111 relations: Active metabolite, Afimoxifene, Agonist, Alderley Park, American Cancer Society, Anastrozole, Angiogenesis, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Anovulatory cycle, Aromatase inhibitor, Bipolar disorder, Brain, Breast cancer, Breastfeeding, Cancer, Carbon, Carcinogen, Celecoxib, Cell cycle, Cell signaling, Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Citalopram, Citric acid, Clomifene, Cognition, Corepressor, Cre-Lox recombination, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Deep vein thrombosis, Developing country, Doxycycline, Endocrinology, Endometrial cancer, Endometrium, Endoxifen, Enzyme, Escitalopram, Estradiol, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Ethamoxytriphetol, Fatty liver, Feces, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Follicle-stimulating hormone, ..., Food and Drug Administration, Fulvestrant, Generic drug, Genotyping, Gynecomastia, Health system, HER2/neu, Hot flash, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, IC50, Idiopathic sclerosing mesenteritis, Imperial Chemical Industries, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Judah Folkman, Libido, Liver, Luteinizing hormone, Mania, McCune–Albright syndrome, Medscape, Menopause, Menstruation, National Institute of Mental Health, Neuron, Nitrogen, Norendoxifen, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, Nuclear receptor coactivator 3, Oral administration, Osteoclast, Osteoporosis, Oxygen, Paroxetine, Partial agonist, PAX2, Precocious puberty, Pregnancy, Prodrug, Protein kinase C, Pulmonary embolism, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Raloxifene, Receptor antagonist, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, Riedel's thyroiditis, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Semantic memory, Sertraline, Stroke, Susan Love, Testosterone, Triglyceride, Trioxifene, Triphenylethylene, Urine, Uterine cancer, V. Craig Jordan, Venous thrombosis, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
Afimoxifene, also known as 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, 4-HT, OHTAM, others), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group and the major active metabolite of tamoxifen.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alderley Park was a country house in a park of the same name at Nether Alderley, Cheshire, England, between Macclesfield and Knutsford.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
Anastrozole, sold under the brand name Arimidex among others, is a medication used in addition to other treatments for breast cancer.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).
The anovulatory cycle is a menstrual cycle characterized by varying degrees of menstrual intervals and the absence of ovulation and a luteal phase.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The Christie NHS Foundation Trust in Withington, Manchester, is one of the largest cancer treatment centres in Europe.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
In the field of molecular biology, a corepressor is a substance that inhibits the expression of genes.
Cre-Lox recombination is a site-specific recombinase technology, used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at specific sites in the DNA of cells.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Endoxifen, also known as N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen, is an orally active nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that is or was under development for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Ethamoxytriphetol (developmental code name MER-25) is a synthetic nonsteroidal antiestrogen that was studied clinically in the late 1950s and early 1960s but was never marketed.
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fulvestrant, sold under the brand name Faslodex among others, is a medication used to treat hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression as well as HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in combination with palbociclib in women with disease progression after endocrine therapy.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Idiopathic sclerosing mesenteritis (ISM) or mesenteric panniculitus is a rare disease of the small intestine, characterized by chronic inflammation and eventual fibrosis of the mesentery.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Moses Judah Folkman (February 24, 1933 – January 14, 2008) was an American medical scientist best known for his research on tumor angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor attracts blood vessels to nourish itself and sustain its existence.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
McCune–Albright syndrome is a complex genetic disorder affecting the bone, skin, and endocrine systems. It is a mosaic disease arising from somatic activating mutations in GNAS, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Gs G-coupled protein receptor. These mutations lead to constitutive receptor activation. It was first described in 1937 by Donovan James McCune and Fuller Albright.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Norendoxifen, also known as N,N-didesmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen, is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI) of the triphenylethylene group that was never marketed.
The nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 also known as thyroid-hormone- and retinoic-acid-receptor-associated co-repressor 1 (TRAC-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOR1 gene.
The nuclear receptor co-repressor 2 is a transcriptional coregulatory protein that contains several nuclear receptor-interacting domains.
The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Paired box gene 2, also known as PAX2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX2 gene.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham is an NHS and military hospital in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, situated very close to the University of Birmingham.
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract, and various other structures.
Riedel's thyroiditis, also called Riedel's struma is a chronic form of thyroiditis.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Susan M. Love (born February 9, 1948) is an American surgeon, a prominent advocate of preventive breast cancer research, and author.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Trioxifene (INN) (developmental code name LY-133,314), or as the salt trioxifene mesylate (USAN), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with competitive binding activity against estradiol for the ERα and antagonistic activity against ERα-mediated gene expression, that was under preclinical and clinical development by Eli Lilly and Company for breast cancer and prostate cancer, but was abandoned.
Triphenylethylene (TPE) is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon that possesses weak estrogenic activity.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Uterine cancer, also known as womb cancer, is any type of cancer that emerges from the tissue of the uterus.
Virgil Craig Jordan, OBE, PhD, DSc, FMedSci (born Texas, US, British/American joint national) is a scientist specializing in drugs for breast cancer treatment and prevention.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
ATC code L02BA01, ATCvet code QL02BA01, Apo-Tamox, C26H29NO, Citofen, Crisafeno, Diemon, Gen-Tamoxifen, Hydroxytamoxifen, Istubal, Istubol, Noltam, Nolvadex, Nolvadex-D, Nourytam, Novo-Tamoxifen, Oncomox, PMS-Tamoxifen, Retaxim, Tamizam, Tamofen, Tamone, Tamoxasta, Tamoxen, Tamoxifan, Tamoxifen citrate, Tamoxiphen, Valodex, Zemide.