட்சி) is Doordarshan's Tamil language regional channel.

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The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties of various ethnic backgrounds (Afghan, Turk, Mongol etc.) that ruled late medieval kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India.

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The Deccan thorn scrub forests is a xeric shrubland ecoregion of India and northernmost Sri Lanka, a large area that was once forest and home to large numbers of elephants and tigers.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is the Capital territory of India.

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Dell Inc. is an American privately owned multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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In South India, a devadasi (deva (god) or devi (goddess)) is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life.

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Dharmapuri is a town and the administrative headquarters of Dharmapuri district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Dharmapuri District is a district in Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Dheeran Chinnamalai (born as Chinnamalai Theerthagiri Gounder; 17 April 1756 - 31 July 1805) was a Kongu chieftain and Palayakkarar from Tamil Nadu who fought against the British East India Company.

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The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.

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Dindigul is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Dindigul district is an administrative region in the south of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Krishna Kumar Dinesh Karthik (born 1 June 1985) is an Indian wicketkeeper-batsman who made his debut for the Indian cricket team in 2004 and has been a regular member of the team for varying periods since then, including a stint in 2007 as a specialist opening batsman and non-wicket-keeper.

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Direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) is a type of artificial satellite which usually sends satellite television signals for home reception.

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A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is the foremost Indian Administrative Service officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.

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Doordarshan (often abbreviated DD) is autonomous India's Central Government founded public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati.

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Dosa is a fermented crepe made from rice batter and black lentils.

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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) (lit. "Dravidian Progress Federation") (founded 1949, Madras Presidency, India), a former member of the United Progressive Alliance is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India.

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Dravida Nadu (திராவிட நாடு, ద్రవిడ నాడు, Kannada: ದ್ರಾವಿಡ ನಾಡು, Malayalam: ദ്രാവിഡ നാട്), also known as Dravidistan or Dravidadesa, was the name of a proposed sovereign state demanded by Justice Party led by E. V. Ramasamy and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led by C. N. Annadurai for the speakers of the Dravidian languages in South Asia.

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Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was one of the first Dravidian parties in India.

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Dravidian architecture was an architectural idiom that emerged in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India.

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Dravidian parties (திராவிடக்கட்சிகள்) include an array of regional political parties in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, which trace their origins and ideologies either directly or indirectly to the Dravidian movement of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.

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Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds which also includes swans and geese.

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The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.

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The Eastern Ghats or Pūrva Ghaṭ, also known as Mahendra Pravata, are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast.

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eBay Inc. is an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company, providing consumer to consumer & business to consumer sales services via Internet.

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Ebony is a dense black wood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros.

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Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.

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An egret is a bird that is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى,, "Festival of the Sacrifice"), also called the Feast of Sacrifice or Bakr-Eid, is the second of two religious holidays celebrated by Muslims worldwide each year.

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Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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Ekambaranathar Temple (ஏகாம்பரநாதர் கோயில்) or Ekambareswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva, located in Kanchipuram in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one is the employer and the other is the employee.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Ennore Port, officially renamed Kamarajar Port Limited, is located on the Coromandel Coast about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, it is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in India which is a public company.

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Erode is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Erode District (previously known as Periyar District) is a district in the Kongu Nadu region (western part) of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Ervadi or Erwadi is a village in Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu in southern India belonging to Kadaladi Taluk and Keelakarai Town panchayat.

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An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Eucalyptus L'Heritier 1789 is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.

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Field hockey, or simply hockey, is a team sport of the hockey family.

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Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Flextronics International Ltd. (simply known as Flex or Flextronics) is an international supply chain solutions company that offers design, manufacturing, distribution and aftermarket services to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

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The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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The Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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Fort St George (or historically, White Town) is the name of the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai.

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Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as Foxconn Technology Group, is a Taiwanese multinational electronics contract manufacturing company headquartered in Tucheng, New Taipei, Taiwan.

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Ganesh Chaturthi (Vinayaka Chaturthi, Gaṇēśa Caturthī or Vināyaka Caviti) is the Hindu festival celebrated in honour of the elephant-headed god Ganesha.

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Gangaikonda Cholapuram (Tamil: கங்கைகொண்ட சோழபுரம்) was built during medieval india and was erected as the capital of the Cholas by Rajendra Chola I, the son and successor of Rajaraja Chola, the great Chola who conquered a large area in South India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Sumatra, Kadaram (Kedah in Malaysia), Cambodia and others at the beginning of the 11th century A.D. It occupies an important place in the history of India.

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The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine, native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

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A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country).

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George Francis Robert Harris, 3rd Baron Harris GCSI (14 August 1810 – 23 November 1872), was a British peer, Liberal politician and colonial administrator.

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Ghana, officially called the Republic of Ghana, is a sovereign unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India and is commonly used in South Asian cuisines, traditional medicine, and religious rituals.

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Gloriosa is a genus of 12 species in the plant family Colchicaceae, and include the formerly recognised genus Littonia.

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Gobichettipalayam (also known as Gobi) is a town and municipality in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting many of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India.

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The Government of India (GoI), officially known as the Union Government and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India.

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The Government of Tamil Nadu is the governing authority for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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A gram panchayat is the cornerstone of a local self-government organisation in India of the Panchayati raj system at the village or small town level, and has a Sarpanch as its elected head.The members of the Gram panchayat are elected for a period of five years.

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The title Grandmaster is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.

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The Great Famine of 1876–78 (also the Southern India famine of 1876–78 or the Madras famine of 1877) was a famine in India that began in 1876 and affected south and southwestern India (Madras, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Bombay) for a period of two years.

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The Great Living Chola Temples are temples built during the Chola rule in the south of India and neighboring islands.

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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Green Revolution in India was a period during which agriculture in India increased its yields due to improved agronomic technology.It allows less developed countries like India, to overcome chronic food defects.

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The large flowering plant genus Grewia is today placed by most authors in the mallow family Malvaceae, in the expanded sense as proposed by in the APG.

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The grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura) is a large tree squirrel in the genus Ratufa found in the highlands of the Central and Uva provinces of Sri Lanka, and in patches of riparian forest along the Kaveri River and in the hill forests in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of southern India.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Gross state product (GSP), or gross regional product (GRP), is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province (i.e., of a subnational entity).

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Guindy National Park is a Protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of India and one of the very few national parks situated inside a city.

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The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean.

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The Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park (மன்னார் வளைகுடா தேசிய கடல்சார் உயிரியல் பூங்கா) is a protected area of India consisting of 21 small islands (islets) and adjacent coral reefs in the Gulf of Mannar in the Indian Ocean.

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The Gymkhana Club is one of the two 18-hole golf courses in Chennai, India.

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The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales.

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Habenaria, commonly called bog orchids, are a far ranging genus of orchid.

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The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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A harvest festival is an annual celebration and that occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region.

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HCL Technologies Limited is a global IT services company, headquartered in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species (some are called "egrets" or "bitterns" instead of "heron").

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The Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) is an American global information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States.

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Hexaware Technologies Limited (HTL) is an information technology and business process outsourcing service provider company based in Navi Mumbai, India.

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A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.

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A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley.

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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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A Hindu temple (Sanskrit: मन्दिर mandir, प्रासाद prāsāda) is a house of god(s).

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Hindustan Motors is an Indian automotive manufacturer based in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

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Hogenakkal Falls or Hogenakal Falls is a waterfall in South India on the river Kaveri.

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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of vegetable garden plant growing.

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Hosur is a town and a municipality in Krishnagiri district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Hyundai Group was a multinational chaebol (conglomerate) headquartered in Seoul, South Korea.

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International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York.

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Idiyappam (இடியாப்ப‌ம்),(ഇടിയപ്പം), (ඉඳි ආප්ප) also known as Nooputt (or Noolputtu)(Kodava: ನೋಲ್ ಪೂಟ್ಟ್) or string hoppers is a traditional Tamil, Kerala, Kodava, Tulu and Sri Lankan food consisting of rice flour pressed into noodle form and then steamed.

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Idli is a traditional breakfast in South Indian households.

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Ilaiyaraaja (born Gnanadesikan) is an Indian film composer who works predominantly in the South Indian cinema since the late 1970s.

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Impatiens is a genus of about 850 to 1,000 species of flowering plants, widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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The Indian Administrative Service (abbreviated as IAS) (भारतीय प्रशासनिक सेवा) is the premierhttp://persmin.gov.in/ais1/Docs/ServiceProfile.pdf administrative civil service of the Government of India.

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The Indian Councils Act 1909 (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.

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The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia.

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The Indian famine of 1896–1897 was a famine that began in Bundelkhand, India, early in 1896 and spread to many parts of the country, including the United Provinces, the Central Provinces and Berar, Bihar, parts of the Bombay and Madras presidencies, and the Hissar district of the Punjab; in addition, the princely states of Rajputana, Central India Agency, and Hyderabad were affected by the famine.

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The Indian general election, 2014 polls in Tamil Nadu were held for 39 seats in the state on 24 April 2014.

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The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).

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Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli (also known as IIM T or IIM Trichy) is a public graduate business school located at Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) or IIT-M is an autonomous public engineering and research institution located in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent.

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The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.

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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface.

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The Indian Premier League is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested annually by franchise teams representing Indian cities.

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Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.

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This is a list of the States of India ranked in order of number of children born for each woman.

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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (IGWLS&NP) is a protected area located in the Anaimalai Hills of Pollachi, Valparai and Udumalpet taluks of Coimbatore District and Tirupur District, Tamil Nadu state, South India.

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Infosys Limited (formerly Infosys Technologies Limited) is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology, software engineering and outsourcing services.

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INS Parundu is an Indian naval air station located near Uchipuli in the Ramanathapuram district of the state of Tamil Nadu.

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INS Rajali, also informally known as Arakkonam Naval Air Station, is an Indian naval air station located near Arakkonam in Tamil Nadu in southern India.

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Integral Coach Factory (ICF) is an Indian manufacturer of rail coaches located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (English: International Hockey Federation), commonly known by the acronym FIH is the international governing body of field hockey and indoor field hockey.

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Invocation to Mother Tamil (தமிழ் தாய் வாழ்த்து) is the State song of the Government of Tamil Nadu.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iravatham Mahadevan (born 2 October 1930) is an Indian epigraphist and former civil servant, known for his successful decipherment of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and for his expertise on the epigraphy of the Indus Valley Civilization.

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Irizar Group is a Spanish-based builder of luxury coach vehicle bodies, established in 1889.

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.

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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Jallikattu (Tamil: சல்லிகட்டு, callikaṭṭtu) also known Eruthazhuvuthal (Tamil: ஏறுதழுவல், ērutazhuval) or Manju viraṭṭu (Tamil: மஞ்சு விரட்டு), is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day.

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"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.

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Jasmine (taxonomic name Jasminum) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae).

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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, is a multipurpose stadium and has a capacity of 40,000.

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Jayalalithaa Jayaram (born 24 February 1948), commonly referred to as Jayalalithaa, Jaya or Amma (translates to mother in English), is an Indian politician and the incumbent Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, in office since 2015.

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Jewellery or jewelrysee American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.

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Jigarthanda is a south Indian beverage.

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The Justice Party, officially the South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India.

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Kumarasami Kamaraj, better known as K. Kamaraj, (15 July 1903, The Hindu, 8 July 2009 – 2 October 1975, hinduonnet.com. 15–28 September 2001) was an Indian politician from Tamil Nadu widely acknowledged as the "Kingmaker" in Indian politics during the 1960s.

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Kabaddi is a contact sport that originated in Ancient India.

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The Kalabhras dynasty (களப்பிரர்) ruled over the entire Ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum.

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Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), (Tamil:களக்காடு முண்டந்துறை புலிகள் சரணாலயம்) located in the Southern Western Ghats in Tirunelveli District and Kanyakumari District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is the second-largest protected area in Tamil Nadu State (behind only Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary in Erode).

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Kalanithi Maran (born 1964) is an Indian media baron who is the chairman and managing director of Sun Group, which was the most profitable television network in Asia.

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Kalaiyar Kovil is a place which is situated in Sivaganga District, Tamil Nadu, India which was ruled by the Maruthu Pandiyar.

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Kalidas (The Servant of Kali), also known as Kalidasa, is a 1931 Indian Tamil biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani.

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The kanchi Kailasanathar temple is the oldest structure in Kanchipuram.

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Kanchipuram otherwise known as Kanchi (previously romanized as Kāñci-pura, Conjevaram) is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.

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Kanchipuram district (காஞ்சிபுரம் மாவட்டம்) is a district in the northeast of the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

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Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa) or Canarese/Kanarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in the South Indian state of Karnataka, and by linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Goa.

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Kanyakumari (கன்னியாகுமரி); also known as Kanniyakumari), formerly known as Cape Comorin, is a town in Kanyakumari District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The name comes from the temple, Devi Kanya Kumari Temple in the region. It is the southernmost tip of peninsular India. Kanya kumari town is the southern tip of the Cardamom Hills, an extension of the Western Ghats range. The nearest town is Nagercoil, the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District, away. Kanyakumari was a town since Sangam period and is a popular tourist destination.

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Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.

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Karakattam (கரகாட்டம் or "karakam (கரகம் 'water pot') dance") is an ancient folk dance of Tamil Nadu performed in praise of the rain goddess Mariamman.

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Kari Motor Speedway is a purpose built auto racing circuit or race track, located in Orratukuppai, Chettipalayam, Coimbatore, India.

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Karnataka is a state in south western region of India.

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Kartikeya (Sanskrit Kārtikēya "son of Kṛttikā" Tamil: Kārttikēyaṉ), also known as Skanda, Kumaran, Kumara Swami and Subramaniyan is the Hindu god of war.

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Karun Chandhok (Tamil: கருன் சாந்தோக்) (born January 19, 1984) is an Indian racing driver, who competes in Formula E for Mahindra Racing.

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Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born Dakshinamurthy, 3 June 1924) is an Indian politician who has served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on five separate occasions.

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Karuppu Sami is one of the regional Tamil male deities popular among the rural social groups of Tamil Nadu and parts of Kerala.

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Karur is the administrative headquarters of Karur District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Karur District is a district located along the Kaveri and Amaravathi rivers in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Kattaikkuttu is a rural theatre form practiced in the State of Tamil Nadu in South India.

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The Kaveri or Cauvery in English, is a large Indian river.

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Kazimar Periya Pallivasal or Kazimar Big Mosque is a famous mosque (masjid) located at the heart of Madurai city, within 500 metres of the Periyar (Central) bus stand and within 1 kilometre South East of the Madurai Junction and 800 meters south west of the Meenakshi Temple.

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Kazimar Street is an ancient street in Madurai, India, where people inhabited during 13th century AD.

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Keechaka Vadham (The Slaying of Keechaka), alternatively spelt as Keechaka Vatham, was a 1918 Indian silent film produced and directed by R. Nataraja Mudaliar.

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Kerala, sometimes referred to in historical terms as Keralam, is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast.

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The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire (c.

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A kite is a tethered object with surfaces that react with a fluid (water, air, gas, plasma) to create lift and drag; often the result is flying in air or water of the wing parts of a kite.

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Kodaikanal is a city in the hills of the Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Kodaikanal Golf Club is a private membership club with an 18 hole, par 71 Golf course.

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Kodambakkam is a residential neighbourhood in the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Kolkata, formerly Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Kolli Hills or Kolli Malai is a tall hill range located in central Tamil Nadu in the Namakkal district.

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Kongu Nadu is a region comprising the western part of the Tamil Nadu India.

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Konijeti Rosaiah (born 4 July 1933) is the current Governor of Tamil Nadu.

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Kootu (Tamil:கூட்டு) is a Tamil word means 'add' i.e. vegetable added with lentils which form the dish, made of vegetable and lentils and are semi-solid in consistency, i.e., less aqueous than sambhar, but more so than dry curries.

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Korkai is a small village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण, in IAST, pronounced) is a Hindu deity, worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives.

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Krishnagiri is a municipaly town and administrative headquarters of Krishnagiri District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Krishnagiri district is a district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Krishnamachari Srikkanth (born 21 December 1959) also known as Kris Srikkanth is a former captain of the Indian cricket team and former chairman of the selection committee.

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Krishnan Sasikiran (born January 7, 1981) is an Indian chess Grandmaster.

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Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power station in Koodankulam in the Tirunelveli district of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Kumbakonam, also spelt as Coombaconum in the records of British India, is a town and a special grade municipality in the Thanjavur district in the southeast Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Kurinjipadi (also spelt as Kurinjippadi) is a taluk in Cuddalore district in the India, state of Tamil Nadu.

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Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी) is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune, and prosperity (both material and spiritual), as well as the embodiment of beauty.

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Lakshmipathy (or Lakshmi) Balaji (லக்ஷ்மிபதி பாலாஜி,, born 27 September 1981) is an Indian cricketer.

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There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by most of the rest of Indians.

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The Constitution of India designates a bilingual approach for official language of the Government of India employing usage of Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.

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Laxman Sivaramakrishnan (born 31 December 1965, Madras), popularly known as Siva and LS, is a former Indian cricketer.

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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship.

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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), or the wanderoo, is an Old World monkey endemic to the Western Ghats of South India.

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The complete list of Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Tamil Nadu in India since 1920.

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A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.

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There are 552 engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu as of July 2014.

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The Governor of Tamil Nadu is the constitutional head of the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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There are 24 High Courts at the state and union territory level of India which, together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.

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This page lists Indian States and major cities by their nominal gross domestic product (GDP).

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Tamil Nadu is home to some of the most reputed institutes for higher education in India.

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This is a list of Hindu Temples in terms of area.

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The list of most populous towns in Tamil Nadu provides the population of towns in Tamil Nadu, the 7th largest state in India.

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India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national and state level parties.

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This is a list of unofficial, or quasi-official, regions of India.

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The following is a list of states and territories of India by area.

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India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.

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This is a list of television stations in the Tamil language.

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The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Tamil is an official or language of government.

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List of countries by GDP may refer to.

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Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 75% (2011 figure) from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947.

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The little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), also known as dabchick, is a member of the grebe family of water birds.

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The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's Bicameral-Parliament, with the higher house being the Rajya Sabha.

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The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium or Chepauk Stadium is a cricket stadium in Chennai (formerly Madras), India.

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Marudhur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known by the acronym MGR, was an Indian film actor who worked primarily in Tamil films as an actor, director, producer, and politician who also served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu successively for three terms.

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Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian geneticist and international administrator, renowned for his leading role in India's Green Revolution a program under which high-yield varieties of wheat and rice seedlings were planted in the fields of poor farmers.

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Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) located at Kalpakkam about south of Chennai, India, is a comprehensive nuclear power production, fuel reprocessing, and waste treatment facility that includes plutonium fuel fabrication for fast breeder reactors (FBRs).

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The Madras Boat Club, located in the South of India, in the historic city of Chennai is one of the oldest rowing centres in India.

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The Madras High Court (Tamil: சென்னை உயர் நீதிமன்றம்) is the highest court in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; it is located in Chennai, formerly known as Madras.

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The Madras Medical College is an educational institution located in Chennai, India.

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The Madras Motor Race Track (previously known as Irungattukottai Race Track) is a permanent motor racing circuit located in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur, Chennai, India.

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Madras Motor Sports Club is an Indian auto racing club founded in 1952 and based in Chennai, India.

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Madras Music Season is an event hosted every December–January in the present-day south Indian metropol of Chennai.

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The Madras Presidency, officially the Presidency of Fort St.

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Madras State was a former state in the Republic of India.

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Madurai is a major city in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.

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Madurai Airport is a primary airport serving Madurai in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Madurai district is second largest in population of the 32 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India.

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Madurai Junction railway station(Tamil:மதுரை சந்திப்பு ரயில் நிலையம்) is an important Junction railway station in South India and the primary railway station serving the city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu.

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The Madurai Nayaks were rulers from around 1529 AD until 1736 AD, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital.

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Mahabalipuram, also known as Mamallapuram is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Mahendravarma I (மகேந்திரவர்மன் 600–630 CE) was a Pallava king who ruled the Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century.

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Mahesh Shrinivas Bhupathi (born 7 June 1974) is an Indian professional tennis player.

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Mahindra and Mahindra Limited (M&M) is an Indian multinational automobile manufacturing corporation headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

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Mahipala (or Mahipala I) was a notable king of the Pala dynasty which ruled over much of Eastern India between the 8th and 12th century.

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The Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, คาบสมุทรมลายู) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Malayalam, sometimes referred to as Kairali, is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala.

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Manali is an Industrial area and a zone in Corporation of Chennai and located in Thiruvallur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 514,417 in 2013.

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The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit.

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Mangroves are various large and extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics—mainly between latitudes ° N and ° S.

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Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla, is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.

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Manuel Aaron (born 30 December 1935) was the first Indian chess master in the second half of the 20th century.

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Marco Polo (September 15, 1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.

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Māri (மாரி), also known as Mariamman (மாரியம்மன்) and Mariaai (Marathi: मरी आई), both meaning "Mother Mari", spelt also Maariamma (மாரியம்மா), or simply Amman or Aatha (அம்மன், "mother") is the South Indian Hindu goddess of rain.

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Marimutthu Pillai (1712 - 1787 CE) was a composer of Carnatic music and, along with Arunachala Kavi and Muthu Thandavar, was one of the pioneering Tamil Trinity of Carnatic music.

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Marina Beach (Tamil: மரினா) is a natural urban beach in the city of Chennai, India, along the Bay of Bengal, part of the Indian Ocean.

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Marudhanayagam is a long-delayed high budget Indian Tamil language film directed and produced by Kamal Haasan.

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The Marudhu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu towards the end of the 18th century.

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Mawlid (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is celebrated often on the 12th day of Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.

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Mayilattam (Tamil:மயிலாட்டம்) is an artistic and religious form of dance performed in the Hindu temples of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in reverence to Lord Subrahmanya.

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Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is a field hockey stadium at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Medical tourism is a form of health tourism commonly referring to the travel of people to another country for the purpose of obtaining medical treatment in that country.

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Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history.

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Meenakshi Amman Temple (also called: Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple, Tiru-aalavaai and Meenakshi Amman Kovil) is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Melam or Mathalam is the common name for percussion instruments that are unique to Tamil Nadu, Kerala and parts of South India.

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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Mettupalayam is a taluk of Coimbatore Rural district, located to the north of the city of Coimbatore on the way to Ooty.

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Mettur is an industrial and tourism town located in the Salem district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Mettur Dam is one of the largest dams in India built in 1934.

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Michelin (or;; full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a tire manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France.

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The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide.

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Mindtree is a multinational information technology and outsourcing company headquartered in Bengaluru, India and New Jersey.

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The Ministry of Tourism, a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws relating to the development and promotion of tourism in India.

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is a multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae.

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Moser Baer India Limited is an Indian manufacturer of digital storage devices.

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Motorola, Inc. was a multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States (U.S.). After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011.

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Mphasis is a Bangalore based IT services company, owned by Hewlett-Packard.

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Madras Rubber Factory Limited (abbreviated as MRF) is a private-sector company, which is the largest manufacturer of tyres in India.

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MRF Pace Foundation is a coaching clinic for training fast bowlers from all over the world.

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The Mudumalai National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary also a declared Tiger Reserve, lies on the northwestern side of the Nilgiri Hills (Blue Mountains), in Nilgiri District, about north-west of Coimbatore city in Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu.

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Mukurthi National Park (MNP) is a 78.46 km² protected area located in the western corner of the Nilgiris Plateau west of Ootacamund hill station in the northwest corner of Tamil Nadu state in the Western Ghats mountain range of South India.

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The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative and the United Nations Development Programme and uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists.

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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.

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Municipal governance in India has existed since the year 1687, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726.

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A municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction.

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Murali Vijay (born 1 April 1984) is an Indian international cricketer.

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The Mushika Kingdom (also called the Ezhimalai Kingdom, Puzhinadu, or Mushaka Rajya) was an ancient kingdom of the Tamil Sangam age in present day Northern Kerala, India, ruled by a royal dynasty of the same name.

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Muthu Thandavar (1525 - 1600 CE) was composer of Carnatic music.

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Mutharaiyar or Muthuraja are Tamil-speaking community of landowners.

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Muthuswami Dikshitar (March 24, 1775 – October 21, 1835) was a South Indian poet and composer and is one of the Musical Trinity of Carnatic music.

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Muziris was an ancient seaport and urban center in the Malabar Coast (modern day Indian state of Kerala) that dates from at least the 1st century BC, if not before it.

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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Naattupurapaattu is a form of Tamil folk music.

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The nadaswaram, nagaswaram, nadhaswaram or nathaswaram (Tamil:நாதஸ்வரம்), is a double reed wind instrument.

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Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.

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Nagapattinam District is a coastal district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Nagercoil (நாகர்கோவில்,, lit. "Temple of the Nāgas") is a town in the southernmost Indian state of Tamil Nadu and a municipality and administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District.

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Namakkal or Namagiri is a city and a municipality in Namakkal district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Namakkal District is an administrative district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Kumar Ram Narain Karthikeyan (born 14 January 1977, in Coimbatore) is the first Formula One motor racing driver from India.

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Narasimhavarman I (ுதலாம் நரசிம்மவர்மன்.) was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 CE.

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Narasimhavarman II (r. 700 - 728 CE), popularly known as Rajasimha Pallava, was a ruler of the Pallava kingdom.

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The National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) is a trade association of Indian Information Technology (IT) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry.

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Nataraja (Tamil:"நடராசர்" or Kooththan"கூத்தன்), The Lord (or King) of Dance), is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for the god Brahma to start the process of creation.

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The National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (NITT), also referred to as National Institute of Technology, Trichy, formerly Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli, is a public engineering and technology university located 20 km near the city of Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Natural Resources are all that exists without the actions of humankind.

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Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

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Navaratri is a festival dedicated to the worship of the Hindu deity Durga.

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Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801.

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Nayaka dynasties emerged after the downfall of Vijayanagara Empire.

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The Nayanars (alt. Nayanmars, Tamil: நாயன்மார்கள், lit. "hounds of Siva", later "teachers of Siva") were a group of 63 saints (also saint poets) in the 6th to 8th century who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva in Tamil Nadu.

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Nellaiappar Temple (Tamil: நெல்லைஅப்பர் திருக்கோவில்) is one of the famous Lord Shiva Temples situated at the heart of Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Neyveli is a mining and power generation township in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills ranges of South India.

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The Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is a lutung (a type of Old World monkey) found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in South India.

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The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a railway in Tamil Nadu, India, built by the British in 1908, and was initially operated by the Madras Railway.

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The Nilgiri (blue mountains), are a range of mountains forming a part of the Western Ghats situated in the western part of Tamil Nadu state at the junction of Karnataka and Kerala states in Southern India.

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The Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) known locally as the Nilgiri ibex or simply ibex, is an ungulate that is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India.

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The Nilgiris District is in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Nirupama Sanjeev (née: Vaidyanathan; born 8 December 1976) is a retired Indian professional tennis player.

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, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

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Nokia Corporation (Nokia Oyj) is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company.

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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oomathurai (ஊமைத்துரை (real name Duraisingam), died 16 November 1801) was an Indian Poligar (Palaiyakkarar) from Tamil Nadu, who fought against the British East India Company in the Polygar Wars.

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Udhagamandalam (sometimes Ootacamund), sometimes abbreviated Udhagai and better known as Ooty, is a town, a municipality, and the district capital of the Nilgiris district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Ooty Golf Course is located in the town of Ooty in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

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Tamil Nadu is the 11th biggest, sixth most populous, and fourteenth most literate state of the 28 states of the democratic Republic of India.

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An ox-wagon or bullock wagon is a four-wheeled vehicle pulled by oxen (draught cattle).

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The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) is an economic research centre within the Oxford Department of International Development at the University of Oxford, England, that was established in 2007.

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The Paddu (Kannada:ಪಡ್ಡು) or Kuzhi paniyaram in Tamil is a dish made by steaming batter — traditionally made from pulses (specifically black lentils) and rice using a mould.

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Palaiyakkarar, Poligar, Palegaadu, Polygar, Palegar, or Polegar was the feudal title for a class of territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India (notably Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayakas and the Kakatiya dynasty) during 16th – 18th centuries.

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Palani (or Pazhani) is a town and a municipality in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, located about 100 km north-west of Madurai and 100 km South-east of Coimbatore and 60 km west of Dindigul.

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The Palk Strait (பாக்கு சலசந்தி / பாக்கு நீரிணை) is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Mannar district of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka.

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The Pallava dynasty existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India.

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The Palni Hills (also Palani Hills) are a mountain range in Tamil Nadu state of South India.

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The Pamban Bridge is a railway bridge on the Palk Strait which connects the town of Rameswaram on Pamban Island to mainland India.

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Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, is an island located between peninsular India and Sri Lanka.

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The Pandyan or Pandiyan or Pandian dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.

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Papadum or papad (பப்படம் (ପାମ୍ପଡ) पापड़, ਪਾਪਡ, Nepali and पापड, પાપડ, ಹಪ್ಪಳ happala, Assamese and পাপড papod, പപ്പടം pappadam, అప్పడాలు appadalu, پاپڑ.) is a thin, crisp disc-shaped Indian and Pakistani food typically based on a seasoned dough usually made from peeled black gram flour (urad flour), fried or cooked with dry heat.

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Paramakudi is a town, a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Parantaka Chola II (957–970 CE) ruled for about twelve years.

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Parantaka Chola I (முதலாம் பராந்தக சோழன்) (907–955) ruled the Chola kingdom in southern India for forty-eight years, annexing Pandya.

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Paripaadal (பரிபாடல், a classical Tamil poetic work, is the fifth book in the Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Paripaatal contains seventy poems on various deities of the Hindu pantheon. This is a rare example of religious poetry we find in Sangam literature and is possibly the oldest religious composition in Tamil. The poems have associated music (பண்) so that these can be classified as songs (இசைப்பா). There are eight songs on Thirumaal (Vishnu), 31 songs on Kumaran (Muruga), one song on the Sea God, 26 on the mother Vaigai and four songs on Madurai. These songs are written in the 'Paripaatal' meter. One of the popular songs in this work is the one attributed to Katuvan Ilaveyinanar: To திருமால் (Vishnu): தீயினுள் தெறல் நீ; பூவினுள் நாற்றம் நீ; கல்லினுள் மணியும் நீ; சொல்லினுள் வாய்மை நீ; அறத்தினுள் அன்பு நீ; மறத்தினுள் மைந்து நீ; வேதத்து மறை நீ; பூதத்து முதலும் நீ; வெஞ் சுடர் ஒளியும் நீ; திங்களுள் அளியும் நீ; அனைத்தும் நீ; அனைத்தின் உட்பொருளும் நீ; You are the heat within the fire; Fragrance within the flower; Gem within the stone; Truth within the word; Mercy within justice; Might behind valour; Secret within the scripture; Foremost among elements; Splendour in the sun; Coolness in the moon; You are everything; and also the inner substance of these. (Paripadal, iii: 63-68).

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Pariyur is a panchayat village located near Gobichettipalayam in Erode District of Tamil Nadu state, India.

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PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system.

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Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (also known as Cotiote Rajah or Pychy Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India.

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Peanut, also known as groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a crop of global importance.

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Perambalur is a municipality town in the state of Tamil Nadu (Republic of India).

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Perambalur (Tamil: பெரம்பலூர் மாவட்டம்) is an administrative district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

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Perambur is a locality in the northern region of the metropolitan city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu state, India.

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The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Perundurai is a panchayat town in Erode district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.

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Pichavaram is located near Chidambaram in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, in South India.

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A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada or generically as gherkins in the United Kingdom) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.

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A plate is a broad, concave, but mainly flat vessel on which food can be served.

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Polaris (Ursae Minoris, UMi, commonly the North Star or Pole Star) is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor, and the 50th brightest star in the night sky.

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Pollachi is a town and a taluk headquarters in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu state, India.

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Polygar Wars or Palayaikarar Wars refers to the wars fought between the Polygars (Palaiyakkarars) of former Tirunelveli Kingdom in Tamil Nadu, India and the British East India Company forces between March 1799 to May 1802 or July 1805.

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A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.

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A portmanteau (plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words, or their phones (sounds), and their meanings are combined into a new word.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.

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Poverty is general scarcity dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money.

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Pratham is one of the largest non-governmental organisations in India.

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President's rule refers to Article 356 of the Constitution of India that deals with the failure of the constitutional machinery of an Indian state.

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Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological and/or cultural values.

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Pteridophytes or Pteridophyta, in the broad interpretation of the term (or sensu lato), are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce and disperse via spores.

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Puducherry, formerly known as Pondicherry, is a Union Territory of India formed out of four exclaves of former French India (being its capital, hence also known informally as Pondicherry) and named after the largest Puducherry district.

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Pudukkottai is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Pudukkottai District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Poompugar (பூம்புகார்) is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Puli Thevar (புலித் தேவர்) was a poligar (or palayakarar) who ruled Nerkattumseval situated in the Sankarankoil taluk of Tamil Nadu.

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Pulicat (Pazhaverkadu) is a historic seashore town in "north of Chennai" in Thiruvallur District, of Tamil Nadu state, South India.

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Puttu (Malayalam: പുട്ട്), pronounced, (Tamil: புட்டு), (Sinhala පිට්ටු) is a South Indian and Tamil breakfast dish of steamed cylinders of ground rice layered with coconut.

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Pykara is the name of a village and river from Ooty in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu.

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Raghuram Govind Rajan (born 3 February 1963) is the current and the 23rd Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, having taken charge of India's central banking institution on 4 September 2013, and succeeding Duvvuri Subbarao.

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Raja Raja Chola I (also known as Raja Kesari Varman Raja Raja Devar and Peruvudaiyar), was one of the greatest emperors of India, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE.

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Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I and is considered one of the greatest rulers and military leaders of the Indian Tamil Chola Empire.

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Ramana Maharshi (30 December 1879 – 14 April 1950) was an Indian sage and jivanmukta.

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Ramanathan Krishnan (born 11 April 1937, Boothapandi Village, Nagercoil, India) is a retired tennis player from India who was among the world's leading players in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Ramanathapuram, also known as Ramnad or முகவை, is a city and a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Ramanathapuram District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Ramanathaswamy Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to god Shiva located on Rameswaram island in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Ramco Systems Limited (MSE–RSST) is a software products and services provider incorporated in India.

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Ramesh Krishnan (ரமேஷ் கிருஷ்ணன்) (born 5 June 1961) is a tennis coach and former professional tennis player from India.

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Rameswaram, (also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram or Ramisseram) is a town and a second grade municipality in the Ramanathapuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple or Thiruvarangam Tamil: திருவரங்கம் is a Hindu temple dedicated to Ranganatha, a reclining form of Hindu deity, Vishnu located in Srirangam, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Ranipet also known as Ranipettai (Rani means queen, pettai means district) is a suburb town and industrial hub of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.

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Ranunculus is a large genus of about 600 species of plants in the Ranunculaceae.

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Rapid transit, also known as metro, subway, underground, or colloquially as "the train", is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Rasam, chaaru, saaru or kabir is a South Indian soup, traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of tomato, chili pepper, pepper, cumin and other spices as seasonings.

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Ravichandran Ashwin (born 17 September 1986) is an Indian international cricketer.

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Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.

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The Reserve Bank of India (RBI, Hindi:भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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Revenue blocks, revenue circles or firka are the local revenue sub-divisions of the various districts of the states of India.

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Rice and curry is a popular dish in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

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Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.

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Bishop Robert Caldwell (7 May 1814 – 28 August 1891) was a missionary and linguist, who academically established the Dravidian family of languages.

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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae.

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Royal Enfield was the name under which the Enfield Cycle Company (founded 1893) made motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines.

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The ryotwari system, instituted in some parts of India, was one of the main systems used to collect revenues from the cultivators of agricultural land.

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Saiva is a genus of Asian lanternbugs, family Fulgoridae.

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Salem Airport) is located in Kamalapuram, 15 kilometres north-west of Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. It serves Salem city and the districts of Salem, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri.

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Salem District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Salem Junction railway station (Station code: SA) is a junction railway station situated in Salem and the headquarters of the Salem Railway Division of the Southern Railway Zone in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open salt water or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.

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Sambar is a lentil-based vegetable stew or chowder based on a broth made with tamarind popular in South Indian and Sri Lankan Tamil cuisines, adapted in each to its taste and environment.

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The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China and Southeast Asia.

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Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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San Thome Basilica (Tamil: சாந்தோம் பசிலிக்கா, Cān-Tōm Pacilikkā; Portuguese: Basílica de São Tomé) is a Roman Catholic (Latin Rite) minor basilica in Santhome, in the city of Chennai (Madras), India.

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The Sangam period (Tamil: சங்ககால பருவம், Cankakāla paruvam ?) is the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Tamilakam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.

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Sankarankovil is a second largest municipality in the Tirunelveli district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Sathyamangalam (also known as Sathy) is a town and municipality in Erode district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve is a protected area and Tiger Reserve along the Western Ghats in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are official designations given to various groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.

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Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu Tennis Stadium, commonly known as SDAT Stadium, sometimes also called Nungambakkam Tennis Stadium, is located in Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, and plays host for the Chennai Open ATP Tennis championships held in the first week of January every year.

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The emblem of Tamil Nadu contains the (West) tower or gopuram of the famous Srivilliputhur Divya Desam temple in Srivilliputhur, at the center in yellow.

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A seaside resort is a resort town or resort hotel, located on the coast.

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Sevai or shyavige or santhakai is a type of rice vermicelli popular in Southern India, particularly Tamil Nadu (Kongunadu region) and Karnataka.

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The Seven Years' War was fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.

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The Shafi'i (شافعي) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Saiva siddhānta, Considered normative tantric Shaivism, provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of tantric Shaivism.

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Shankaracharya (IAST: Śaṅkarācārya, Shankara acharya) is a commonly used title of heads of monasteries called mathas in the Advaita Vedanta tradition.

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Sharabha (शरभ,, ಶರಭ) is a creature in Hindu mythology that is part lion and part bird.

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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shiva (Sanskrit:, meaning "The Auspicious One"), also known as Mahadeva ("Great God"), is one of the main deities of Hinduism.

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Sholavaram is a quiet town north of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Shore Temple (built in 700–728 AD) is so named because it overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal.

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Silambam is a weapon-based Indian martial art from Tamil Nadu, but also traditionally practised by the Tamil community of Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

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Sivaganga (also called Sivagangai) is a town and headquarters of the Sivaganga district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Sivaganga District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in Southern India.

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Sivakasi is a town and municipality in Virudhunagar District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Six Abodes of Murugan (Tamil: Āṟupaṭai vīṭu) are six temples situated in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.

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The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the Stickney bear or labiated bear, is a nocturnal insectivorous bear species found wild within the Indian Subcontinent.

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Snooker is a cue sport played on a table covered with a green cloth or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions.

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Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is a society registered under Indian_Societies_Registration_Act 1860 in India, established in 1991 under the Companies Act 2013, and Income Tax Act 1961.

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The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.

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Sony Mobile Communications Inc. (formerly Sony Ericsson) is a multinational mobile phone manufacturing company jointly headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, and Lund, Sweden, and is a wholly owned by Younus Appakkadan.

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The South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests is a dry broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India.

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South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters.

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The Southern Railway, headquartered at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, is one of the 17 zones of Indian Railways.

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Spinning is a major part of the textile industry.

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Spoonbills are a group of large, long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, which also includes the ibises.

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The spot-billed pelican or grey pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) is a member of the pelican family.

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Squash is a racquet sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.

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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.

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Sri Vaishnav Sampradaya or Sri Vaishnavism is a Vaishnava sect within Hinduism, dedicated to the worship of the Vedic Supreme Being Vishnu.

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Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan ((informally Venkat, born 21 April 1945) is a former Indian cricketer. He played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team, and later became an umpire on the elite International Cricket Council Test panel. His Test career was one of the longest for any Indian player. He also played for Derbyshire in English county cricket from 1973 to 1975. He is a recipient of the civilian honour of Padma Shri.

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Sriperumbudur (திருபெரும்புதூர்) is a town panchayat in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu located 40 kilometers southwest of the city of Chennai.

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Srirangam (formerly Vellithirumutha gramam) and Thiruvarangam in Tamil is an island and a part of the city of Tiruchirapalli, in South India.

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Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, ศรีวิชัย, known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i) was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

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Srivilliputhur is a semi-urban town and a municipality in Virudhunagar district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Srivilliputtur Divya Desam is a popular 2000-year-old Hindu temple and one of the 108 Divya Desams, the most important abodes of Lord Vishnu.

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St.

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State Express Transport Corporation (Tamil Nadu) (formerly known as Thiruvalluvar Transport Corporation) is a state-owned transport corporation that runs long distance mofussil services exceeding 300 km and above throughout the state of Tamil Nadu and major cities in adjoining states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and the union territory of Puduchery.

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India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories.

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This is a list of states and territories of India by allocated power capacity from power generation utilities.

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Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is one of the largest state-owned steel making company based in New Delhi, India and one of the top steel makers in world.

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Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd. is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources plc, a diversified and integrated metals and mining group.

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Street theatre is a form of theatrical performance and presentation in outdoor public spaces without a specific paying audience.

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Subbaraman Vijayalakshmi (born 25 March 1979) is a female chess player from India.

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Chinnaswami Subramania Bharati (11 December 1882 – 11 September 1921) was an Indian writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and social reformer from Tamil Nadu, India.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, is one of the several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sulur Air Force Station is an air base of the Indian Air Force located at Kangayampalayam in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

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Sumatra (Sumatera) is an island in western Indonesia and part of the Sunda Islands.

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Sun TV Network Limited is an Indian mass media company headquartered in MRC Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Sundaram karivardhan Naidu or Kari (June 20, 1954 – August 24, 1995) was an Indian formula racing driver, designer and a business executive.

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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.

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Samikannu Vincent was the first person to build a cinema theater in South India.

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Syama Sastri (also commonly transliterated as Shyama Shastri) (1762–1827) is one of the most renowned composers of Carnatic music.

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Syntel, Inc. is a U.S. based multinational provider of integrated technology and business services.

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Tagetes is a genusSoule, J. A. 1996.

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The Tambaram Air Force Station is an Indian Air Force base in Tambaram, a suburb of Chennai in Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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The cinema of Tamil Nadu is a part of Indian cinema, producing films in the Tamil language.

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Tamil culture is the culture of the Tamil people.

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The Tamil diaspora is a demographic group of Tamil people of Indian and Sri Lankan origin who have settled in other parts of the world.

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Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.

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Tamil Jains (Tamil Camaṇar, Nayiṉār, from Prakrit samaṇa "wandering renunciate") are Tamils from Tamil Nadu, India, who practice Digambara Jainism (Tamil). They are a microcommunity of around 85,000 (around 0.13% of the population of Tamil Nadu).

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Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

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Tamil Muslims are Tamil-speaking people with Islam as their faith.

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Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) is an agricultural university located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Tamil Nadu Cricket Association (TNCA) is the governing body of Cricket activities in the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Tamil Nadu cricket team.

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Tamil Nadu Dr.

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The Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly alone has powers to legislate laws covering state subjects in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The fourteenth legislative assembly election was held on 13 April 2011 to elect members from 234 constituencies in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tamil Nadu Legislative Council was the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was established by the Government of Tamil Nadu to produce newsprint and writing paper using bagasse, a sugarcane residue.

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Tamil Nadu Police is the primary law enforcement agency of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Limited (TNSTC) is a public transport bus operator in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (தமிழ்நாடு சுற்றுலா கழகம் (வரையறுக்கப்பட்டது)) is a state-government Public Sector Undertaking of the Government of Tamil Nadu located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past.

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The Tamil Trinity (also known as the Tamil Moovar) commonly refers to the three Tamil composers of early Carnatic music.

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Tamil-Brahmi, or Damili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.

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Tamiḻakam or the Ancient Tamiḻ country refers to the Sangam period (3rd century BCE - 4th century CE) territory of old South Indian kingdoms covering modern Tamil Nadu, Kerala and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.

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The Tamils, also known as the Tamilans, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and native to Indian State of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry, Northern and Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

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Tanjore painting (தஞ்சாவூர் ஓவியக்கலை.; Thanjavur Oviyam) is a classical South Indian painting style, which was inaugurated from the town of Thanjavur (anglicized as Tanjore) and spread across the adjoining and geographically contiguous Tamil country.

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Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather, which is more durable and less susceptible to decomposition.

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Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).

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Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) is an Indian multinational information technology (IT) service, consulting and business solutions company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

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The Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate, centered in Mumbai, India.

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Teak is a tropical hardwood species of tree known as Tectona grandis.

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Tech Mahindra Limited is an Indian multinational provider of information technology (IT), networking technology solutions and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) to the telecommunications industry.

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A tehsil or tahsil/tahasil (तहसील, ਤਹਿਸੀਲ, తహశీల్, تحصیل), also known as taluk (or taluq/taluka (تعلقو)) or mandal, is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.

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All states in India are divided into districts.

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A television director directs the activities involved in making a television program and is part of a television crew.

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Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centered in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, particularly in the Hyderabad neighbourhood of Film Nagar.

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Telugu (తెలుగు telugu) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state, being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language.

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Terminalia elliptica (syn. T. alata Heyne ex Roth, T. tomentosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.) is a species of Terminalia native to southern and southeast Asia in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.,Germplasm Resources Information Network: Sal and Saaj Deforestation in West Nepal: It is a prominent part of both dry and moist deciduous forests in southern India up to 1000 m. Common names are Asna, Saj or Saaj, Indian-laurel,Matti, Taukkyan (Burma), Sadar, Matti or Marda (India), අසන - Asana (Sri Lanka), and casually "crocodile bark" due to the characteristic bark pattern.

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Terukkuttu is a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu state of India and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.

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Thai Pongal (Tamil: தைப்பொங்கல்) is a Tamil harvest festival.

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Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Thanjavur Air Force Station of the Indian Air Force (IAF) is located in Thanjavur (also known as Tanjore) in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Thanjavur District is one of the 32 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India.

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Thanjavur Marathas of the Bhonsle dynasty, were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th to the 19th century C.E. Their native language was Marathi.

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Thanjavur Nayak kingdom or Thanjavur Nayak dynasty were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 16th to the 17th century.

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Tharangambadi (formerly Tranquebar) is a panchayat town in the Nagapattinam district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Hindu is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.

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Theni is a town in the Western part of Tamil Nadu, a state in Southern India, Near Kerala Border.

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Theni District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in South east India.

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Thevaram is a Town Panchayat in Theni district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Thillai Natarajah Temple, Chidambaram or Chidambaram temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in the town of Chidambaram, East-Central Tamil Nadu, South India.

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Tiruttani is a town in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Thiruvaiyaru (also spelled as Tiruvaiyaru) (Tamil: திருவையாறு) is a panchayat town in Thanjavur District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Thiruvalluvar is a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher whose contribution to Tamil literature is the Thirukkural, a work on ethics.

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Thiruvanaikaval (Thiru+Aanai+kaval) or Thiruvanaikoil is a suburb of the city of Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Thiruvarur also spelt as Tiruvarur திருவாரூர்.is a town and municipality in Tiruvarur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Thomas the Apostle (called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament.

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This article is about the city in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Thoothukudi District, also known as Tuticorin District, Earlier "'Tirunelveli Chidambaranar district" of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.

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Thirubuvanam is a village near Aaduthurai in the Thiruvidaimarudur taluk of Thanjavur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Thiruchengode is a city and municipality located in Namakkal District, in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tiruchirappalli (tiruchirāppaḷḷi) (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District.

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Tiruchirapalli District is located along the Caveri River in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Tiruchirappalli International Airport or Trichy International Airport is an international airport serving Tiruchirapalli metropolis in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Tiruchirappalli Junction railway station is a junction station in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu.

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The Tirukkuṛaḷ is a classic Tamil sangam literature consisting of 1330 couplets or Kurals.

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Tirunelveli (திருநெல்வேலி), also known as Nellai and historically (during British rule) as Tinnevelly, is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tirunelveli District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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Tiruppur or Tirupur() is a city in the Kongu Nadu region of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tiruppur District is a district of the Indian state Tamil Nadu, formed in February 2009.

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Tiruvallur (திருவள்ளூர்) is a temple town and Grade I municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tiruvallur district (also known as Thiruvallur District) is an administrative district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tiruvannamalai (Tamil: Tiruvaṇṇāmalai IPA:, also Thiruvannamalai or Trinomali and Trinomalee during British times) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Tiruvannamalai District (also known as Thiruvannaamalai) is one of the 32 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu, in South India.

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Thiruvarur district is one of the 32 districts in the Tamil Nadu state of India.

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Titan Company Ltd. (formerly Titan Industries Ltd. and Titan Watches Ltd.) Indian designer and manufacturer of watches, jewellery, precision engineering components and other accessories including sunglasses, wallets, bags, belts, fragrances and helmets.

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Tondai Nadu (Tamil Toṇṭaināṭu) is a historical region located in the northernmost part of Tamil Nadu.

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Topslip is located at above sea level on the Anamalai mountain range.

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Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited (TAFE), is a tractor major incorporated in 1960 at Chennai, with an annual turnover of INR 96 billion (2013-14).

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Transport in Chennai includes various modes of air, sea, road and rail transportation in the city and its suburbs.

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The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, vine thicket, and vine scrub is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.

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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or or http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.

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Tuticorin Airport is a domestic airport located from Thoothukudi (Tuticorin), Tamil Nadu, India serving the districts of Tuticorin and Tirunelveli in southern Tamil Nadu.

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V.O.Chidambaranar Port, formerly Tuticorin Port, is one of the 12 major ports in India.

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TVS Motor Company is the third largest two-wheeler manufacturer in India and one among the top ten in the world, with annual revenue of more than Rs.10,098 Cr in 2014-15 (around USD 1.6 billion), and is the flagship company of the, USD 7.29 billion in 2013-14, TVS Group.

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Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, and often abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket.

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Kakarla Tyagabrahmam (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847) or Saint Tyagaraja, also known as Tyāgayya in Telugu, Tyāgarājar in Tamil, was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music or Indian classical music.

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Udumalai also known as Udumalaipettai is a town in Udumalaipettai taluk of the Tirupur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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UN/LOCODE, the United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations, is a geographic coding scheme developed and maintained by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.

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The University of Madras (சென்னைப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்; informally known as Madras University) is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

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Upma or Uppuma or Uppittu is a common South Indian and Sri Lankan Tamil breakfast dish, cooked as a thick porridge from dry roasted semolina or coarse rice flour.

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Urayur (Tamil: உறையூர்) is a neighborhood of Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.

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The urumee (also known as urumi) is a double-headed hourglass-shaped drum from the state of Tamil Nadu, South India.

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Uttapam or ooththappam or Uthappa is a dosa-like dish made by cooking ingredients in a batter.

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Vada is a common term for many different types of savoury fritter-type snacks from South India with a set of common ingredients.

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Vaishnavism (Vaisnava dharma) is one of the major branches of Hinduism along with Shaivism, Smartism, Shaktism.

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Valparai is a Taluk and hill station in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu,India.

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Vanchi (Vañci) or Vanchi Muthur was the capital city of Chera dynasty, who ruled Kongu Nadu and most of the present day Kerala in southern India.

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Vaniyambadi is a town and a municipality, part of the Vellore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Varagunavarman II was a king of the Pandyan Dynasty whose reign lasted from 862 until 880 AD.

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Vasudevan Baskaran is a former field hockey player from India.

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Vedasandur is a panchayat town in Dindigul district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Sundaralinga Kudumbanar (died 1799), also known as "Veeran" Sundaralingam Kudumbanar (வீரன் சுந்தரலிங்கம்), was an 18th-century CE general from Tamil Nadu, India.

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Veerapandiya Kattabomman was an 18th-century Palayakarrar and chieftain from Panchalankurichi in Tamil Nadu, India who waged a war against the British East India Company.

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Velankanni (வேளாங்கண்ணி Vēḷāŋkaņņi) officially spelled as Vailankanni (Canal of white, the river வெள்ளையாறு), also spelled as "Velanganni" (due to Tamil to English Transliteration), is a panchayat town in Nagapattinam district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Vellore (Tamil: வேலூர், Telugu: వెల్లూరు) is a city and the administrative headquarters of Vellore District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Vellore district is one of the 32 districts in the Tamil Nadu state of India,It is one of the biggest district in Tamil Nadu.

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The Vellore Mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.

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Rani Velu Nachiyar (இராணி வேலு நாச்சியார்) was an 18th-century Indian queen from Sivaganga.

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Venadu is an island village in Nellore district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Verizon Communications (pronounced), is an American broadband and telecommunications company, the largest U.S. wireless communications service provider as of September 2014, and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vijay Amritraj (born 14 December 1953) is a former tennis player from India, sports commentator and actor.

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Vijayalaya Chola was a king of South India Thanjavur, and founded the imperial The Chola Empire.

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Vijaya Nagara is in Ballari district, northern Karnataka.

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The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was an empire based in South India, in the Deccan Plateau region.

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Villu Paatu (or 'Bow Song' as translated in English, Villu means Bow) also known as Villadichampattu and Villuppattu(Malayalam:വില്ലുപാട്ട്, Tamil:வில்லுப்பாட்டு) is an ancient form of musical story-telling where narration is interspersed with music, art of South Kerala and Kanyakumari district and in Thovalai of Tamil Nadu.

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Viluppuram()(also spelled as Villupuram and Vizhupuram) is a municipality and the administrative headquarters of Viluppuram district, the largest district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Viluppuram (also Villupuram and Vizhupuram) is one of the thirty two districts which make up Tamil Nadu state situated on the southern tip of India.

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Violence against women in Tamil Nadu includes molestation, abduction, dowry-related violence, and domestic violence.

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Virudhunagar, formerly known as Virudhupatti, is a town and the administrative headquarters of the Virudhunagar district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Virudhunagar District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.

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In Hinduism, Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु) is the Supreme god Svayam Bhagavan of Vaishnavism (one of the three principal denominations).

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Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess Grandmaster and former World Chess Champion.

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Vivekananda Rock Memorial is a popular tourist monument in Vavathurai, Kanyakumari, India.

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The Western Ghats or Sahyadri (Tamil: சஹ்யாற்றி, Kannada: ಸಹ್ಯಾದ್ರಿ, Malayalam: സഹ്യാദ്രി, Marathi: सह्याद्री) are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.

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A wet grinder can refer to either a tool for abrasive cutting of hard materials, or a food preparation appliance used especially in Indian cuisine for grinding food grains to produce a paste or batter.

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Wipro Limited (Western India Products Limited) is an Indian multinational IT Consulting and System Integration services company headquartered in Bangalore, India.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (English see fn.; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.

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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols.

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Yelagiri is a hill station in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, India, situated off the Vaniyambadi-Tirupattur road.

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Yercaud is a hill station in Salem District, in Tamil Nadu, India.

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The Young Men's Christian Association (commonly known as YMCA or simply the Y) is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, Switzerland with more than 57 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations.

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The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.

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The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

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Redirects here:

Culture of Tamil Nadu, IN-TN, Tamil India, Tamil Naadu, Tamil Nade, Tamil Nadu (India), Tamil Nadu State, Tamil Nadu, India, Tamil Nādu, Tamil nadu, Tamil-Nadu, TamilNadu, Tamilnadu, Tamilnadu culture, Tamland, Thirunavalur, தமில் நாடு, தமிழ் நாடு.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Nadu

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