417 relations: A7V, Active camouflage, Active protection system, Adna R. Chaffee Jr., Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Aiming point, Air assault, Airpower, Albert Gerald Stern, Amphibious Combat Vehicle, Amphibious vehicle, Amphibious warfare, Anemometer, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-tank missile, Anti-tank rifle, Anti-tank warfare, Apsley Cherry-Garrard, Arab world, Arena (countermeasure), Ariete, Armor-piercing shell, Armored bulldozer, Armored car (military), Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle, Armored Systems Modernization, Armour-piercing discarding sabot, Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, Armoured fighting vehicle, Armoured personnel carrier, Armoured reconnaissance, Armoured recovery vehicle, Armoured vehicle-launched bridge, Armoured warfare, Arms race, Artillery, Assault Amphibious Vehicle, Assault gun, Asymmetric warfare, Attack aircraft, Autoloader, Axis powers, B. H. Liddell Hart, Ballistics, Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Flers–Courcelette, Battle of France, Battle of Guadalajara, Battle of Kursk, ..., Battle of the Sinai (1973), Battle of the Somme, Battlefield, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Bazooka, BGM-71 TOW, Blitzkrieg, Bomb, Bore evacuator, Bradley Fighting Vehicle, Bridge, British Army, British heavy tanks of World War I, Bulkhead (partition), Caliber, Camouflage, Canister shot, Cannon, Centurion (tank), Ceramic, Challenger 2, Charles de Gaulle, Chassis, Chieftain (tank), China, Chobham armour, Christie suspension, Close air support, Cold War, Combat engineer, Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked), Combined arms, Command and control, Commander, Comparison of early World War II tanks, Comparison of World War I tanks, Composite armour, Computer monitor, Computer network, Continuous track, Counter-terrorism, Countermeasure, Cruiser tank, Daily Mail, David Lloyd George, Deception, Demining, Depleted uranium, Diamagnetism, Diesel engine, Diesel–electric transmission, Director of Naval Construction, Driving, Drozd, Economies of scale, EFA (mobile bridge), Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Electric current, Electric motor, Electromagnetic pulse, Electromagnetism, Electronics, Electrothermal-chemical technology, Elefant, Elevation (ballistics), Engine, Equipment of the Italian Army, Ernest Swinton, Euclidean vector, Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt, Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle, Experimental Mechanized Force, Explosively formed penetrator, External ballistics, Female tank, Ferdinand Porsche, Fiat 2000, Fire-control system, Firearm, Firepower, First Lord of the Admiralty, Flag semaphore, Flame tank, Flamethrower, Ford (crossing), Formula One car, Fortification, France, French Army, Friendly fire, Front (military), Front line, Future Combat Systems, Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicles, Future Force Unit of Action, Future Force Warrior, Gasoline, Georgy Zhukov, Germany, Global Positioning System, Grenade, Grenade launcher, Ground Combat Vehicle, Ground pressure, Gulf War, Gun data computer, Gun laying, Gun turret, Gunther Burstyn, Gyroscope, H. G. Wells, Heavy tank, Heinz Guderian, Herbert Ponting, High-explosive anti-tank warhead, High-explosive squash head, History of the tank, Hobart's Funnies, Holt tractor, Hull-down, Hybrid vehicle drivetrain, Improvised explosive device, Improvised fighting vehicle, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Infantry, Infantry fighting vehicle, Infantry mobility vehicle, Infantry tank, Infiltration tactics, Infrared, Infrared homing, Intercom, Internal combustion engine, Invasion of Normandy, Invasion of Poland, Invisibility, Iraq War, Iron Fist (countermeasure), IS tank family, Israel, Israel Military Industries, IT-1, Italian language, Italy, J. F. C. Fuller, Jagdpanzer, Jan Žižka, Jean Baptiste Eugène Estienne, Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, K2 Black Panther, Kinetic energy, Kinetic energy penetrator, Korean War, Lamborghini Murciélago, Lancelot de Mole, Land mine, Landships Committee, Laser, Laser rangefinder, Leonardo da Vinci, Leopard 1, Leopard 2, Levavasseur project, Light tank, Lincoln, England, List of armoured trains, List of main battle tanks by country, List of main battle tanks by generation, List of military tactics, List of modern armoured fighting vehicles, Lists of armoured fighting vehicles, Little Willie, Logistics, Low intensity conflict, M1 Abrams, M4 Sherman, M48 Patton, M551 Sheridan, M60 Patton, M8 Armored Gun System, Machine gun, Main battle tank, Male tank, Maneuver warfare, Mark IV tank, Mass production, Mecha, Mechanized infantry, Medium Mine Protected Vehicle, Medium tank, Member of parliament, Merkava, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Military, Military camouflage, Military engineering vehicle, Military intelligence, Military tactics, Mirage, Missile, Molotov cocktail, Morse code, Mortar (weapon), Motorized infantry, Multifuel, Muzzle brake, Muzzle energy, Nakidka, Narco tank, Nationalism, NATO, Navigation, Network-centric warfare, Network-enabled capability, Night vision device, Nomonhan, North African Campaign, Obsolescence, Offensive (military), Operation Barbarossa, Operational level of war, Optics, Panther tank, Panzer, Panzerfaust, Panzerjäger, Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty, Pedrail wheel, Percy Hobart, Periscope, Plastic, Precision-guided munition, Prototype, Proxy war, Quick Kill, Radar, Radar warning receiver, Radiotelephony procedure, Rail transport, Rate of fire, Reactive armour, Recoil, Reconnaissance aircraft, Recuperator, Red Army, Reginald Skelton, Renault FT, Resin, Robert Falcon Scott, Rocket artillery, Rocket-propelled grenade, Rolled homogeneous armour, Royal Historical Society, Royal Navy, RPG-29, Running gear (rail transport), Russia, Saint-Chamond (tank), Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, Schneider CA1, Second Battle of El Alamein, Second Battle of Fallujah, Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, Second Intifada, Second Spanish Republic, Shaped charge, Shell (projectile), Sherman Firefly, Shrapnel shell, Shtora, Siege engine, Silhouette, Situation awareness, Skid-steer loader, Sloped armour, Smoke grenade, Smoke screen, Smoothbore, SNCF Class T 2000, Soviet Army, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Spaced armour, Spall, Spanish Civil War, Spotting rifle, Stanford University Press, Stealth technology, Stridsvagn 103, Sturmgeschütz, SU-152, Super-heavy tank, Survivability, Suspension (vehicle), System, System integration, T-34, T-54/T-55, T-64, T-72, T-80, T-90, Tandem-charge, Tank classification, Tank Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces, Tank desant, Tank destroyer, Tank gun, Tankette, Tanks in the Cold War, Tanks in World War I, Tanks in World War II, Tanks of the interwar period, Tanks of the post–Cold War era, Telecommunications network, Telescope, Terra Nova Expedition, Terrain, The Land Ironclads, The New York Times, The Sunday Telegraph, The Worst Journey in the World, Thermal, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Thermal insulation, Thermocouple, Thermography, Thomas Macnamara, Tiger I, Time (magazine), Torque, Torsion bar suspension, Toyota Camry, Tracer ammunition, Transmission (mechanics), Trench warfare, Trophy (countermeasure), Tsar Tank, Tunisian Campaign, United Kingdom, United States Army, United States Department of the Army, United States Naval Institute, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Unmanned ground vehicle, Vehicle armour, Vehicle snorkel, Vezdekhod, Vietnam War, Visible spectrum, Walter Gordon Wilson, Warsaw Pact, Washington, D.C., Weapon mount, Weapon of mass destruction, Weapon system, Weather vane, Western Front (World War I), William Foster & Co., William Tritton, Winston Churchill, Wolseley Motors, World War I, World War II, Yom Kippur War, 76 mm gun M1. 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The A7V was a tank introduced by Germany in 1918, during World War I. One hundred chassis were ordered in early 1917, 10 to be finished as fighting vehicles with armoured bodies, and the remainder as Überlandwagen cargo carriers.
Active camouflage or adaptive camouflage is camouflage that adapts, often rapidly, to the surroundings of an object such as an animal or military vehicle.
An active protection system is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent line-of-sight guided anti-tank missiles/projectiles from acquiring and/or destroying a target.
Adna Romanza Chaffee Jr. (September 23, 1884 – August 22, 1941) was a major general in the United States Army, called the "Father of the Armored Force" for his role in developing the U.S. Army's tank forces.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
In field artillery, the accuracy of indirect fire depends on the use of aiming points.
Air assault is the movement of ground-based military forces by vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft—such as the helicopter—to seize and hold key terrain which has not been fully secured, and to directly engage enemy forces behind enemy lines.
Airpower or air power consists of the application of military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare.
Sir Albert Gerald Stern (24 September 1878 – 2 January 1966) was a banker who became the Secretary of the Landships Committee during World War I, where his organisational ability assisted the Committee in creating the first British tank.
The Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) is a program initiated by Marine Corps Systems Command to procure an amphibious assault vehicle for the United States Marine Corps to replace the aging Assault Amphibious Vehicle.
An amphibious vehicle (or simply amphibian), is a vehicle that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on (or under) water.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
An anti-tank rifle is a rifle designed to penetrate the armor of vehicles, particularly tanks.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
Apsley George Benet Cherry-Garrard (2 January 1886 – 18 May 1959) was an English explorer of Antarctica.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arena (Арена) is an active protection system (APS) developed at Russia's Kolomna-based Engineering Design Bureau for the purpose of protecting armoured fighting vehicles from destruction by light anti-tank weapons, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), and missiles with top attack warheads.
The C1 Ariete is the main battle tank of the Italian Army, developed by a consortium formed by Iveco-Fiat and Oto Melara (CIO, Consorzio Iveco Oto Melara).
An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
The armored bulldozer is a basic tool of combat engineering.
A military armored (or armoured) car is a lightweight wheeled armored fighting vehicle, historically employed for reconnaissance, internal security, armed escort, and other subordinate battlefield tasks.
The Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) is a U.S. Army program to replace the M113 armored personnel carrier and family of vehicles.
The ASM Program was a U.S. Army combat vehicle procurement program from the mid-1980s to the 1990s.
Armour-piercing discarding sabot (APDS) is a type of kinetic energy projectile fired from a rifled-barrel gun to attack armoured targets.
Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armour.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
Armoured reconnaissance is the combination of terrestrial reconnaissance with armoured warfare by soldiers using tanks and wheeled or tracked armoured reconnaissance vehicles.
An armoured recovery vehicle (ARV) is typically a powerful tank or armoured personnel carrier (APC) chassis modified for use during combat for towing or repair of battle-damaged, stuck, and/or inoperable armoured fighting vehicles, such as tanks and armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
An armoured vehicle-launched bridge (AVLB) is a combat support vehicle, sometimes regarded as a subtype of military engineering vehicle, designed to assist militaries in rapidly deploying tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles across gap-type obstacles, such as (and primarily) rivers.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV)—official designation AAV-P7/A1 (formerly known as Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Personnel-7 abbr. LVTP-7)—is a fully tracked amphibious landing vehicle manufactured by U.S. Combat Systems (previously by United Defense, a former division of FMC Corporation).
An assault gun is a form of self-propelled artillery which utilizes an infantry support gun mounted on a motorized chassis, normally an armored fighting vehicle.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
In armored warfare, an autoloader or auto-loader is a mechanical aid or replacement for the personnel that load ordnance into crew-served weapons, such as tanks and artillery.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23, 1937) saw the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR) defeat Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of the Sinai was one of the most consequential battles of the Yom Kippur war.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle involving ground warfare.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
Bazooka is the common name for a man-portable recoilless anti-tank rocket launcher weapon, widely fielded by the United States Army.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
A bore evacuator or fume extractor is a device which removes lingering gases and airborne residues from the barrel of an armored fighting vehicle's gun after firing, particularly in tanks and self-propelled guns.
The Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) is a fighting vehicle platform of the United States manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, formerly United Defense.
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
British heavy tanks were a series of related armoured fighting vehicles developed by the UK during the First World War.
A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Canister shot is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
The FV4034 Challenger 2 (MOD designation "CR2") is a British main battle tank (MBT) in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
A chassis (plural chassis) is the internal framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use.
The FV4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The main battle tank was further improved by being the first tank in service to incorporate the Chobham armour upgrades. A development of the Centurion, the Chieftain introduced the supine (reclining backwards) driver position to British design enabling a heavily sloped hull with reduced height. A new powerpack and improved transmission gave it higher speed than the Centurion despite being heavier due to major upgrades to armour protection and the armament. It remained in service until replaced by the Challenger 1 which shared a large number of the Chieftain's features.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chobham armour is the informal name of a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common, Surrey.
The Christie suspension is a suspension system developed by American engineer J. Walter Christie for his tank designs.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A combat engineer (also called field engineer, pioneer or sapper in many armies) is a soldier who performs a variety of construction and demolition tasks under combat conditions.
The Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) —or CVR(T)—is a family of armoured fighting vehicles (AFV)s in service with the British Army and others throughout the world.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
This table compares tanks in use by the belligerent nations of Europe and the Pacific at the start of the Second World War, employed in the Polish Campaign (1939), the Battle of France (1940), Operation Barbarossa (1941), and the Malayan Campaign (1942).
This is a comparison of the characteristics of tanks used in World War I.
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one.
The cruiser tank (also called cavalry tank or fast tank) was a British tank concept of the interwar period for tanks designed to function as modernised armoured and mechanised cavalry.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).
Demining or mine clearance is the process of removing land mines from an area, while minesweeping describes the act of detecting mines.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion.
The Director of Naval Construction (DNC) also known as the Department of the Director of Naval Construction and Directorate of Naval Construction and originally known as the Chief Constructor of the Navy was a senior principal civil officer responsible to the Board of Admiralty for the design and construction of the warships of the Royal Navy.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
Drozd ("thrush" in Russian) is an active protection system developed in the Soviet Union, designed for increasing tanks' protection against anti-tank missiles and RPGs.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
The EFA or Engin de Franchissement de l'Avant (forward crossing apparatus) is a field-deployable river crossing apparatus, used by combat engineers in the French Army.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electrothermal-chemical (ETC) technology is an attempt to increase accuracy and muzzle energy of future tank, artillery, and close-in weapon system guns by improving the predictability and rate of expansion of propellants inside the barrel.
The Elefant (German for "elephant") was a heavy tank destroyer used by German Wehrmacht Panzerjäger during World War II.
In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the axial direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Modern equipment of the Italian Army is a list of military equipment currently in service with the Italian Army.
Major-General Sir Ernest Dunlop Swinton, (21 October 1868 – 15 January 1951) was a British Army officer who was active in the development and adoption of the tank during the First World War.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
Sir Eustace Henry William Tennyson d'Eyncourt, 1st Baronet, KCB, FRS (1 April 1868 – 1 February 1951) was a British naval architect and engineer.
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) (formerly known as the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle) was an amphibious assault vehicle developed by General Dynamics for use by the U.S. Marine Corps.
The Experimental Mechanized Force (EMF) was a brigade-sized formation of the British Army.
An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
The "Female" tank"Tank" was the codename given to the first British tracked armoured fighting vehicles.
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.
The Fiat 2000 was an Italian heavy tank designed and produced by Fiat during World War I. Only two were built as it never entered serial production.
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Firepower is the military capability to direct force at an enemy.
The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.
Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.
A flame tank is a type of tank equipped with a flamethrower, most commonly used to supplement combined arms attacks against fortifications, confined spaces, or other obstacles.
A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.
A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet.
A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces.
A front line (alternative forms: front-line or frontline) in military terminology is the position(s) closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment, generally referring to maritime or land forces.
Future Combat Systems (FCS) was the United States Army's principal modernization program from 2003 to early 2009.
The Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV) was a family of lighter and more transportable ground vehicles developed by BAE Systems Inc and General Dynamics as part of the United States Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) program.
The Future Force unit of action (UA) will be the United States Army’s tactical warfighting echelon.
Future Force Warrior was a United States military advanced technology demonstration project that was part of the Future Combat Systems project.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
A grenade launcher is a weapon that fires a specially-designed large-caliber projectile, often with an explosive, smoke or gas warhead.
The Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) was the United States Army's replacement program for armored fighting vehicles in Armored and Stryker brigade combat teams.
Ground pressure is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility, especially over soft ground.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The gun data computer was a series of artillery computers used by the U.S. Army for coastal artillery, field artillery and antiaircraft artillery applications.
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets.
A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire.
Gunther Adolf Burstyn (6 July 1879 in Bad Aussee, Steiermark - 15 April 1945 in Korneuburg, Lower Austria) was an inventor, technician, and officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Herbert George Wells.
A heavy tank was a class of tank that generally provided better armour protection as well as equal or greater firepower than tanks of lighter classes, often at the cost of mobility and manoeuvrability and, particularly, expense.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
Herbert George Ponting, FRGS (21 March 1870 – 7 February 1935) was a professional photographer.
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect to penetrate thick tank armor.
High-explosive squash head (HESH) is a type of explosive ammunition that is effective against tank armour and is also useful against buildings.
The history of the tank began in World War I, when armoured all-terrain fighting vehicles were first deployed as a response to the problems of trench warfare, ushering in a new era of mechanized warfare.
Hobart's Funnies were a number of unusually modified tanks operated during the Second World War by the 79th Armoured Division of the British Army or by specialists from the Royal Engineers.
The Holt tractors were a range of continuous track haulers built by the Holt Manufacturing Company, which was named after Benjamin Holt.
In sailing and warfare, hull-down means that the upper part of a vessel or vehicle is visible, but the main, lower body (hull) is not; the term hull-up means that all of the body is visible.
Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
An improvised fighting vehicle is an ad hoc combat vehicle resulting from modified or upgraded civilian or military non-combat vehicle, often constructed and employed by civilians, rebels, guerrillas, resistance movements or other forms of non-state militias.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct-fire support.
An infantry mobility vehicle (IMV) is a wheeled armored personnel carrier (APC) serving as a military patrol, reconnaissance or security vehicle.
The infantry tank was a concept developed by the United Kingdom and France in the years leading up to World War II.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
An intercom (intercommunication device), talkback or doorphone is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network (Azori 2016).
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Invisibility is the state of an object that cannot be seen.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iron Fist (חץ דורבן, Hetz Dorban, lit. Porcupine Arrow) is a hard-kill active protection system (APS) designed by Israel Military Industries (IMI), with a modular design allowing adaptation to a range of platforms ranging from light utility vehicles to heavy armoured fighting vehicles.
The IS Tank was a series of heavy tanks developed as a successor to the KV-series by the Soviet Union during World War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
IMI Systems, formerly Israel Military Industries, also referred to as Ta'as (תע"ש מערכות,התעשייה הצבאית), is an Israeli weapons manufacturer.
The IT-1 (Истребитель танков–1 - 'Istrebitel tankov–1', lit. 'tank destroyer-1') was a Soviet cold war missile tank based on the hull of the T-62.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Major-General John Frederick Charles "Boney" Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO (1 September 1878 – 10 February 1966) was a senior British Army officer, military historian, and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorizing principles of warfare.
Jagdpanzer (JgPz), (German: "hunting tank"), is a name given to German self-propelled anti-tank guns.
Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.
Jean Baptiste Eugène EstienneEstienne's forenames are frequently incorrectly given as Jean-Baptiste Eugène.
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is a United States military (specifically U.S. Army, USSOCOM, and U.S. Marine Corps) program to part-replace the Humvee with a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload. The JLTV program was approved in 2006 to begin early studies. The JLTV program incorporates lessons learned from the earlier and now halted Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program and other associated efforts. JLTV has evolved throughout various development phases and milestones but variants are capable of performing armament carrier, utility, command and control (shelter), ambulance, reconnaissance and a variety of other tactical and logistic support roles. JLTV complies with the US Army's Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS). The JLTV program (including numbers required and pricing) evolved considerably as the program developed. Oshkosh's L-ATV was selected as the winner of the JLTV program on 25 August 2015 and awarded an initial production contract for up to 16,901 JLTVs.
The K2 Black Panther (Hangul: K2 '흑표'; Hanja: K2 '黒豹') is a South Korean main battle tank that will replace most of the M48 Patton tanks and complement the K1 series of main battle tanks currently fielded by the Republic of Korea.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Lamborghini Murciélago is a sports car produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 2001 and 2010.
Lancelot Eldin "Lance" de Mole CBE, (13 March 1880 – 6 May 1950) was an Australian engineer and inventor.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The Landships Committee was a small British committee formed during the First World War to develop armoured fighting vehicles for use on the Western Front.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.
The Levavasseur project was an early project for a tank designed in 1903 by the French Captain Léon René Levavasseur (1860-1942) of the 6th Artillery Battalion, described as a "self propelled cannon project" (French: Projet de canon autopropulseur).
A light tank is a tank variant initially designed for rapid movement, and now primarily employed in the reconnaissance role, or in support of expeditionary forces where main battle tanks cannot be made available.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
This is a list of armoured trains of different countries.
This is a list of main battle tanks, and other vehicles serving that role, in active military service with countries of the world.
Main battle tanks are often classified as belonging to a particular generation, although the actual definition and membership in these generations is not clearly defined.
This page contains a list of military tactics.
This article lists modern armoured fighting vehicles produced or used in the countries after the Second World War.
This is a list of lists of armoured fighting vehicles.
Little Willie was a prototype in the development of the British Mark I tank.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.
The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank named for General Creighton Abrams.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.
The M551 "Sheridan" AR/AAV (Armored Reconnaissance/Airborne Assault Vehicle) was a light tank developed by the United States and named after Civil War General Philip Sheridan.
The M60 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) introduced in December 1960.
The United Defense M8 Armored Gun System was an American light tank that was intended to replace the M551 Sheridan in the 82nd Airborne Division, as well as being expected to replace TOW-equipped Humvees in the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (2nd ACR).
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
The "Male" tank was a category of tank prevalent in World War I. As opposed to the five machine guns of the female version of the Mark I tank, the male version of the Mark I had a QF 6 pounder 6 cwt Hotchkiss and three machine guns.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
The Mark IV (pronounced Mark Four) was a British tank of the First World War.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
The term may refer to both scientific ideas and science fiction genres that center on giant robots or machines controlled by people.
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
The Medium Mine Protected Vehicle (MMPV) is a class of armored vehicles being procured by the US Army, similar to the MRAP program, which is being pursued by the US Army and the US Marine Corps.
Medium tank is a classification of tanks, particularly prevalent during World War II which represented a compromise between the mobility oriented light tanks and the protection and armour protection oriented heavy tanks.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Merkava (מרכבה (IPA:, "chariot") is a main battle tank used by the Israel Defense Forces. The tank began development in 1970, and entered official service in 1978. Four main variants of the tank have been deployed. It was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War. The name "Merkava" was derived from the IDF's initial development program name. Design criteria include rapid repair of battle damage, survivability, cost-effectiveness and off-road performance. Following the model of contemporary self-propelled howitzers, the turret assembly is located closer to the rear than in most main battle tanks. With the engine in front, this layout is intended to grant additional protection against a frontal attack, so as to absorb some of the force of incoming shells, especially for the personnel in the main hull, such as the driver. It also creates more space in the rear of the tank that allows increased storage capacity and a rear entrance to the main crew compartment allowing easy access under enemy fire. This allows the tank to be used as a platform for medical disembarkation, a forward command and control station, and an infantry fighting vehicle. The rear entrance's clamshell-style doors provide overhead protection when off- and on-loading cargo and personnel. It was reportedly decided shortly before the beginning of the 2006 Lebanon War that the Merkava line would be discontinued within four years. However, on November 7, 2006, Haaretz reported that an Israeli General staff assessment had ruled of the Merkava Mark IV that "if properly deployed, the tank can provide its crew with better protection than in the past", and deferred the decision on discontinuing the line. On August 16, 2013, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon announced the decision to resume production of the Merkava main battle tank for the IDF Armored Corps.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military camouflage is the use of camouflage by a military force to protect personnel and equipment from observation by enemy forces.
A military engineering vehicle is a vehicle built for the construction work or for the transportation of combat engineers on the battlefield.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
In NATO and most other western countries, motorized infantry is infantry that is transported by trucks or other un-protected motor vehicles.
Multifuel, sometimes spelled multi-fuel, is any type of engine, boiler, or heater or other fuel-burning device which is designed to burn multiple types of fuels in its operation.
A muzzle brake or recoil compensator is a device connected to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon that redirects propellant gases to counter recoil and unwanted rising of the barrel.
Muzzle energy is the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is expelled from the muzzle of a firearm.
Nakidka is a Russian radar-absorbent material (RAM) camouflage that "eliminates the use of precision-guided weapons" Nakidka reduces the infrared, thermal, and radar band signatures of an object.
A narco tank, also called rhino trucks or monstruo, is an improvised fighting vehicle used by drug cartels.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations or net-centric warfare, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990s.
Network-enabled capability, or NEC, is the name given to the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence long-term intent to achieve enhanced military effect through the better use of information systems towards the goal of "right information, right place, right time – and not too much".
A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.
Nomonhan is a small village in Mongolia, near the border between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, south of the city of Manzhouli.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Obsolescence is the state of being which occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order.
An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The Panther is a German medium tank deployed during World War II on the Eastern and Western Fronts in Europe from mid-1943 to the war's end in 1945.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
The Panzerfaust ("armor fist" or "tank fist", plural: Panzerfäuste) is an inexpensive, single shot, recoilless German anti-tank weapon of World War II.
Panzerjäger (German "armour-hunters" or "tank-hunters", abbreviated to Pz.Jg. in German) was a branch of service of the Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
The Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty also known as the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Board of Admiralty was a position on the Board of Admiralty and civil officer of the British Royal Navy.
The pedrail wheel is a type of wheel developed in the early 20th century for all-terrain locomotion.
Major General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885 – 19 February 1957), also known as "Hobo", was a British military engineer noted for his command of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II.
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A precision-guided munition (PGM, smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided munition intended to precisely hit a specific target, to minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Quick Kill is an active protection system (APS) designed to destroy incoming anti-tank missiles, rockets, and grenades.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar warning receiver (RWR) systems detect the radio emissions of radar systems.
Radiotelephony procedure (also on-air protocol and voice procedure) includes various techniques used to clarify, simplify and standardize spoken communications over two-way radios, in use by the armed forces, in civil aviation, police and fire dispatching systems, citizens' band radio (CB), and Amateur radio.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles.
Reactive armor is a type of vehicle armor that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected.
Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged.
A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.
A recuperator is a special purpose counter-flow energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the waste heat.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Sir Reginald William Skelton (3 June 1872 – 5 September 1956) was a British vice-admiral and engineer who served as chief engineer and official photographer of the 1901-1904 Discovery Expedition to Antarctica.
The Renault FT (frequently referred to in post-World War I literature as the FT-17, FT17, or similar) was a French light tank that was among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Captain Robert Falcon Scott, (6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition (1901–1904) and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913).
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
Rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) is a type of armour made of a single steel composition hot-rolled to improve its material characteristics, as opposed to layered or cemented armour.
The Royal Historical Society (abbr. RHistS; founded 1868) is a learned society of the United Kingdom which advances scholarly studies of history.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The RPG-29 "Vampir" is a Soviet Union reusable rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launcher.
In railway terminology the term running gear refers to those components of a railway vehicle that run passively on the rails, unlike those of the driving gear.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saint-Chamond, named after the commune of Saint-Chamond, was the second French heavy tank of the First World War, with 400 manufactured from April 1917 to July 1918.
Samohodnaya Ustanovka (SU) — (Russian: самоходная установка - CY, lit. "Self propelled installation") may refer to any of these Soviet self-propelled guns.
The Schneider CA 1 (originally named the Schneider CA) was the first French tank, developed during the First World War.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
The Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux (also Actions of Villers-Bretonneux, after the First Battles of the Somme, 1918) took place from 24 to 25 April 1918, during the German Spring Offensive, against the Allied lines to the east of Amiens.
The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
The Sherman Firefly was a tank used by the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth and Allied armoured formations in the Second World War.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
Shtora (Штора, "curtain") is an electro-optical active protection system or suite for tanks, designed to disrupt the laser designator and laser rangefinders of incoming anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs).
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
A silhouette is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject.
Situational awareness or situation awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status after some variable has changed, such as time, or some other variable, such as a predetermined event.
A skid loader, skid-steer loader, or skidsteer, is a small, rigid-frame, engine-powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide variety of labor-saving tools or attachments.
Sloped armour is armour that is neither in a vertical nor a horizontal position.
Smoke grenades used at demonstrations in Paris, 2008 British L83A1 Smoke Grenade manufactured in May 2008. This grenade has already been used. A smoke grenade is a canister-type grenade used as a signaling device, target or landing zone marking device, or as a screening device for unit movements.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
SNCF Class T 2000 trainsets, also known under their French acronym RTG (Rame à turbine à gaz, i.e., gas turbine trainset), were the second generation of turbine-powered trains in France and saw commercial service from 1972 to 2004.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Armor with two or more plates spaced a distance apart is called spaced armour.
Spall is flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body and can be produced by a variety of mechanisms, including as a result of projectile impact, corrosion, weathering, cavitation, or excessive rolling pressure (as in a ball bearing).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A spotting rifle or ranging gun is a small-calibre rifle used as a sighting device for artillery.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
The Stridsvagn 103 (Strv 103), "Strv" is the Swedish military abbreviation of stridsvagn, Swedish for tank while the 103 comes from being the third tank in Swedish service to be equipped with a 10 cm gun.
Sturmgeschütz (or StuG) meaning "assault gun" was a series of armored vehicles used by both the German Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS armored formations during the Second World War that primarily consisted of the StuG III and StuG IV.
The SU-152 (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka-152) is a Soviet self-propelled heavy howitzer used during World War II.
Super-heavy tank, also super heavy tank, is any tank that is notably beyond the standard of the class heavy tank in either size or weight.
Survivability is the ability to remain alive or continue to exist.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
System integration is defined in engineering as the process of bringing together the component sub-systems into one system (an aggregation of subsystems cooperating so that the system is able to deliver the overarching functionality) and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system, and in information technology as the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
The T-64 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank introduced in the early 1960s.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
The T-80 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union.
The T-90 is a third-generation Russian battle tank that entered service in 1993.
A tandem-charge or dual-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation.
Tank classification is a taxonomy of identifying either the intended role or weight class of tanks.
The Tank Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces was the mechanized unit that engaged in tank warfare for the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) on the Western Front during World War I.
Tank desant (танковый десант, tankovyy desant) is a military combined arms tactic, where infantry soldiers ride into an attack on tanks, then dismount to fight on foot in the final phase of the assault.
A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to engage enemy tanks.
A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.
A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car.
During the Cold War (1945–1990), the two opposing forces in Europe were the Warsaw Pact countries on the one side, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries on the other side.
The development of tanks in World War I was a response to the stalemate that had developed on the Western Front.
Tanks were an important weapons system in World War II. Even though tanks in the inter-war years were the subject of widespread research, production was limited to relatively small numbers in a few countries.
This article discusses tanks of the interwar period.
The post–Cold War era is the period in world history from the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 to the present.
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
"The Land Ironclads" is a short story by H.G. Wells that originally appeared in the December 1903 issue of the Strand Magazine.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.
The Worst Journey in the World is a memoir of the 1910–1913 British Antarctic Expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott.
A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
Thomas James Macnamara PC (23 August 1861 – 3 December 1931) was a British teacher, educationalist and radical Liberal politician.
The Tiger I is a German heavy tank of World War II deployed from 1942 in Africa and Europe, usually in independent heavy tank battalions.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A front VW Beetle suspension cross-section A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension (not to be confused with a torsion beam rear suspension), is a general term for any vehicle suspension that uses a torsion bar as its main weight-bearing spring.
The Toyota Camry (Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations.
Tracer ammunition (tracers) are bullets or cannon caliber projectiles that are built with a small pyrotechnic charge in their base.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Trophy (also known as ASPRO-A, Israel Defense Forces designation מעיל רוח, lit. "Windbreaker") is a military active protection system (APS) for vehicles.
The Tsar Tank (Царь-танк), also known as the Netopyr' (Нетопырь) which stands for Pipistrellus (a genus of bat) or Lebedenko Tank (танк Лебеденко), was an unusual Russian armoured vehicle developed by Nikolai Lebedenko (Николай Лебеденко), Nikolai Zhukovsky (Николай Жуковский), Boris Stechkin (Борис Стечкин), and Alexander Mikulin (Александр Микулин) from 1914 onwards.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
An unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) is a vehicle that operates while in contact with the ground and without an onboard human presence.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
A vehicle snorkel is the land-based equivalent of the submarine snorkel which allows submarines to use diesel engines while submerged.
The Vezdekhod (Вездеход) was the first true tank to be developed by Imperial Russia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Major Walter Gordon Wilson CMG (1874–1957) was a mechanical engineer, inventor and member of the British Royal Naval Air Service.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A weapon mount is a weapon component used to affix an armament for stabilization.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
Legend for Numeric Designations CL: Lockheed D: Douglas NA: North American WS (Weapon System) Weapon System is a United States military term that designated, along with a weapon system number (e.g., WS-110), military experimental (MX) weapons prior to official naming (e.g., under a military aircraft designation system. Preceded by the first Skunk Works program (MX-813 for the Convair XF-92 in 1946), the earliest "WS" designation was the 1954 WS-117L. Circa February 1950, an Air Research and Development Command "study prepared by Maj Gen Gordon P. Saville... recommended that a 'systems approach' to new weapons be adopted development of a weapon "system" required development of support equipment as well as the actual hardware itself." The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger in November 1949 was decided by the USAF to be built around a fire-control system--"the real beginning of the weapon system approach aircraft would be integrated into the weapon system "as a whole from the beginning, so the characteristics of each component were compatible with the others.". US weapon programs often were initiated by numbered government specifications such as an Advanced Development Objective (e.g., ADO-40) or a General Operational Requirement (e.g., GOR.80), although some programs were initially identified by contractor numbers (e.g., CL-282).
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
William Foster & Co Ltd was an agricultural machinery company based in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England and usually just called "Fosters of Lincoln." The company can be traced back to 1846, when William Foster purchased a flour mill in Lincoln.
Sir William Ashbee Tritton, JP, (19 June 1875 – 24 September 1946) was a British expert in agricultural machinery, and was directly involved, together with Major Walter Gordon Wilson, in the development of the tank.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolseley Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in early 1901 by the Vickers armaments combine in conjunction with Herbert Austin.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The 76 mm gun M1 was an American World War II–era tank gun developed by the U.S Ordnance Department in 1942 to supplement the 75 mm gun on the basic Medium tank M4.
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