478 relations: Aadi Perukku, Abstinence, Absurdist fiction, Adichanallur, Adithada, Adivasi, Aiyanar, Ajith Kumar, Alagakkonara, Alanganallur, Alcohol, All Ceylon Tamil Congress, Alvars, Amaravathi (village), Andhra Pradesh, An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, Ancient Rome, Ancient Tamil music, Andhra Pradesh, Antioch, Anuradhapura, Arab world, Archery, Arikamedu, Arival, Aryacakravarti dynasty, Ashoka, Asian South Africans, Atheism, Augustus, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, Ayyavazhi, Baba Aparajith, Balarama, Bay of Bengal, Baybayin, Bellary, Bhakti, Bhakti movement, Bharatanatyam, Black July, Black pepper, Bollywood, Bow and arrow, Brahmi script, Brahmin, Brass knuckles, Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, British Ceylon, British Empire, British Malaya, ..., British Raj, Bronze, Buddhism, Bullfighting, Bullock cart, Burning of Jaffna Public Library, Business Standard, Cambodia, Capital region, Caribbean, Carnatic music, Caste, Caste system in Sri Lanka, Chalukya dynasty, Chennai, Chera dynasty, Chess, China, Chola art, Chola dynasty, Chola Navy, Christian, Christianity, Chutney, Classical antiquity, Classical language, Colombo, Comedy, Common Era, Courtesan, Cricket, Dagger, Dakshina Kannada, Damascus steel, Devadasi, Dharma, Dinesh Karthik, Dipika Pallikal Karthik, Diwali, Dosa, Dravidian architecture, Dravidian languages, Dravidian people, Drug, Durava, Durga, Earthenware, Eastern Chalukyas, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, Eelam War IV, Ellalan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epigraphy, Erwadi, Ethics, Ethnic group, Ettuthogai, Europe, Excavation (archaeology), Fiji, Folk dance, Folk religion, Football, Fortune-telling, French Guiana, Frontline (magazine), G. 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Aadi pirappu commonly known as the Aadi monsoon festival and also written as Aadiperukku is a Tamil festival celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month of Adi (mid-July to mid-August).
Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure.
Absurdist fiction is a genre of fictional narrative (traditionally, literary fiction), most often in the form of a novel, play, poem, or film, that focuses on the experiences of characters in situations where they cannot find any inherent purpose in life, most often represented by ultimately meaningless actions and events that call into question the certainty of existential concepts such as truth or value.
Adichanallur is an archaeological site In Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India.
Adithada (அடிதட) is the Indian martial arts preliminary empty hand techniques of Varma kalai and southern kalari payat practiced in southern Kerala, Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and northern Sri Lanka.
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Aiyanar or Shasta (IAST: Aiyaṉār, Śāstā, ஐயனார், சாஸ்தா) is a Hindu deity particularly praised by the Malayalis and Tamil speaking community of India and Sri Lanka.
Ajith Kumar (born 1 May 1971) is an Indian film actor best known by his mononym Ajith.
Alagakkonara, also known as Alakeshwara, were a prominent feudal family that provided powerful ministers and military rulers during the medieval period in Sri Lanka.
Alanganallur is a panchayat town in Madurai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
All Ceylon Tamil Congress (அகில இலங்கைத் தமிழ்க் காங்கிரஸ்), is the oldest Tamil political party in Sri Lanka.
The alvars, also spelt as alwars or azhwars (āḻvārkaḷ, Tamil: ஆழ்வார்கள் ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu Supreme god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon together With somewhat Concerning Severall Remarkable passages of my life that hath hapned since my Deliverance out of Captivity is a book written by the English trader and sailor Robert Knox in 1681.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The ancient Tamil music is the historical predecessor of the Carnatic music during the Sangam period.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry.
The aruval (அருவாள்) is a type of billhook from India, particularly common in the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Aryacakravarti dynasty (அரியச் சக்கரவர்த்திகள் வம்சம்) were kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Ayya Vaikunda Avataram (Tamil: ஐயா வைகுண்ட அவதாரம் - Incarnation of Vaikundar) is a festival celebrated by the followers of Ayyavazhi on the 20th day of the Tamil month of Masi, the date on which the Ayyavazhi followers believe that Lord Vaikundar arose from the sea at Thiruchendur as the son of Mummorthies to destroy the evil spirit of Kali and transform the Kaliyukam into Dharma Yukam.
Ayyavazhi (அய்யாவழி, അയ്യാവഴി Ayyāvaḻi, "Path of the Master") is an universalizing henotheistic belief that originated in South India.
§ Baba Aparajith (born 8 July 1994 in Madras, India) is an Indian cricketer who plays as an allrounder.
Balarama (Sanskrit: बलराम, IAST: Balarāma) is a Hindu deity and the elder brother of Krishna (an avatar of the god Vishnu).
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Baybayin (pre-kudlit:, post-kudlit:, kudlit + pamudpod), is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Bellary district, is a major city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil: "பரதநாட்டியம்"), is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Brass knuckles, also sometimes called knuckles, knucks, brass knucks, knucklebusters, knuckledusters, an English punch or a classic, are weapons used in hand-to-hand combat.
Brihadishvara Temple, also called Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations.
A bullock cart or ox cart is a two-wheeled or four-wheeled vehicle pulled by oxen (draught cattle).
The burning of the Jaffna Public Library (யாழ் பொது நூலகம் எரிப்பு, Yāḻ potu nūlakam erippu) was an important event in the Sri Lankan civil war.
Business Standard is the third largest Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A capital region, also called a national capital region, capital district or capital territory, is a region or district surrounding a capital city.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
In Sri Lanka a caste-based social stratification system can be seen among its two major ethnic groups (the Sinhalese and the Tamils).
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The period of the imperial Cholas (c. 850 CE - 1250 CE) was an age of continuous improvement and refinement of Dravidian art and architecture.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The Chola Navy (Tamil: சோழர் கடற்படை; Cōḻar kadatpadai) comprised the naval forces of the Chola Empire along with several other naval-arms of the country.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
In South and parts of Western India, a devadasi (deva (god)) or jogini is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Krishna Kumar Dinesh Karthik (born 1 June 1985) is an Indian wicketkeeper-batsman who made his debut for the Indian cricket team in 2004 and has been a regular member of the team for varying periods since then, including a stint in 2007 as a specialist opening batsman and non-wicket-keeper.
Dipika Pallikal Karthik (née Pallikal; born 21 September 1991) is an Indian professional squash player.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Dosa is a type of pancake from the Indian subcontinent, made from a fermented batter.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Durave or Durava are Southern coastal Sinhalese caste in Sri Lanka.
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.
Eastern Chalukyas, also known as the Chalukyas of Vengi, were a dynasty that ruled parts of South India between the 7th and 12th centuries.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Eelam War IV is the name given to the fourth phase of armed conflict between the Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which is currently proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries.
Ellalan (translit; translit) was a member of the Tamil Chola dynasty, who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present-day Sri Lanka, from 205-161 BCE.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Ervadi or Erwadi is a village in Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu in southern India belonging to Kadaladi Taluk and Keelakarai Town panchayat.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ettuthogai (எட்டுத்தொகை)– 'The Eight Anthologies' - is a Classical Tamil poetic work which forms part of the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology series of the Sangam Literature.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam (கணபதி காங்கேசர் பொன்னம்பலம்; 8 November 1901 – 9 February 1977) was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer, politician and cabinet minister.
The gada (Sanskrit: गदा gadā, Tamil: gadai, Malay: gedak Old Tagalog: batuta) is a club or blunt mace from South Asia.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
George Luzerne Hart, III (born c. 1945) is a professor of Tamil language at the University of California, Berkeley.
Golkonda, also known as Golconda, Gol konda ("Round shaped hill"), or Golla konda, (Shepherd's Hill) is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), is situated west of Hyderabad.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා රජය Śrī Laṃkā Rajaya) is a semi-presidential system determined by the Sri Lankan Constitution.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
A harvest festival is an annual celebration that occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region.
The Hathigumpha Inscription ("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha, was inscribed by Kharavela, the then Emperor of Kalinga in India, during 2nd century BCE.
Hema Malini (born 16 October 1948) is an Indian actress,writer,lecturer, director, producer, dancer and politician.
A hero stone (Viragallu in Kannada, Naṭukal in Tamil) is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Kedah, also written as Queda, and known in the early days as Qalha, Kalah Bar, Kalah or Kalaha by the Arabs and Persians, Cheh-Cha, Ka-Cha by the Chinese and Kedaram, Kidaram, Kalagam and Kataha by the Tamils, is an early kingdom on the Malay Peninsula and an important early trade centre.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent, that ruled most of the what is now Karnataka, India between the 10th and the 14th centuries.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Idli or idly are a type of savoury rice cake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, popular as breakfast foods throughout India and northern Sri Lanka.
Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (ITAK) (இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Olympic Association is the body responsible for selecting athletes to represent India at the Olympic Games, Asian Games and other international athletic meets and for managing the Indian teams at these events.
Indian Singaporeans or Singaporean Indians (சிங்கப்பூர் இந்தியர்கள், Ciṅkappūr Intiyarkaḷ) – defined as persons of South Asian ancestry – constitute 7.4% of the country's citizens, making them the third largest ethnic group in Singapore.
Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Iraiyaṉār Akapporuḷ, or Kaḷaviyal eṉṟa Iraiyaṉār Akapporuḷ, literally "Iraiyanar's treatise on the love-theme, called 'The study of stolen love'" (களவியல் என்ற இறையனார் அகப்பொருள்) is an early mediaeval work on Tamil poetics, specifically, on the literary conventions associated with the akam tradition of Tamil love poetry.
Iravatham Mahadevan (born 2 October 1930) is an Indian epigraphist and former civil servant, known for his successful decipherment of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and for his expertise on the epigraphy of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan (died 1340) was the first Sultan of Madurai Sultanate and father-in-law of the North African Arab traveler Ibn Batutah.
Jallikattu (or sallikkattu), also known as eru thazhuvuthal and manju virattu, is a traditional spectacle in which a Bos indicus bull, such as the Pulikulam or Kangayam breeds, is released into a crowd of people, and multiple human participants attempt to grab the large hump on the bull's back with both arms and hang on to it while the bull attempts to escape.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I, also known as Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan, was king and of the Pandyan dynasty, ruling regions of Tamilakkam (present day South India between 1250–1268.Sethuraman, p124 He is remembered for his patronage of the arts and Dravidian architecture, along with refurbishment and decoration of many Kovils in the Tamil continent. He oversaw a massive economic growth of the Pandyan kingdom. On the eve of his death in 1268, the second Pandyan empire's power and territorial extent had risen to its zenith.
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.
Jayaram Jayalalithaa (born Komalavalli, 24 February 1948 –5 December 2016) was an Indian film actress and politician who served six terms as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for over fourteen years between 1991 and 2016.
Joshna Chinappa in 2013 --> Joshna Chinappa (born 15 September 1986 in Kodagu) is an Indian professional squash player.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
The Kalabhra dynasty (களப்பிரர் Kalappirar) ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum.
Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Kalinga is a historical region of India.
Kambar (Kamban in casual address) (c. 1180, Therazhundur, Nagapattinam district, India – 1250) was a medieval Tamil poet and the author of the Ramavataram, popularly known as Kambaramayanam, the Tamil version of the epic Ramayana.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
The Kanheri Caves (Kānherī-guhāḥ) are a group of caves and rock-cut monuments cut into a massive basalt outcrop in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the island of Salsette in the western outskirts of Mumbai, India.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannagi is a legendary Tamil woman who forms the central character of the Tamil epic Silapathikaram (100-300 AD).
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
Karakattam (கரகாட்டம் or "karakam (கரகம் 'water pot') dance") is an ancient folk dance of Tamil Nadu performed in praise of the rain goddess Mariamman.The ancient Tamil epic says that this type of dance has derived from Bharatham and a mixture of multiple forms of Tamil Dance forms like Bharatanatyam postures,mudras.The offering of this dance is to the goddess to bless Rain.
Karava also Karave, Kara and Kaurawa is a Sinhalese caste from Sri Lanka.
Kari Motor Speedway is a purpose built Formula 3 auto racing circuit or race track, located in Chettipalayam, Coimbatore, India.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kartikeya (IAST), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.
Karun Chandhok (Tamil: கருன் சாந்தோக்) (born 19 January 1984) is an Indian racing driver who last competed in Formula E for Mahindra Racing.
Karur is a city in India in state of Tamil Nadu.
The katar or katara, is a type of push dagger from South Asia.
Kathiraveli or கதிரவெளி (Paddy Field in Tamil) is a town in Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.
Kavadi Attam (Tamil:காவடி ஆட்டம்) ("Burden Dance") is a ceremonial sacrifice and offering practiced by devotees during the worship of Lord Murugan,Kent, Alexandra.
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.
The Kayalar are Muslim community found in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.
Kayalpatnam (also known as Kayalpattinam or Korkai, Arabic - قاهر فطن, Tamil - காயல்பட்டினம்) is a Municipality in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Kazimar Periya Pallivasal or Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest mosque in Madurai city, Tamil Nadu, India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kharavela was a king of Kalinga in present-day Odisha, India.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
Kilakarai, Kilakkarai or Keelakarai is a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kodumanal is a village located in the Erode district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Koodal Azhagar Temple in Madurai, a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu.
Koothu or Therukoothu (கூத்து), is an ancient art, where artists play songs with dance and music in storytelling the epics, performed in Tamil; it is a folk art originated from the early Tamil country.
Korravai or Korravi was the goddess of war and victory in ancient Tamil pantheon.
Kottu, also known as Koththu Rotti or Kothu Roti (Sinhala: කොත්තුරොටි; Tamil: கொத்துரொட்டி; meaning chopped bread), is a Sri Lankan dish made from godhamba roti (a type of Sri Lankan roti) and vegetables, egg and/or meat, and spices.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Krishna III whose Kannada name was Kannara (r. 939 – 967 C.E.) was the last great warrior and able monarch of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty of Manyakheta.
Krishnamachari Srikkanth (born 21 December 1959) also known as Kris Srikkanth is a former captain of the Indian cricket team and former chairman of the selection committee.
Kumari Kandam (குமரிக்கண்டம்) refers to a mythical lost continent with an ancient Tamil civilization, located south of present-day India, in the Indian Ocean.
Kummi is a folk dance, popular in Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, danced mostly by Tamil women in circle.
The Kuravar is an ethnic Tamil community native to the Kurinji mountain region of southern India.
Kutral Ramesh (born 8 November 1981), popularly known as Kutraleeswaran,, is an Indian swimmer.
Labbay (Labbai, Labba, Labbabeen, Lebbay), is an Islamic community in southern India found throughout the southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.
Lakshmipathy Balaji (லக்ஷ்மிபதி பாலாஜி,, born 27 September 1981) is a former Indian cricketer.
Laxman Sivaramakrishnan (born 31 December 1965), popularly known as Siva and LS, is a former Indian cricketer.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
Limyrikê is a historical region of present-day India, mentioned in the ancient Greco-Roman texts.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Tamil is an official language or language of government.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987.
Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born as Daksinamoorthy on 3 June 1924) is an Indian politician and the 3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Maaveerar Naal (Great Heroes' Day; மாவீரர் நாள் Māvīrar Nāḷ) is a remembrance day observed by Sri Lankan Tamil people to remember the deaths of militants who fought for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Ma'bar Sultanate (مابار سلطنت), unofficially known as the Madurai Sultanate, was a short lived independent Muslim kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, India.
The maduvu (மட்டுவு; Marathi: madhu, Hindi: singhauta), also known as a maru or madu, is a weapon from India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The Maharashtra Open (also formerly known during its run as the McDowell Open, Gold Flake Open, Chennai Open and the Tata Open) is a professional men's tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahesh Shrinivas Bhupathi (born 7 June 1974) is a retired Indian professional tennis player.
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State.
"Malabari" is a term used for Indians originating from the Malabar region.This region mainly includes the present state of Kerala in India or from the ancient term to refer the southwestern coast of India.
Malabathrum, malabathron, or malobathrum is the name used in classical and medieval texts for certain cinnamon-like aromatic plant leaves and an ointment prepared from those leaves.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives Islands is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean composing today's Republic of Maldives and the island of Minicoy in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep of India.
(Devanagari: मल्लयुद्ध, মল্লযুদ্ধ, Odia: ମଲ୍ଲ ଯୁଦ୍ଧ, Kannada: ಮಲ್ಲಯುದ್ಧ, Telugu: మల్ల యుద్ధం malla-yuddhaṁ, Tamil: மல்யுத்தம் malyutham, Thai: มัลละยุทธ์ mạllayutṭh̒) is the traditional South Asian form of combat-wrestling created in what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
Maraicayar or Maraicar refer to a distinctive Tamil and Malayalam-speaking Muslim people of the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India and Sri Lanka.
Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (முதலாம் மாறவர்மன் குலசேகர பாண்டியன்) was a Pandyan king, who ruled regions of South India between 1268–1308 CE, though Sen states he ruled until 1310.
Māri (/mɒrı/, /maari/, மாரி), also known as Mariamman (/mɒrı əˈmʌn/ மாரியம்மன்) and Mariaai (Marathi: मरी आई, मरी माय), both meaning "Mother Mari", spelt also Maariamma (மாரியம்மா), or simply Amman or Aatha (அம்மன், "mother") is the South Indian Hindu goddess of rain.
Mariyappan Thangavelu (born 28 June 1995) is an Indian '''Paralympic''' high jumper.
Mark Jarzombek (born 1954) is a United States-born architectural historian, author and critic.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Matrikas (singular Matrika, Sanskrit: मातृका, IAST: mātṝkā, lit. "divine mother") also called Matar or Matri, are a group of mother goddesses who are always depicted together in Hinduism.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mayilattam (Tamil:மயிலாட்டம்) is an artistic and religious form of dance performed in the Hindu temples of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in reverence to Lord Subrahmanya.
Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century CE and established one of the greatest empires in South India.
Meenakshi Seshadri (born 16 November 1963) is an Indian actress, model and dancer who mainly appeared in Hindi films.
Meenakshi Temple, also referred to as Meenakshi Amman or Minakshi-Sundareshwara Temple, is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Michael David Wood (born 23 July 1948) is an English historian and broadcaster.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
Muniandi is a regional Tamil guardian deity.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
Murali Vijay (born 1 April 1984) is an Indian international cricketer who plays as a right-handed opening batsman.
Murugan Ashwin (born 8 September 1990) is an Indian cricketer who plays for Tamil Nadu.
Mysore State was a separate state within the Union of India from 1948 until 1956 with Mysore as its capital.
The Naga people were believed to be an ancient tribe who once inhabited Sri Lanka.
Nagapattinam district is a coastal district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.
Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Nagore is a town in the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India.
Kumar Ram Narain Karthikeyan (born 14 January 1977, in Coimbatore) is a racing driver who was the first Formula One driver from India.
Narasimhavarman I (ுதலாம் நரசிம்மவர்மன்.) was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 AD.
Nataraja (meaning "the lord of dance") is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic ecstatic dancer.
National Museum of Colombo, also known as the Sri Lanka National Museum is one of two museums in Colombo.
The Nayanars (alt.
Nirupama Sanjeev (née: Vaidyanathan; born 8 December 1976) is a retired Indian professional tennis player.
The North Eastern Province was one of the provinces of Sri Lanka.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Oyilattam (ஒயிலாட்டம்; meaning: dance of grace) is a folk dance with origins in the Madurai region of Tamil Nadu.
Paampu attam (snake dance) (Tamil:பாம்பு ஆட்டம்) is a folk dance from Tamil country, India.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
The parai (Tamil:பறை) or thappu (Tamil:தப்பு) is one of the oldest drums used in India, especially in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and also in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.
Parthiva Sureshwaren (born 21 February 1980) is an Indian race car driver born in Chennai.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Parvati (Sanskrit: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) or Uma (IAST: Umā) is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.
Pathupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு; Pattuppāṭṭu; ten Idylls) is an anthology of ten mid-length books and one of the oldest surviving works of Tamil poetry.
Pattini, is considered a guardian deity of Sri Lanka in Sri Lankan Buddhism and Sinhalese folklore.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign from c. 268 to 232 BC.
Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Poikkaal Kuthirai Aattam (poi - False, kaal - leg, Kuthirai – Horse) or Puravi Aattam (Tamil:பொய்க்கால்குதிரை ஆட்டம்) (Dummy Horse Dance) is one of the folk dances of Tamil Nadu.
Pol sambola (coconut sambol) is a traditional Sri Lankan dish made from coconut, mostly used as an accompaniment with rice, string hoppers, hoppers, and many more meals.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhalese: පොළොන්නරුව, Poḷonnaruwa or Puḷattipura, Tamil: பொலன்னறுவை, Polaṉṉaṟuvai or Puḷatti nakaram) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Pooneryn (Poonakari) is a strategically important village in the northern province of Sri Lanka situated just below the Jaffna Peninsula.
The Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom occurred after Portuguese traders arrived at the rival Kotte Kingdom in the southwest of modern Sri Lanka in 1505.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Puliyattam (means Tiger Dance) is an old folk art dance of Tamil country.
Puttalam is a district situated near to the west coast of Sri Lanka.
Raja Raja Cholan I (or Rajaraja Cholan I) born as Arul Mozhi Varman known as Raja Raja Cholan was a Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of Ancient Tamilnadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two third's of Sri Lankan territory (Eezham), Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.
Rajarata (Sinhala: රජරට) (Tamil: ரஜரட) was one of three historical regions of the island of Sri Lanka for about 1,700 years from the 6th century BCE to the early 13th century CE.
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of India who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.
Ramanathan Krishnan (born 11 April 1937, Boothapandi Village, Nagercoil, India) is a retired tennis player from India who was among the world's leading players in the 1950s and 1960s.
Ramanathapuram District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.
Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.
Ramavataram, popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam, is a Tamil epic that was written by the Tamil poet Kambar during the 12th century.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ramesh Krishnan (born 5 June 1961) is a tennis coach and former professional tennis player from India.
Rasam, chaaru, saaru or kabir is a South Indian soup, traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of tomato, chili pepper, pepper, cumin and other spices as seasonings.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Ravichandran Ashwin (born 17 September 1986) is an Indian international cricketer.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Bhanurekha Ganesan (born 10 October 1954), better known by her stage name Rekha, is an Indian film actress.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Robert Knox (8 February 1641 – 19 June 1720) was an English sea captain in the service of the British East India Company.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rowther or Ravuthar is a Muslim community from the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Ryerson University (commonly referred to as Ryerson) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (translit; 31 March 1898 – 26 April 1977) was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer, politician and Member of Parliament.
Sadagoppan Ramesh (born 16 October 1975) is an Indian film actor and former cricketer.
Salagama is a Sinhalese caste in Sri Lanka.
The Samanala Dam (Sinhala: සමනලවැව වේල්ල) is a dam primarily used for hydroelectric power generation in Sri Lanka.
Sambar, also spelled sambhar or sambaar, and pronounced saambaar, is a lentil-based vegetable stew or chowder cooked with a tamarind broth originating from the present-day Tamil Nadu, India.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
The Sangam landscape (Tamil: அகத்திணை "inner classification") is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Santosh Trophy is an association football knock-out competition contested by the regional state associations and government institutions under the All India Football Federation (AIFF), the sport's governing body in India.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Saraswati (सरस्वती) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal and India.
The Satavahanas (IAST), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region.
Savuku (சவுக்கு, Malay: sauku) is the Tamil word for whip, used both for domestic purposes and traditionally also in hand-to-hand fighting.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Senna auriculata is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
The Shadhili Tariqa (الطريقة الشاذلية) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili of Morocco.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Silambam (சிலம்பம்) is a weapon-based martial art of India, more specifically in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it originated around 1000 BC.
Silappadikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
The Sinhala Only Act, formally the Official Language Act No.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Spikenard, also called nard, nardin, and muskroot, is a class of aromatic amber-colored essential oil derived from Nardostachys jatamansi, a flowering plant of the valerian family which grows in the Himalayas of Nepal, China, and India.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Moors (translit; translit formerly Ceylon Moors; colloquially referred to as Muslims or Moors) are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.3% of the country's total population.
The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora refers to the global diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamil origin.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Sridevi (ஸ்ரீதேவி; born Shree Amma Yanger Ayyapan; 13 August 1963 – 24 February 2018) was an Indian actress and film producer who starred in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, Malayalam, and Kannada films.
Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan ((informally Venkat, born 21 April 1945) is a former Indian cricketer. He played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team, and later became an umpire on the elite International Cricket Council Test panel. His Test career was one of the longest for any Indian player. He also played for Derbyshire in English county cricket from 1973 to 1975. A qualified engineer and an alumnus of Chennai's famed College of Engineering, Guindy, he is a recipient of the civilian honour of Padma Shri.
Srirangam (Thiruvarangam in Tamil) is an island and a part of the city of Tiruchirappalli, in South India.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A suicide pill (also known as the cyanide pill, kill-pill, lethal pill, Death-pill, or L-pill) is a pill, capsule, ampoule, or tablet containing a fatally poisonous substance that a person ingests deliberately in order to quickly commit suicide.
Sundaram Karivardhan Naidu or Kari (June 20, 1954 – August 24, 1995) was an Indian formula racing driver, designer and a business executive.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil cuisine is a cuisine native to the Tamil people who are native to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and northern Sri Lanka.
The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world.
Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Jains (Tamil Samaṇar, Nayiṉār, from Prakrit samaṇa "wandering renunciate") are Tamils from Tamil Nadu, India, who practice Digambara Jainism (Tamil). They are a microcommunity of around 85,000 (around 0.13% of the population of Tamil Nadu).
Tamil Keyboard is the keyboard layout used in Computers or any mobile devices to input Tamil language scripts.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
Tamil is an old language and due to its contact with the other languages from historical times, there are many loanwords from Tamil that are found in the other languages.
Tamil Malaysians, also known as Malaysian Tamils, are people of full or partial Tamil descent (from paternal descent) who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia from Tamil Nadu in South East India and the Tamil regions of northern Sri Lanka that is being presently administered the government of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Mauritians are the descendants of Tamil migrants to Mauritius.
Tamil Muslims are Tamils who practise Islam.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil Nadu football team is an Indian football team representing Tamil Nadu in the Santosh Trophy.
The Tamil Nadu State Chess Association (TNSCA) is the apex body for the game of chess in Tamil Nadu, India.
This is a list of Tamil population per city.
This is a list of Tamil population per nation.
The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
There is a small community of Tamils in Pakistan.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல்)is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thaipusam or Thaipoosam is a festival celebrated by the Tamil community on the full moon in the Tamil month of Thai (January/February).
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thanjavur painting is a classical South Indian painting style, which was inaugurated from the town of Thanjavur (anglicized as Tanjore) and spread across the adjoining and geographically contiguous Tamil country.
Perumal (பெருமாள்) or Perumaal also called Thirumal (திருமால்) is Maayon (as he is described by the Tamil scriptures) who is most popular among Tamils and Tamil diaspora.
Thoothukudi, also known by its British name Tuticorin, is a port city and a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tirunelveli, also known as Nellai and historically (during British rule) as Tinnevelly, is a major city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tirunelveli District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.
Tissamaharama (Sinhala තිස්සමහාරාමය, Tamil திஸ்ஸமஹாராம) is a town in Hambantota District, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.
Tissamaharama Tamil Brahmi inscription refers to a fragment of black and red ware flat dish inscribed in Tamil in the Tamil Brahmi script excavated at the earliest layer in southern town of Tissamaharama in Sri Lanka.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
Tondaimandalam also known as Tondai Nadu is a historical region located in the northernmost part of Tamil Nadu.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
Tortoiseshell or tortoise shell is a material produced from the shells of the larger species of tortoise and turtle, mainly the hawksbill sea turtle, which is an endangered species largely because of its exploitation for the material.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Trishula (Sanskrit: त्रिशूल, IAST: triśūla) is a trident, commonly used as the principal symbols in Hinduism and Buddhism.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
*For the figure in Norse mythology, see Urðr The University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) or UTHR(J) was formed in 1988 at the University of Jaffna, Jaffna in Sri Lanka as part of the national organization University Teachers for Human Rights.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The urumi (Malayalam: ഉറുമി, urumi; Tamil: உறுமி, urumi, Sinhalese: එතුණු කඩුව ethunu kaduwa; Hindi: āra) is a sword with a flexible whip-like blade from the Indian subcontinent.
Vada is a savoury fried snack from India.
A valari (வளரி) or valai thadi is a throwing stick used primarily by the Tamil people of India, Sri Lanka and Russia.
Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, Vālmīki) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature.
The Vanni Nadu were feudal land divisions ruled by chiefs south of the Jaffna peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.
Varma Kalai (Tamil:வர்மக்கலை varmakkalai),is a Tamil term for the Indian knowledge of vital points.
Vatakkiruttal, also Vadakiruthal and vadakiruttal, is a form of Tamil ritual by fasting till death.
The Vedda (වැද්දා, வேடர் Vēdar) are a minority indigenous group of people in Sri Lanka who, among other self-identified native communities such as Coast Veddas, Anuradhapura Veddas and Bintenne Veddas, are accorded indigenous status.
Vel (lit) is a divine javelin (spear) associated with Murugan, a War God also known as Vēl Murugan (வேல் முருகன்).
The Velir were a royal house of minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamilakam in the early historic period of South India.
Vidya Balan (pronounced; born 1 January 1979) is an Indian actress.
Vijay Amritraj (born 14 December 1953) is a former tennis player from India, sports commentator and actor.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Vikramaditya VI (r. 1076 – 1126 CE) became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory.
Village deities are the patron deities or grama devata of village.
Vira Narasimha II (ಇಮ್ಮಡಿ ವೀರ ನರಸಿಂಹ) (r.1220–1234) was a king of the Hoysala Empire.
Vira Someshwara (ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1234–1263) was a king of the Hoysala Empire.
Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Vyjayanthimala (Vyjayanthimala Bali, born 13 August 1936) is an Indian film actress, Bharathanatyam dancer, Carnatic singer, dance choreographer and parliamentarian.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries.
Yaksha (Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan, Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
The Gal Oya riots or Gal Oya massacre were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon.
1958 anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Ceylon, also known as the 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom to target the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon after it became an independent country from Britain in 1948.
The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom in Sri Lanka followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016.
History of the Tamil people, History of thondai mandala mudaliars, Lankan Tamils, Tamil Hinduism, Tamil Hindus, Tamil People, Tamil ethnic group, Tamil hindus, Tamil people, Tamilan, Tamilar, Tamilian, Tamilians, Tamizha, Tamizhian, தமிழர்.