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Tang dynasty

Index Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. [1]

655 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abbey, Acrobatics, Agate, Air conditioning, Al-Andalus, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Masudi, Alchemy, Amalgam (dentistry), Amber, Ambergris, Amnesty, Amoghavajra, Amu Darya, An Lushan, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancient Chinese coinage, Anecdote, Annual leave, Antithesis, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, Archery, Architectural History (journal), Armillary sphere, Arthur F. Wright, Artisan, Ashina Helu, Association for Asian Studies, Assyrian Church of the East, Astronomical clock, Astronomy, Automaton, Axum, Bactrian camel, Baekje, Bai Shouyi, Baizhang Huaihai, Balhae, Base (politics), Battle of Aksu (717), Battle of Baekgang, Battle of Hulao, Battle of Talas, Bayanchur Khan, Belitung, Belitung shipwreck, Bengal, Bengalis, ..., Berbera, Bhikkhu, Bi Sheng, Bianji, Birmingham Museum of Art, Bobali, Bohai Sea, Bombyx mori, Book of Chen, Book of Jin, Book of Liang, Book of Northern Qi, Book of Sui, Book of Zhou, Border checkpoint, Borehole, Borneo, Bow and arrow, Brine, Brining, Brothel, Buddhism, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Calligraphy, Cambridge University Press, Camellia sinensis, Cardamom, Carnival, Cartography, Cast iron, Cavalry, Ceramic, Chain pump, Champa, Chams, Chancellor of the Tang dynasty, Chang'an, Changsha, Chen Shuda, Chinese architecture, Chinese art, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese characters, Chinese characters of Empress Wu, Chinese classics, Chinese culture, Chinese dragon, Chinese era name, Chinese folk religion, Chinese historiography, Chinese History: A New Manual, Chinese literature, Chinese New Year, Chinese opera, Chinese poetry, Chinese swords and polearms, Chinese units of measurement, Church of the East in China, Cinnamon, City block, Classical Prose Movement, Cockfight, Code of law, Cold Food Festival, Compass, Confucianism, Confucius, Conquest of the Western Turks, Constans II, Constantinople, Convent, Convoy, Cotton, Courtesan, Crown prince, Cui Hao (poet), Cuju, Curfew, Cymbal, Daming Palace, Daqin, Daqin Pagoda, De-Sinicization, Deflation, Dhāraṇī, Dhow, Di Renjie, Diabetes mellitus, Diamond Sutra, Differential (mechanical device), Ding Huan, Domestication of the horse, Dongyi Protectorate, Dou Jiande, Drinking game, Drought, Du Fu, Du You, Duan Chengshi, Dunhuang, Dynasties in Chinese history, Dzungaria, Earthenware, Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup, Elixir of life, Emperor Ai of Tang, Emperor Dezong of Tang, Emperor Gaozong of Tang, Emperor Gaozu of Tang, Emperor of China, Emperor Ruizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong's campaign against the Western Regions, Emperor Taizong's campaign against Tuyuhun, Emperor Taizong's campaign against Xueyantuo, Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu, Emperor Uda, Emperor Wenzong of Tang, Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Wuzong of Tang, Emperor Xianzong of Tang, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (9th century), Emperor Yang of Sui, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, Empress Wei (Tang dynasty), Enchin, Encyclopedia, Ennin, Equal-field system, Era of Fragmentation, Escapement, Ethiopia, Euphrates, Famine, Fan (machine), Fatimid Caliphate, Fergana, Fergana Valley, Feudalism, Filial piety, Fireproofing, First conflict of the Goguryeo–Tang War, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Floruit, Flute, Food preservation, Fordham University, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Buddhist Persecutions in China, Four Garrisons of Anxi, Four occupations, Friedrich Hirth, Fubing system, Fujian, Fujiwara-kyō, Fustat, Fuzhou, Gansu, Gao Xianzhi, Gaochang, Gas cylinder, Gaspar Strait, Gautama Siddha, Gazetteer, Göktürks, Geisha, Geography of China, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Gift wrapping, Gilding, Gilgit, Gim Yu-sin, Ginger, Ginseng, Gluten, Goguryeo, Goguryeo–Sui War, Goguryeo–Tang War, Goitre, Golden Age, Golden age (metaphor), Granary, Grand Canal (China), Grassroots, Gravity, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Greater Iran, Greater Khorasan, Greco-Roman world, Guangzhou, Guangzhou massacre, Guiyi Circuit, Guo Ziyi, Hakluyt Society, Han dynasty, Han Gan, Han Yu, Hangzhou, Hangzhou Bay, Hanoi, Harsha, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Harvard University Press, Harvest, Hebei, Heian period, Heian-kyō, Henan, Heqin, Herat, Hero of Alexandria, Hexi Corridor, Hindu, History of banking in China, History of cartography, History of printing in East Asia, History of slavery, History of the Han dynasty, History of the Jews in China, History of the Northern Dynasties, History of the Southern Dynasties, History of the Uyghur people, History of Tibet, Hizen Province, Horn of Africa, Horseshoe crab, Hotan, Hou Junji, Huai River, Huaisheng Mosque, Huang Chao, Huangbo Xiyun, Huiyuan (Buddhist), Ikhshid, Illicium verum, Illig Qaghan, Imperial examination, India, Indonesia, Inner Asia, Inner Mongolia, International Studies Quarterly, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Irrigation, Islam during the Tang dynasty, Issyk-Kul, Ivory trade, Japan, Japanese missions to Imperial China, Java, Jellyfish, Jia Dan, Jiangnan, Jiedushi, Jokhang, Joseph Needham, Junk (ship), Kaiyuan Za Bao, Kanchipuram, Karluks, Kashgar, Kashmir, Khagan, Khan of Heaven, Khitan people, Khmer people, Kofun period, Korea, Kucha, Kyoto, Lacquer, Lacquerware, Laity, Lamb and mutton, Lance, Land reclamation, Landed nobility, Lantern Festival, Laozi, Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Later Liang (Five Dynasties), Later Silla, Legume, Li (surname 李), Li (unit), Li Bai, Li Gao, Li Guang, Li Jiancheng, Li Jing (Tang dynasty), Li Linfu, Li Shiji, Li Yuanji, Liang Shidu, Lighthouse, Linghu Defen, List of Buddhist temples, List of emperors of the Tang dynasty, List of Patriarchs of Antioch, List of postal entities, List of tributaries of China, Liu Zhiji, Liu Zongyuan, Lonely Planet, Longxi County, Lu Tong, Lu Yu, Luoyang, Ma Jun, Magadha, Maitreya, Malacca, Malays (ethnic group), Manchuria, Mandate of Heaven, Mango, Manichaeism, Mansion, Marination, Maritime history, Marriage of state, Materia medica, Matrilineality, Maurice (emperor), Mazu Daoyi, McFarland & Company, Medieval demography, Melancholia, Mesopotamia, Middle Chinese, Millet, Ming dynasty, Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, Mongolia, Mongols, Movable type, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nagasaki Prefecture, Namangan, Nathan Sivin, Naval warfare, Near East, Neo-Confucianism, Nestorian Stele, Nestorianism, New Book of Tang, Nicobar Islands, Nihon Shoki, Nine Pinnacle Pagoda, Ningxia, Nomad, North China Plain, North India, Northern and southern China, Northern and Southern dynasties, Northern Wei, Northern Zhou, Oasis, Oboe, Old Book of Tang, Old Turkic language, Ordos Desert, Orthodoxy, Outlaw, Ouyang Xiu, Ouyang Xun, Oxford University Press, Oyster, Palgrave Macmillan, Panicle, Papermaking, Patriarch, Patrician (ancient Rome), Patrilineality, Pear Garden, Pei Ju, Pei Xiu, Peroz III, Persian Gulf, Persian people, Pharmacology, Pine nut, Pipeline transport, Piracy, Playing card, Polemic, Polo, Porcelain, Portunus, Prefecture, Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Pressure head, Primogeniture, Princess Pingyang, Princess Taiping, Princess Wencheng, Princeton University Press, Printing, Printing press, Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Pure Land Buddhism, Qianling Mausoleum, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qocho, Queen regnant, Quraysh, Qutayba ibn Muslim, Radiocarbon dating, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashidun, Red Sea, Regent, Reincarnation, Ren Renfa, Rhetoric, Roman Empire, Romeo and Juliet, Routledge, Salt Commission, Samarkand, Sanskrit, Sasanian Empire, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Scale (map), Scholar-official, Sea otter, Secularism, Sesamum, Shandong, Shangguan Wan'er, Shanxi, Shennong, Shi Siming, Shingon Buddhism, Shitong, Shrimp, Shule Kingdom, Sichuan, Sichuan pepper, Siege of Constantinople (674–678), Silk Road, Silla–Tang War, Sima Guang, Sinhalese people, Sino-Roman relations, Sinology, Slot machine, Small Wild Goose Pagoda, Social mobility, Sogdia, Somalia, Son of Heaven, Song dynasty, Song Yingxing, Songtsen Gampo, South-pointing chariot, Southeast Asia, Sphere of influence, Spring (device), Squid, Stanford University Press, Stanza, Star chart, Starch, State monopoly, Steelyard balance, Steppe, Striking clock, Su Dingfang, Sufala, Sugarcane, Sugawara no Michizane, Sui dynasty, Sulaiman al-Tajir, Sun Simiao, Sutra, Suzhou, Sweet Dew incident, Syr Darya, Table manners, Taishang Huang, Taiyuan, Taizhou, Zhejiang, Taizi, Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks, Tang Code, Tang dynasty art, Tang dynasty in Inner Asia, Tang Huiyao, Tang poetry, Tang Yulin, Tao, Tao Te Ching, Taoism, Tap (valve), Tarim Basin, Taxation in premodern China, Technocracy, Temple name, Tetraodontidae, The Classic of Tea, The Confusions of Pleasure, Theophylact Simocatta, Three Departments and Six Ministries, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Thyroid, Tibet, Tibetan Empire, Tocharians, Toilet paper, Tongdian, Township, Traditional Chinese holidays, Traditional Chinese medicine, Transition from Sui to Tang, Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era, Tug of war, Turkic Khaganate, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Twenty-Four Histories, Umayyad Caliphate, Underwater diving, Universal history, University of California Press, University of Tokyo Press, Urine, Uthman, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, Vajrabodhi, Vajrayana, Varnish, Vietnam, Wang Wei (Tang dynasty), Wang Xuance, Warlord, Warring States period, Water clock, Water wheel, Waterproofing, Wedding, Wei Zheng, Western culture, Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms), Woodblock printing, Working animal, Wu Daozi, Wu Zetian, Xenophobia, Xi'an, Xianbei, Xinjiang, Xiongnu, Xu Jingzong, Xuanwu Gate Incident, Xuanzang, Xueyantuo, Yale University Press, Yan (An–Shi), Yan Zhenqing, Yan Zhitui, Yang Guifei, Yang You, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yangzhou massacre (760), Yellow Sea, Yeon Gaesomun, Yeon Namsaeng, Yeon Namsan, Yi Xing, Yijing (monk), Yingzao Fashi, Yiwen Leiju, Yuan dynasty, Yuan Zhen, Yuwen Huaji, Zaranj, Zen, Zhang Guolao, Zhang Heng, Zhang Jiuling, Zhang Xuan, Zhang Yichao, Zhejiang, Zhengguo Canal, Zhou dynasty (690–705), Zhou Fang (Tang dynasty), Zhu Wen, Zhu Xi, Zhuangzi (book), Zizhi Tongjian, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (605 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abbey

An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.

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Acrobatics

Acrobatics (from Greek ἀκροβατέω akrobateō, "walk on tiptoe, strut") is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance, agility, and motor coordination.

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Agate

Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Maqdisi

Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).

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Al-Masudi

Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Amalgam (dentistry)

Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.

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Amber

Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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Ambergris

Ambergris (or, ambra grisea, ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.

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Amnesty

Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.

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Amoghavajra

Amoghavajra (अमोघवज्र;, 705–774) was a prolific translator who became one of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks in Chinese history and is acknowledged as one of the Eight Patriarchs of the Doctrine in Shingon Buddhism.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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An Lushan

An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.

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An Lushan Rebellion

The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.

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Ancient Chinese coinage

Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.

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Anecdote

An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident.

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Annual leave

Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.

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Antithesis

Antithesis (Greek for "setting opposite", from ἀντί "against" and θέσις "placing") is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archery

Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Architectural History (journal)

Architectural History is the main journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain (SAHGB).

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Armillary sphere

An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.

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Arthur F. Wright

Arthur Frederick Wright (December 3, 1913 – August 11, 1976) was an American academic, sinologist, editor and professor of history at Yale University.

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Artisan

An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.

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Ashina Helu

Ashina Helu, also known as Ishbara Khagan, (ruled 651–658) was the last khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

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Association for Asian Studies

The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association open to all persons interested in Asia and the study of Asia.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Astronomical clock

An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Automaton

An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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Axum

Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.

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Bactrian camel

The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia.

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Baekje

Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.

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Bai Shouyi

Bai Shouyi (February 1909 – March 21, 2000), also known as Djamal al-Din Bai Shouyi, was a prominent Chinese Muslim historian, thinker, social activist and ethnologist who revolutionized recent Chinese historiography and pioneered in relying heavily on scientific excavations and reports.

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Baizhang Huaihai

Baizhang Huaihai (pinyin: Bǎizhàng Huáihái; Wade-Giles: Pai-chang Huai-hai; Hyakujō Ekai) (720–814) was a Chinese Zen master during the Tang Dynasty.

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Balhae

Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.

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Base (politics)

In politics, the term base refers to a group of voters who almost always support a single party's candidates for elected office.

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Battle of Aksu (717)

The Battle of Aksu was fought between Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate and their Turgesh and Tibetan Empire allies against the Tang dynasty of China.

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Battle of Baekgang

The Battle of Baekgang or Battle of Baekgang-gu, also known as Battle of Hakusukinoe (白村江の戦い Hakusuki-no-e no Tatakai or Hakusonkō no Tatakai) in Japan, as Battle of Baijiangkou (白江口之战 Bāijiāngkǒu Zhīzhàn) in China, was a battle between Baekje restoration forces and their ally, Yamato Japan, against the allied forces of Silla and the Tang dynasty of ancient China.

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Battle of Hulao

The Battle of Hulao (虎牢之戰) on 28 May 621 was a decisive victory for the Tang Dynasty prince Li Shimin, through which he was able to subdue two rival warlords, Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong.

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Battle of Talas

The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (معركة نهر طلاس) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong.

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Bayanchur Khan

Bayanchur Khan (known also as Moyanchur Khan),E.g., Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian, vol.

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Belitung

Belitung (or in English, Billiton) is an island on the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia in the Java Sea.

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Belitung shipwreck

The Belitung shipwreck (also called the Tang shipwreck or Batu Hitam shipwreck) is the wreck of an Arabian dhow which sailed en route from Africa to China around 830 CE.

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Bengal

Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bengalis

Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.

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Berbera

Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.

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Bhikkhu

A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Bi Sheng

Bì Shēng (990–1051 AD) was a Chinese artisan and inventor of the world's first movable type technology, one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China.

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Bianji

Bianji (fl. 7th century) was a Buddhist monk who lived in the Tang Dynasty.

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Birmingham Museum of Art

Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art in Birmingham, Alabama, today has one of the finest collections in the Southeastern United States, with more than 24,000 paintings, sculptures, prints, drawings, and decorative arts representing a numerous diverse cultures, including Asian, European, American, African, Pre-Columbian, and Native American.

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Bobali

The Bobali or Babalio (in Italian; known as Bobaljević or Bobalić in Croatian) was a noble family of the Republic of Ragusa.

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Bohai Sea

The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay on the coast of Northeastern and North China.

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Bombyx mori

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Book of Chen

The Book of Chen or Chen Shu (Chén Shū) was the official history of the Chen dynasty, one of the Southern Dynasties of China.

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Book of Jin

The Book of Jin is an official Chinese historical text covering the history of the Jin dynasty from 265 to 420.

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Book of Liang

The Book of Liang (Liáng Shū), was compiled under Yao Silian, completed in 635.

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Book of Northern Qi

The Book of Northern Qi (Chinese: 北齊書, pinyin Běi Qí Shū), was the official history of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi.

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Book of Sui

The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.

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Book of Zhou

The Book of Zhou (Zhōu Shū) records the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China.

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Border checkpoint

A border checkpoint is a place, generally between two countries, where travelers or goods are inspected.

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Borehole

A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.

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Borneo

Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Bow and arrow

The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Brining

In food processing, brining is treating food with brine or coarse salt which preserves and seasons the food while enhancing tenderness and flavor with additions such as herbs, spices, sugar, caramel and/or vinegar.

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Brothel

A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calligraphy

Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camellia sinensis

Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.

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Cardamom

Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.

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Carnival

Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chain pump

The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain.

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Champa

Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.

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Chams

The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.

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Chancellor of the Tang dynasty

The chancellor was a semi-formally designated office position for a number of high-level officials at one time during the Tang dynasty (this list includes chancellors of the reign of Wu Zetian, which she referred to as the "Zhou dynasty" (周), rather than "Tang" (唐)).

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Chang'an

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Changsha

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Chen Shuda

Chen Shuda (died 635), courtesy name Zicong, formally Duke Zhong of Jiang, was an imperial prince of the Chen dynasty, who, after the destruction of Chen, served as an official under the Sui and Tang dynasties, becoming a chancellor during the reigns of the Tang emperors Gaozu and Taizong.

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Chinese architecture

Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.

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Chinese art

Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.

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Chinese Buddhism

Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese characters of Empress Wu

Chinese characters of Empress Wu, or the Zetian characters, are Chinese characters introduced by Empress Wu Zetian, the only reigning female in the history of China, to demonstrate her power.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese dragon

Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.

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Chinese era name

A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese History: A New Manual

Chinese History: A New Manual, written by Endymion Wilkinson, is an encyclopedic guide to Sinology and Chinese history.

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Chinese literature

The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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Chinese opera

Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.

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Chinese poetry

Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.

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Chinese swords and polearms

The Chinese classify all swords into two types, jian (劍) and dao (刀).

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Chinese units of measurement

Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.

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Church of the East in China

The Church of the East or Nestorian Church had a presence in China during two periods: first from the 7th through the 10th century, and later during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries.

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.

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City block

A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design.

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Classical Prose Movement

The Classical Prose Movement (Chinese 古文運動 pinyin guwen yundong) of the late Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty in China advocated clarity and precision rather than the florid piantiwen (駢體文) or parallel prose style that had been popular since the Han dynasty.

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Cockfight

A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Cold Food Festival

The Cold Food or Hanshi Festival is a traditional Chinese holiday which developed from the local commemoration of the death of the Jin nobleman Jie Zhitui in the 7thcentury under the Zhou into an East Asian occasion for the commemoration and veneration of ancestors by the 7th-century Tang.

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Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Conquest of the Western Turks

The conquest of the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, was a military campaign in 657 led by the Tang Dynasty general Su Dingfang against the Western Turkic Khaganate ruled by Ashina Helu.

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Constans II

Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Convent

A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.

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Convoy

A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Courtesan

A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.

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Crown prince

A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.

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Cui Hao (poet)

Cui Hao (704?–754Wan: 1, his birth year of 704 is in doubt since he would have been somewhat young when he passed the imperial exam.) was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty in China and considered a main early exponent of the regulated verse form of Classical Chinese poetry (also known as jintishi).

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Cuju

Cuju, or Ts'u Chu is an ancient Chinese football game, also played in Korea, Japan and Vietnam.

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Curfew

A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.

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Cymbal

A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.

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Daming Palace

The Daming Palace was the imperial palace complex of the Tang dynasty, located in its capital Chang'an.

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Daqin

Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.

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Daqin Pagoda

The Daqin Pagoda (大秦塔) is a Buddhist pagoda in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an (formerly Chang'an), Shaanxi Province, China, located about two kilometres to the west of Louguantai temple.

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De-Sinicization

De-Sinicization (de + Sinicization) is the elimination of Chinese influence.

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Deflation

In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.

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Dhāraṇī

A (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.

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Dhow

Dhow (Arabic داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region.

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Di Renjie

Di Renjie (630 – August 15, 700), courtesy name Huaiying (懷英), formally Duke Wenhui of Liang (梁文惠公), was an official of Tang and Zhou dynasties, twice serving as chancellor during the reign of Wu Zetian.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diamond Sutra

The Diamond Sūtra (Sanskrit:Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) is a Mahāyāna (Buddhist) sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā sutras or 'Perfection of Wisdom' genre.

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Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

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Ding Huan

Ding Huan (丁緩) was a Chinese engineer, inventor, and craftsman who lived in the first century BC during the Han dynasty.

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Domestication of the horse

A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.

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Dongyi Protectorate

Dongyi Protectorate (东夷都护府) is a Tang dynasty protectorate in present-day Hebei Province and eastern Inner Mongolia.

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Dou Jiande

Dou Jiande (573 – August 3, 621) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty.

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Drinking game

Drinking games are games which involve the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Du Fu

Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.

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Du You

Du You (735 – December 23, 812), courtesy name Junqing (君卿), formally Duke Anjian of Qi (岐安簡公), was a Chinese scholar, historian and chancellor of the Tang Dynasty.

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Duan Chengshi

Duan Chengshi (died 863) was a Chinese poet and writer of the Tang Dynasty.

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Dunhuang

Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Dzungaria

Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.

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Earthenware

Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup

The Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup or Eight Immortals Indulged in Wine were a group of Tang Dynasty scholars who are known for their love of alcoholic beverages.

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Elixir of life

The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.

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Emperor Ai of Tang

Emperor Ai of Tang (27 October 89226 March 908), also known as Emperor Zhaoxuan (昭宣帝), born Li Zuo, later known as Li Zhu, was the last emperor of the Tang dynasty of China.

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Emperor Dezong of Tang

Emperor Dezong of Tang (27 May 742 – 25 February 805), personal name Li Kuo, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of his father Emperor Daizong.

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Emperor Gaozong of Tang

Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683 (although after January 665 much of the governance was in the hands of his second wife Empress Wu, later known as Wu Zetian).

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Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Emperor Ruizong of Tang

Emperor Ruizong of Tang (22 June 662 – 13 July 716), personal name Li Dan, also known at times during his life as Li Xulun, Li Lun, Wu Lun, and Wu Dan, was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty.

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Emperor Taizong of Tang

Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.

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Emperor Taizong's campaign against the Western Regions

In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).

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Emperor Taizong's campaign against Tuyuhun

Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Tang China faced challenges throughout his reign from Tang's western neighbor, the state of Tuyuhun, whose Busabuo Khan Murong Fuyun constantly challenged Chinese authority in the border regions.

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Emperor Taizong's campaign against Xueyantuo

Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626—649), the second emperor of Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, early in his reign, had allied with Xueyantuo, a vassal of the powerful Eastern Tujue (Göktürk) Khanate, against Eastern Tujue, who Tang defeated in 630.

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Emperor Tenji

, also known as Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.

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Emperor Tenmu

was the 40th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō):; retrieved 2013-8-22.

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Emperor Uda

was the 59th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.

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Emperor Wenzong of Tang

Emperor Wenzong of Tang (809–840), personal name Li Ang, né Li Han (李涵), was an emperor of the Tang dynasty of China.

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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

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Emperor Wuzong of Tang

Emperor Wuzong of Tang (July 2, 814 – April 22, 846), né Li Chan, later changed to Li Yan just before his death, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, reigning from 840 to 846.

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Emperor Xianzong of Tang

Emperor Xianzong of Tang (17 March 778Old Book of Tang, vol. 14. – 14 February 820; r. 805 – 820), personal name Li Chun, né Li Chun (李淳), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.

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Emperor Xuanzong of Tang

Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.

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Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (9th century)

Emperor Xuānzong of Tang (July 27, 810 – September 7, 859) (reigned April 25, 846 – September 7, 859) was an emperor in the latter part of the Tang dynasty of China.

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Emperor Yang of Sui

Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.

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Emperor Zhongzong of Tang

Emperor Zhongzong of Tang (26 November 656 – 3 July 710), personal name Li Xian, and at other times Li Zhe or Wu Xian, was the fourth Emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710.

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Empress Wei (Tang dynasty)

Empress Wei (韋皇后, personal name unknown) (died July 21, 710) was an empress of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.

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Enchin

(814–891) was a Japanese Buddhist monk who founded of the Jimon school of Tendai Buddhism and Chief Abbot of Mii-dera at the foot of Mount Hiei.

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Encyclopedia

An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.

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Ennin

, who is better known in Japan by his posthumous name, Jikaku Daishi (慈覺大師), was a priest of the Tendai school of Buddhism in Japan, and its third.

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Equal-field system

The equal-field system or land-equalization system was a historical system of land ownership and distribution in China used from the Six Dynasties to mid-Tang dynasty.

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Era of Fragmentation

The Era of Fragmentation is a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th century.

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Escapement

An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Fan (machine)

A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Fergana

Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.

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Fergana Valley

The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Filial piety

In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.

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Fireproofing

Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.

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First conflict of the Goguryeo–Tang War

The first conflict of the Goguryeo–Tang War started when Emperor Taizong (r. 626-649) of the Tang dynasty led a military campaign against Goguryeo in 645 to protect his ally Silla, and punish Generalissimo Yeon Gaesomun for killing King Yeongnyu.

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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.

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Floruit

Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.

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Flute

The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Food preservation

Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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Four Buddhist Persecutions in China

The Four Buddhist Persecutions in China was the wholesale suppression of Buddhism carried out on four occasions from the 5th through the 10th century by four Chinese emperors.

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Four Garrisons of Anxi

The Four Garrisons of Anxi were Chinese military garrisons installed by the Tang dynasty between 648 and 658.

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Four occupations

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.

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Friedrich Hirth

Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D. (16 April 1845 in Gräfentonna, Saxe-Gotha – 10 January 1927 in Munich) was a German-American sinologist.

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Fubing system

The fubing system was a local militia system in China from 6th to 8th centuries AD, originating in Western Wei and subsequently utilized during the Sui and Tang dynasties.

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Fujian

Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Fujiwara-kyō

was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710.

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Fustat

Fustat (الفسطاط al-Fusţāţ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule.

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Fuzhou

Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.

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Gansu

Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Gao Xianzhi

Gao Xianzhi, or Go Seonji, (died January 24, 756) was a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo descent.

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Gaochang

Gaochang (Old Uyghur: قۇچۇ, Qocho), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja, or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), is the site of a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in present-day Xinjiang, China.

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Gas cylinder

A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.

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Gaspar Strait

The Gaspar Strait is the strait separating the Indonesian islands Belitung and Bangka and connecting the Java Sea to the South China Sea.

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Gautama Siddha

Gautama Siddha, (fl. 8th century) astronomer, astrologer and compiler of Indian descent, known for leading the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era during the Tang Dynasty.

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Gazetteer

A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.

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Göktürks

The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.

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Geisha

(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.

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Geography of China

China has great physical diversity.

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Giant Wild Goose Pagoda

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda, is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China.

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Gift wrapping

Gift wrapping is the act of enclosing a gift in some sort of material.

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Gilding

Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.

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Gilgit

Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.

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Gim Yu-sin

Gim Yu-sin (595 – 18 August 673), also known as Kim Yu-sin, was a general in 7th-century Silla.

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Ginger

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Ginseng

Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

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Gluten

Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Goguryeo–Sui War

The Goguryeo–Sui War were a series of invasions launched by the Sui dynasty of China against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, between AD 598 and AD 614.

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Goguryeo–Tang War

The Goguryeo–Tang War occurred from 645 to 668 and was initially fought between the Goguryeo kingdom and Tang Dynasty.

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Goitre

A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.

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Golden Age

The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.

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Golden age (metaphor)

A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.

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Granary

A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grassroots

A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Great Tang Records on the Western Regions

The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions is a narrative of Xuanzang's nineteen-year journey from Chang'an in central China to the Western Regions of Chinese historiography.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Guangzhou massacre

The Guangzhou Massacre was an attack on the foreign merchants in Guangzhou, China, by forces under Huang Chao, who was rebelling against the Tang Empire at the time.

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Guiyi Circuit

The Guiyi Circuit, also known as the Guiyi Army (848–1036 AD), was a regional regime nominally subordinate to the Chinese Tang dynasty and later on the Northern Song dynasty.

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Guo Ziyi

Guo Ziyi (Kuo Tzu-i; Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪, Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo1 Tzu3-i2) (697 – July 9, 781), formally Prince Zhōngwǔ of Fényáng (汾陽忠武王), was the Tang dynasty general who ended the An Lushan Rebellion and participated in expeditions against the Uyghur Khaganate) and Tibetan Empire. He was regarded as one of the most powerful Tang generals before and after the Anshi Rebellion. After his death he was immortalized in Chinese mythology as the God of Wealth and Happiness (Lu Star of Fu Lu Shou). Guo Ziyi was a reportedly a Nestorian Christian.

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Hakluyt Society

The Hakluyt Society is a text publication society, founded in 1846 and based in London, England, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of historic voyages, travels and other geographical material.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Han Gan

Han Gan (Chinese: 韩干/韓幹) (c. 706-783) was a Tang Dynasty painter.

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Han Yu

Han Yu (76825 December 824) was a Chinese writer, poet, and government official of the Tang dynasty who significantly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism.

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Hangzhou

Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Hangzhou Bay

Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou, is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai.

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Hanoi

Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

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Harsha

Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.

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Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies

The Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (HJAS) is an English-language scholarly journal published by the Harvard-Yenching Institute.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Harvest

Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.

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Hebei

Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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Heian-kyō

Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Heqin

Heqin, also known as marriage alliance, refers to the historical practice of Chinese emperors marrying princesses—usually members of minor branches of the royal family—to rulers of neighboring states.

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Herat

Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.

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Hero of Alexandria

Hero of Alexandria (ἭρωνGenitive: Ἥρωνος., Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.

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Hexi Corridor

Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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History of banking in China

The history of banking in China includes the business of dealing with money and credit transactions in China.

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History of cartography

Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.

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History of printing in East Asia

Printing in East Asia evolved from ink rubbings made on paper or cloth from texts on stone tables in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 CE).

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History of slavery

The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.

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History of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.

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History of the Jews in China

Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants.

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History of the Northern Dynasties

The History of the Northern Dynasties (Běishǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon.

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History of the Southern Dynasties

The History of the Southern Dynasties (Nánshǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon.

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History of the Uyghur people

Uyghur nationalist historians in the People's Republic of China posit that the Uyghur people is millennia-old, and can be divided into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial (300 BC – AD 630), Imperial (AD 630–840), Idiqut (AD 840–1200), and Mongol (AD 1209–1600), with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in AD 1600 until the present.

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History of Tibet

Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet.

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Hizen Province

was an old province of Japan in the area of Saga and Nagasaki prefectures.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Horseshoe crab

Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.

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Hotan

Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.

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Hou Junji

Hou Junji (died April 29, 643) was a Chinese general and official who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Taizong in the Tang dynasty.

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Huai River

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.

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Huaisheng Mosque

The Huaisheng Mosque, also known as the Lighthouse Mosque and the Great Mosque of Canton, is the main mosque of Guangzhou.

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Huang Chao

Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty.

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Huangbo Xiyun

Huángbò Xīyùn (Ōbaku Kiun) (died 850) was an influential Chinese master of Zen Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.

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Huiyuan (Buddhist)

Huiyuan (334–416 AD) was a Chinese Buddhist teacher who founded Donglin Temple on Mount Lushan in Jiangxi province and wrote the text On Why Monks Do Not Bow Down Before Kings in 404 AD.

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Ikhshid

Ikhshid (Sogdian) was the princely title of the Iranian rulers of Soghdia and the Ferghana Valley in Transoxiana during the pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods.

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Illicium verum

Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China.

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Illig Qaghan

Illig Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐰃𐰞𐰞𐰃𐰏𐰴𐰍𐰣, chinese: 頡利可汗/颉利可汗, Pinyin: xiélì kěhàn, Wade-Giles: hsieh-li k'o-han, Baghatur shad (莫賀咄設/莫贺咄设), personal name: 阿史那咄苾, āshǐnà duōbì, a-shih-na to-pi), later Tang posthumous title Prince Huang of Guiyi (歸義荒王/归义荒王), was the eleventh qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Inner Asia

Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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International Studies Quarterly

International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Islam during the Tang dynasty

The History of Islam in China goes back to the earliest years of Islam.

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Issyk-Kul

Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.

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Ivory trade

The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese missions to Imperial China

The Japanese missions to Imperial China were diplomatic embassies which were intermittently sent to the Chinese court.

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Java

Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jellyfish

Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Jia Dan

Jia Dan (730 – October 27, 805Hsu (1988), 96.http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype.

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Jiangnan

Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.

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Jiedushi

The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Jokhang

The Jokhang, also known as the Qoikang Monastery, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery and Zuglagkang (or Tsuklakang), is a Buddhist temple in Barkhor Square in Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet.

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Joseph Needham

Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.

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Junk (ship)

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.

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Kaiyuan Za Bao

Kaiyuan Za Bao, or Kaiyuan Chao Bao, Bulletin of the Court, was an official publication which first appeared in the 8th century, during the Kaiyuan era.

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Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.

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Karluks

The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.

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Kashgar

Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Khagan

Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).

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Khan of Heaven

Khan of Heaven or Tian Khehan, Celestial Khagan, Tengri Khan was a title addressed to Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Khmer people

Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.

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Kofun period

The is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kucha

Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.

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Kyoto

, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Lacquer

The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.

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Lacquerware

Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.

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Laity

A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.

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Lance

The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).

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Land reclamation

Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.

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Landed nobility

Landed nobility or landed aristocracy is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges.

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Lantern Festival

The Lantern Festival or the Spring Lantern Festival is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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Laozi

Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.

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Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Liang (Five Dynasties)

The Later Liang (1 June 907 – 19 November 923), also known as Zhu Liang, was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Silla

Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.

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Legume

A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Li (surname 李)

Li is the second most common surname in China, behind only Wang.

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Li (unit)

The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.

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Li Bai

Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.

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Li Gao

Li Gao (351–417), courtesy name Xuansheng (玄盛), nickname Changsheng (長生), formally Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese state Western Liang.

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Li Guang

Li Guang (died 119 BC) was a Chinese general of the Western Han dynasty.

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Li Jiancheng

Li Jiancheng (589 – July 2, 626, formally Crown Prince Yin (literally, "the hidden crown prince"), nickname Pishamen (Sanskrit:Vaiśravaṇa), was the first crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu (Li Yuan) and the crown prince after the founding of the dynasty in 618. Li Jiancheng was murdered by his younger brother, Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin during Xuanwu Gate indident in 626. All of Li Jiancheng's sons were executed and excluded from imperial clan. After Li Shimin took the throne, Li Jiancheng was posthumously created the Prince of Xi (息隐王). Later, he was buried with ceremonies due an imperial prince. In 642, Li Jiancheng's crown prince title was restored as the crown Prince of Yin (隐太子).

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Li Jing (Tang dynasty)

Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649), courtesy name Yaoshi, posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong.

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Li Linfu

Li Linfu (died January 3, 753), nickname Genu, formally the Duke of Jin, was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor for 18 years (734–752), during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong—one of the longest terms of service for a chancellor in Tang history, and the longest during Xuanzong's reign.

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Li Shiji

Li Shiji (594The Old Book of Tang indicated that Li Shiji was 75 at the time of his death, while the New Book of Tang indicated that Li Shiji was 85 at the time of his death. Compare Old Book of Tang, vol. 67 with New Book of Tang, vol. 93. The Zizhi Tongjian, while not explicitly stating that Li Shiji was 75 at the time of his death, appeared to follow the Old Book of Tang by quoting Li Shiji as stating that he was satisfied with living almost to 80. See Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 201. (The New Book of Tang, containing apparently the same quote, had a slightly different version that had Li Shiji stating that he was satisfied with living over 80.) – December 31, 669), courtesy name Maogong, posthumously known as Duke Zhenwu of Ying, was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty.

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Li Yuanji

Li Yuanji (李元吉) (603 – July 2, 626), formally Prince La of Chao (巢剌王), more commonly known by the title of Prince of Qi (齊王), nickname Sanhu (三胡), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.

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Liang Shidu

Liang Shidu (梁師都) (died June 3, 628) was an agrarian leader who rebelled against the rule of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty near the end of the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui.

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Lighthouse

A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.

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Linghu Defen

Linghu Defen (582–666), formally Duke Xian of Pengyang (彭陽憲公), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.

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List of Buddhist temples

This is a list of Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas for which there are Wikipedia articles, sorted by location.

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List of emperors of the Tang dynasty

This is a list of emperors from the Tang dynasty (618–907) of China.

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List of Patriarchs of Antioch

The Patriarch of Antioch is one of the original patriarchs of Early Christianity, who presided over the bishops of Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Georgia, Mesopotamia, and India.

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List of postal entities

This is a list of postal entities by country.

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List of tributaries of China

This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Liu Zhiji

Liu Zhiji (661–721), courtesy name Zixuan (子玄), was a Chinese historian and author of the Shitong born in present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu during the Tang Dynasty.

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Liu Zongyuan

Liu Zongyuan (77328 November 819) was a Chinese writer and poet who lived during the Tang Dynasty.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Longxi County

Longxi is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Dingxi in the southeast of Gansu Province, China.

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Lu Tong

(pinyin;;; 790–835) was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, known for his lifelong study of the tea culture.

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Lu Yu

Lu Yu (733–804) is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture.

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Luoyang

Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Ma Jun

Ma Jun (220–265), courtesy name Deheng, was a Chinese mechanical engineer and politician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Magadha

Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.

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Maitreya

Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.

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Malacca

Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

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Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

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Manichaeism

Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.

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Mansion

A mansion is a large dwelling house.

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Marination

Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking.

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Maritime history

Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.

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Marriage of state

A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, and of similar antiquity in other civilizations.

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Materia medica

Materia medica (medical material/substance) is a Latin term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines).

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Matrilineality

Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Maurice (emperor)

Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.

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Mazu Daoyi

Mazu Daoyi (709–788) (Japanese: Baso Dōitsu) was an influential abbot of Chan Buddhism during the Tang dynasty.

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McFarland & Company

McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.

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Medieval demography

Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.

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Melancholia

Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang

The Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang is a miscellany of Chinese and foreign legends and hearsay, reports on natural phenomena, short anecdotes, and tales of the wondrous and mundane, as well as notes on such topics as medicinal herbs and tattoos.

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Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty

The Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) was the final step for the Mongols to rule the whole of China under the Yuan dynasty.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Nagasaki Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.

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Namangan

Namangan (also in Наманган) is a city in eastern Uzbekistan.

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Nathan Sivin

Nathan Sivin (born 11 May 1931), also known as Xiwen, is an American author, scholar, sinologist, historian, essayist, and currently professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Naval warfare

Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Neo-Confucianism

Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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Nestorian Stele

The Nestorian Stele, also known as the Nestorian Stone, Nestorian Monument, or Nestorian Tablet, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents 150 years of early Christianity in China.

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Nestorianism

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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New Book of Tang

The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.

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Nicobar Islands

The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean.

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Nihon Shoki

The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history.

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Nine Pinnacle Pagoda

The Nine Pinnacle Pagoda or Jiuding Pagoda (sometimes translated as "Nine Roof Pagoda") is an 8th-century pavilion-style brick pagoda located in central Shandong Province, China.

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Ningxia

Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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North China Plain

The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.

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Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.

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Northern Wei

The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

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Northern Zhou

The Northern Zhou followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD.

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Oasis

In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.

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Oboe

Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.

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Old Book of Tang

The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.

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Old Turkic language

Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.

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Ordos Desert

The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Outlaw

In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.

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Ouyang Xiu

Ouyang Xiu (1 August 1007 – 22 September 1072), courtesy name Yongshu, also known by his art names Zuiweng ("Old Drunkard") and Liu Yi Jushi ("Retiree Six-One"), was a Chinese scholar-official, essayist, historian, poet, calligrapher, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty.

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Ouyang Xun

Ouyang Xun (557–641), courtesy name Xinben (信本), was a Confucian scholar and calligrapher of the early Tang Dynasty.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oyster

Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Panicle

A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence.

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Papermaking

The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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Patriarch

The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).

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Patrician (ancient Rome)

The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Pear Garden

The Pear Garden or Líyuán was the first known royal acting and musical academy in China founded during the Tang dynasty by Emperor Xuanzong (712–755).

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Pei Ju

Pei Ju (547-627), birth name Pei Shiju, courtesy name Hongda, formally Duke Jing of Anyi, was a statesman who lived in the Sui and Tang dynasties, briefly serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Tang.

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Pei Xiu

Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Peroz III

Peroz III (𐭯𐭩𐭫𐭥𐭰, Persian: پیروز "the Victor") was son of Yazdegerd III, the last Sasanian king of Persia.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Pine nut

Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Playing card

A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.

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Polemic

A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

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Polo

Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Portunus

Portunus is a genus of crab which includes several important species for fisheries, such as the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus and the Gazami crab, P. trituberculatus.

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Prefecture

A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.

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Prefectures of the People's Republic of China

Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.

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Pressure head

In fluid mechanics, pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the pressure exerted on its container.

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Primogeniture

Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.

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Princess Pingyang

Princess Pingyang (formally Princess Zhao of Pingyang (598-623) was the daughter of Li Yuan (later enthroned as Emperor Gaozu), the founding emperor of the Tang dynasty. She helped him to seize power and eventually take over the throne from Sui dynasty by organizing an "Army of the Lady", commanded by herself, in her campaign to capture the Sui capital Chang'an.

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Princess Taiping

Princess Taiping (lit. "Princess of Peace", personal name unknown, possibly Li Lingyue (李令月)) (died 2 August 713) was a princess of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and her mother Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty.

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Princess Wencheng

Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco;; 628–680/2), surnamed Li, was a member of a minor branch of the royal clan of the Chinese Tang dynasty (possibly the daughter of Li Daozong, the Prince of Jiangxia).

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Protectorate General to Pacify the West

The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640–c.790) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin.

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Pure Land Buddhism

Pure Land Buddhism (浄土仏教 Jōdo bukkyō; Korean:; Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia.

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Qianling Mausoleum

The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is northwest from Xi'an,Valder (2002), 80.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinghai

Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Qocho

Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.

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Queen regnant

A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.

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Quraysh

The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.

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Qutayba ibn Muslim

Abū Ḥafṣ Qutayba ibn Abī Ṣāliḥ Muslim ibn ʿAmr al-Bāhilī (أبو حفص قتيبة بن أبي صالح مسلم بن عمرو الباهلي; 669–715/6) was an Arab commander of the Umayyad Caliphate who became governor of Khurasan and distinguished himself in the conquest of Transoxiana during the reign of al-Walid I (705–715).

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rashidun

The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Regent

A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.

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Reincarnation

Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Ren Renfa

Ren Renfa (1254–1327), courtesy name Ziming (子明), pseudonym Yueshan Daoren (月山道人; lit. "Taoist on the Moon Mountain"), was an expert of irrigation works, artist, and a government official during the Yuan dynasty.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Salt Commission

The Salt Industry Commission was an organization created in 758, during the decline of Tang dynasty China, used to raise tax revenue from the state monopoly of the salt trade, or salt gabelle.

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Samarkand

Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas

Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.

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Scale (map)

The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.

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Scholar-official

Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Sesamum

Sesamum is a genus of approximately 20 species in the flowering plant family Pedaliaceae.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shangguan Wan'er

Shangguan Wan'er (664?–21 July 710) was a concubine/imperial consort to two emperors of the Tang dynasty.

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Shanxi

Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shennong

Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.

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Shi Siming

Shi Siming (史思明) (703 – 18 April 761), or Shi Sugan (史窣干),(Uyghur سۆيگۈن، سۆيگۈن سانغۇن) was a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty who followed his childhood friend An Lushan in rebelling against Tang, and who later succeeded An Lushan's son An Qingxu as emperor of the Yan state that An Lushan established.

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Shingon Buddhism

is one of the major schools of Buddhism in Japan and one of the few surviving Vajrayana lineages in East Asia, originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra.

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Shitong

The Shitong is the first Chinese-language work about historiography compiled by Liu Zhiji between 708 and 710.

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Shrimp

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Shule Kingdom

The Shule Kingdom (Chinese: 疏勒) was an Indo-European oasis kingdom of the Taklamakan Desert that was on the Northern Silk Road, in the historical Western Regions of what is now Xinjiang in Northwest China.

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Sichuan

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Sichuan pepper

Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.

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Siege of Constantinople (674–678)

The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Silla–Tang War

The Silla–Tang War (668–676) occurred between the Korean Silla kingdom with the remnant forces from Goguryeo and Baekje (commonly referred to as Unified Silla), and the Chinese Tang dynasty that began in the geopolitical context immediately following the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje by Silla and Tang China.

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Sima Guang

Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.

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Sinhalese people

The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Sinology

Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.

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Slot machine

A slot machine (American English), known variously as a fruit machine (British English), puggy (Scottish English), the slots (Canadian and American English), poker machine/pokies (Australian English and New Zealand English), or simply slot (American English), is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed.

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Small Wild Goose Pagoda

The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Wild Goose Pagoda, is one of two significant pagodas in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, the site of the old Han and Tang capital Chang'an.

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Social mobility

Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

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Sogdia

Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Son of Heaven

Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Song Yingxing

Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese: 宋應星; Simplified Chinese: 宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

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Songtsen Gampo

Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.

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South-pointing chariot

The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Sphere of influence

In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.

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Spring (device)

A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.

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Squid

Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stanza

In poetry, a stanza (from Italian stanza, "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.

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Star chart

A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky.

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Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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State monopoly

In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.

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Steelyard balance

A steelyard balance, steelyard, or stilyard is a straight-beam balance with arms of unequal length.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Striking clock

A striking clock (also known as chiming clock) is a clock that sounds the hours audibly on a bell or gong.

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Su Dingfang

Su Dingfang (591–667), formal name Su Lie (蘇烈) but went by the courtesy name of Dingfang, formally Duke Zhuang of Xing (邢莊公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who succeeded in destroying the Western Turkic Khaganate in 657.

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Sufala

Sufala (Arabic: سفالة، Sfala) is a village in Sitra, Bahrain, located in the eastern coast of the island.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sugawara no Michizane

, also known as or, was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Sulaiman al-Tajir

Sulaiman or Soleiman al-Tajir (Arabic for "Soloman the Merchant") was a 9th-century Muslim merchant, traveler and writer initially from Siraf in modern-day Iran.

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Sun Simiao

Sun Simiao (died 682) was a famous traditional Chinese medicine doctor of the Sui and Tang dynasty.

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Sutra

A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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Suzhou

Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.

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Sweet Dew incident

The Sweet Dew incident (Ganlu incident, or 甘露之變) refers to an incident on December 14, 835, Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 245.

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Syr Darya

The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.

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Table manners

Table manners are the rules used while eating, which may also include the use of utensils.

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Taishang Huang

In Chinese history, a Taishang Huang or Taishang Huangdi, is a retired emperor who had, at least in name, abdicated in favour of someone else.

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Taiyuan

Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.

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Taizhou, Zhejiang

Taizhou (pronunciation in PRC Standard Mandarin), previously known as Taichow, is a city on the eastern coast of China's Zhejiang province, facing the East China Sea.

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Taizi

Taizi (Chinese: 太子, p tàizǐ, lit. "Supreme Son") was the title of the crown prince of imperial China.

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Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks

Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Chinese Tang Dynasty, faced a major threat from Tang's northern neighbor, the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

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Tang Code

The Tang Code was a penal code that was established and used during the Tang Dynasty in China.

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Tang dynasty art

Tang dynasty art is Chinese art made during the Tang dynasty (618–907).

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Tang dynasty in Inner Asia

The Tang dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Tang dynasty's realm in the Inner Asia in the 7th and, to a lesser degree, the 8th century AD, in the Tarim Basin, across the Gobi Desert and into Middle Asia.

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Tang Huiyao

The Tang Huiyao is an institutional history of Tang dynasty compiled by Wang Pu and presented it to Emperor Taizu of Song in 961.

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Tang poetry

Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, (June 18, 618 – June 4, 907, including the 690–705 reign of Wu Zetian) and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry.

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Tang Yulin

Tang Yulin (traditional Chinese: 湯玉麟; simplified Chinese: 汤玉麟; Pinyin: Tāng Yùlín; Wade-Giles: T'ang Yü-lin; 1877 – 1937) was a Chinese warlord in the Fengtien clique and Chairman of the government of Rehe (Jehol).

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Tao

Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..

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Tao Te Ching

The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Tap (valve)

A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.

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Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.

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Taxation in premodern China

Taxation in premodern China varied greatly over time.

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Technocracy

Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.

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Temple name

Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty.

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Tetraodontidae

The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.

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The Classic of Tea

The Classic of Tea or Tea Classic is the first known monograph on tea in the world, by Chinese writer Lu Yu between 760 CE and 762 CE, during the Tang Dynasty.

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The Confusions of Pleasure

The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China is an influential Passim, but states that the book is "now-influential": "...

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Theophylact Simocatta

Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es; Theophylactus Simocattus) was an early seventh-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Late Antiquity, writing in the time of Heraclius (c. 630) about the late Emperor Maurice (582–602).

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Three Departments and Six Ministries

The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).

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Three Kingdoms of Korea

The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).

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Thyroid

The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Tibet

Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibetan Empire

The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.

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Tocharians

The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.

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Toilet paper

Toilet paper is a tissue paper product people primarily use to clean the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation and to clean the perineal area of urine after urination and other bodily fluid releases.

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Tongdian

The Tongdian is a Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text.

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Township

Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.

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Traditional Chinese holidays

The traditional Chinese holidays are an essential part of harvests or prayer offerings.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Transition from Sui to Tang

The transition from Sui to Tang refers to the transition period between the end of the Sui Dynasty and the start of the Tang Dynasty, when the former dynasty's territories were carved into a handful of short-lived states by its officials, generals, and agrarian rebel leaders, and the process of elimination and annexation that followed which ultimately culminated in the consolidation of the Tang dynasty by the former Sui general Li Yuan.

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Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era

The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and numerous scholars from 714 to 724 AD during the Kaiyuan era of Tang Dynasty.

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Tug of war

Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.

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Turkic Khaganate

The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Twenty-Four Histories

The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Underwater diving

Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.

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Universal history

A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Tokyo Press

The is a university press affiliated with the University of Tokyo in Japan.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Uyghur Khaganate

The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.

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Uyghurs

The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.

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Vajrabodhi

Vajrabodhi (Ch.金剛智) (671–741) was an Indian Buddhist monk and esoteric Buddhist teacher in Tang China.

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Vajrayana

Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.

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Varnish

Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Wang Wei (Tang dynasty)

Wang Wei (699–759) was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, musician, painter, and statesman.

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Wang Xuance

Wang Xuance ((pinyin wáng xuáncè), fl. 7th century) was a Tang Dynasty guard officer and diplomat.

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Warlord

A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Waterproofing

Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.

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Wedding

A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.

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Wei Zheng

Wei Zheng (580–643), courtesy name Xuancheng, posthumously known as Duke Wenzhen of Zheng, was a Chinese statesman and historian.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)

The Western Liang (400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China, one of the "Five Liang" (Wu Liang) of this era.

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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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Wu Daozi

Wu Daozi (680–), also known as Daoxuan, was a Chinese artist of the Tang Dynasty.

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Wu Zetian

Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).

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Xenophobia

Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.

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Xi'an

Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xianbei

The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Xu Jingzong

Xu Jingzong (592 – September 20, 672), courtesy name Yanzu, posthumously known as Duke Gong of Gaoyang, was a Chinese official who served as a chancellor in the Tang dynasty.

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Xuanwu Gate Incident

The Xuanwu Gate Incident was a palace coup for the throne of the Tang dynasty on 2 July 626, when Prince Li Shimin (Prince of Qin) and his followers assassinated Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji (Prince of Qi).

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Xuanzang

Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.

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Xueyantuo

The Xueyantuo (薛延陀) (Seyanto, Se-yanto, Se-Yanto) or Syr-Tardush were an ancient Tiele Turkic people and Turkic khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of the Gokturks, later aligning with China's Tang Dynasty against the Eastern Gokturks.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Yan (An–Shi)

Yan, also known as the Great Yan, was a state established in 756 by the Tang Dynasty general An Lushan, after he rebelled against the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang in 755.

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Yan Zhenqing

Yan Zhenqing (709–785) was a leading Chinese calligrapher and a loyal governor of the Tang Dynasty.

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Yan Zhitui

Yan Zhitui (531–591) was a Chinese calligrapher, painter, musician, writer and politician who served four different Chinese states during the late Southern and Northern Dynasties: the Liang Dynasty in southern China, the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou Dynasties of northern China, and their successor state that reunified China, the Sui Dynasty.

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Yang Guifei

Yang Yuhuan (26 June, 719 — 15 July 756), often known as Yang Guifei (Yang Kuei-fei) (with Guifei being the highest rank for imperial consorts during her time), known briefly by the Taoist nun name Taizhen (太真), was known as one of the Four Beauties of ancient China.

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Yang You

Emperor Gong of Sui (隋恭帝) (605 – 14 September 619), personal name Yang You (楊侑), was an emperor of the Chinese Sui Dynasty.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yangzhou

Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China.

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Yangzhou massacre (760)

In the Yangzhou massacre, Chinese rebels under Tian Shengong engaged in a slaughter of foreign Arab and Persian merchants in 760 AD during the Tang dynasty in Yangzhou.

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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.

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Yeon Gaesomun

Yeon GaesomunSome Chinese and Korean sources stated that his surname was Yeongae (연개, 淵蓋) and personal name was Somun (소문, 蘇文), but the majority of sources suggest a one-syllable surname and a three-syllable personal name.

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Yeon Namsaeng

Yeon Namsaeng (연남생, 淵男生) (634–679) was the eldest son of the Goguryeo Dae Mangniji (대막리지, 大莫離支) Yeon Gaesomun (603?-665).

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Yeon Namsan

Yeon Namsan (淵男産, 연남산) (639–701) was the third son of the Goguryeo military leader and dictator Yeon Gaesomun (603?–665).

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Yi Xing

Yi Xing (683–727), born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907).

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Yijing (monk)

Yijing (635–713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming.

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Yingzao Fashi

The Yingzao Fashi is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (李誡; 1065–1110), the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China.

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Yiwen Leiju

The Yiwen Leiju is a Chinese leishu encyclopedia completed by Ouyang Xun in 624 under the Tang.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yuan Zhen

Yuan Zhen (779 – September 2, 831), courtesy name Weizhi (微之), was a politician of the middle Tang Dynasty, but is more known as an important Chinese writer and poet.

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Yuwen Huaji

Yuwen Huaji (died 619) was a general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty who, in 618, led a coup against Emperor Yang of Sui, killing him.

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Zaranj

Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015.

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Zen

Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.

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Zhang Guolao

Zhang Guo, better known as Zhang Guolao, is a Chinese mythological figure and one of the Eight Immortals in the Taoist pantheon.

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Zhang Heng

Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.

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Zhang Jiuling

Zhang Jiuling (678–740), courtesy name Zishou (子壽), nickname Bowu (博物), formally Count Wenxian of Shixing (始興文獻伯), was a prominent minister, noted poet and scholar of the Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong.

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Zhang Xuan

Zhang Xuan (713–755) was a Chinese painter who lived during the Tang Dynasty (618–907).

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Zhang Yichao

Zhang Yichao (張義朝 or 張義潮 or 張議潮) (799?-872) was an ethnic Han Chinese resident of Sha Prefecture (in modern Dunhuang, Gansu).

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Zhejiang

, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.

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Zhengguo Canal

The Zhengguo Canal, Zhengguoqu or Chengkuo Canal, named after its designer, Zheng Guo, is a large canal located in Shaanxi province, China.

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Zhou dynasty (690–705)

The Wu Zhou (周), also called the Second Zhou dynasty or Restored Zhou dynasty, was a Chinese dynasty established by Wu Zetian in 690, when she proclaimed herself huangdi (emperor).

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Zhou Fang (Tang dynasty)

Zhou Fang (c. 730–800), courtesy name Zhonglang (仲朗), was an influential painter during the mid-Tang dynasty.

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Zhu Wen

Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

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Zhu Xi

Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.

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Zhuangzi (book)

The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.

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Zizhi Tongjian

The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Redirects here:

Ang dynasty, Dhɑng, Duong dynasty, Empress of Tang Dynasty, Great Tang, Great Tang dynasty, T'Ang, T'Ang Dynasty, T'ang China, T'ang Dynasty, T'ang dynasty, T'ang-Dynasty, T'ang-tai, Tang (dynasty), Tang China, Tang Dynasty, Tang Dynasty Accomplishments, Tang Empire, Tang china, Tang history, Tang period, Tang-Dynasty, Tong Dynasty, Táng Dynasty, Tʻang dynasty, T‘ang Dynasty, T‘ang dynasty, T’ang Dynasty, T’ang dynasty, Đường dynasty, 唐朝.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_dynasty

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