204 relations: Abrahamic religions, Aesthetics, Art Institute of Chicago, Arthur Waley, Astrology, Bagua, Baguazhang, Baopuzi, Beijing, Benjamin Hoff, Big Dipper, Cao Cao, Chan Buddhism, Chengdu, China, Chinese alchemy, Chinese astrology, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese dragon, Chinese folk religion, Chinese language, Chinese martial arts, Chinese philosophy, Chinese ritual mastery traditions, Chinese shamanism, Chinese Taoist Association, Chinese Text Project, Christianity, Chu (state), Columbia University Press, Comparative religion, Confucianism, Confucius, Contradiction, Cultural Revolution, Cyclic model, Daode Tianzun, Daoism–Taoism romanization issue, Daosheng, Daoshi, Daozang, David "Race" Bannon, Detachment (philosophy), Divination, Dragon dance, Dragon Gate Taoism, East Asia, Eastern philosophy, Emperor Huizong of Song, Emperor of China, ..., Ethics, Feng shui, Fenghuang, Fortune-telling, Fuji (planchette writing), Ge Chaofu, Genghis Khan, God, Guo Xiang, Guodian Chu Slips, Han dynasty, Hay House, Hell money, Hermeneutics, Heshang Gong, History of religion, Hong Kong, Huang Gongwang, Humanism, I Ching, Immanence, Individualist anarchism, International Phonetic Alphabet, Internet Sacred Text Archive, J.J.M. de Groot, Jade Emperor, Jesus, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jing (Chinese medicine), Joss paper, Kristofer Schipper, Laissez-faire, Laozi, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Li (Confucianism), Liberalism, Lie Yukou, Lin Yutang, Lingbao School, Lingbao Tianzun, Lion dance, List of Celestial Masters, Litter (vehicle), Liu Yiming, Macau, Macrocosm and microcosm, Mao Zedong, Mediumship, Mi Fu, Ming dynasty, Mohism, Muqi Fachang, Neidan, Neijia, Neo-Confucianism, Ni Zan, Nominalism, Nuo folk religion, Ontology, Ordination, Organized religion, Orthodoxy, Pantheism, Paradox, Personal god, Philosophy, Pinyin, Pluralism (philosophy), Prehistory, Pronunciation respelling for English, Pu (Daoism), Qi, Qigong, Qing dynasty, Qingming Festival, Qiu Chuji, Quanzhen School, Reality, Realpolitik, Religion in China, Religion in Taiwan, Religious text, Research Association of Laozi Taoist Culture, Romanization, Sacrifice, School of Naturalists, Self-organization, Sengzhao, Shandong, Shang dynasty, Shangqing School, Shen (Chinese religion), Shen Buhai, Shitao, Shu Han, Sichuan, Singapore, Sinology, Social constructivism, Song dynasty, Southeast Asia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, State religion, Stephen Little, Stuart Wilde, Syncretism, Tai chi, Taijitu, Taipingjing, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Tao, Tao Te Ching, Tao yin, Taoism in Japan, Taoism in Korea, Taoism in Vietnam, Taoist diet, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, The Haunted Monastery, The Tao of Pooh, Theism, Three Pure Ones, Three Treasures (Taoism), Traditional Chinese medicine, Treatise On the Response of the Tao, Tripiṭaka, Unintended consequences, Victor H. Mair, Wade–Giles, Wang Bi, Warring States period, Way of the Celestial Masters, Way of the Five Pecks of Rice, Wayne Dyer, White Cloud Temple, Wu (shaman), Wu wei, Wu Wei (painter), Wu Xing, Xian (Taoism), Xiang'er, Xing Yi Quan, Yin and yang, Yuan dynasty, Yuanshi Tianzun, Zang-fu, Zen, Zhang Daoling, Zhengyi Dao, Zhuang Zhou, Zhuangzi (book), Zou Yan. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States.
Arthur David Waley (born Arthur David Schloss, 19 August 188927 June 1966) was an English Orientalist and sinologist who achieved both popular and scholarly acclaim for his translations of Chinese and Japanese poetry.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
The Bagua or Pa Kua are eight symbols used in Taoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts.
Baguazhang is one of the three main Chinese martial arts of the Wudang school, the other two being Taijiquan and Xing Yi Quan.
The Baopuzi, written by the Jin dynasty scholar Ge Hong 葛洪 (283-343), is divided into esoteric Neipian 內篇 "Inner Chapters" and exoteric Waipian 外篇 "Outer Chapters".
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Benjamin Hoff (born 1946) is an American author.
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK) is an asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude.
Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese alchemy is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chinese ritual mastery traditions, also referred to as ritual teachings (sometimes rendered as "Faism"),Yu-chi Tsao, 2012.
Chinese shamanism, alternatively called Wuism (alternatively 巫觋宗教 wū xí zōngjiào), refers to the shamanic religious tradition of China.
Chinese Taoist Association (CTA), founded in April 1957, is the main association of Taoism in the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese Text Project (CTP) is a digital library project that assembles collections of early Chinese texts.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
A cyclic model (or oscillating model) is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles.
Daode Tianzun (道德天尊) is the official title for Tàiqīng (太清): the Grand Pure One, which is one of the Three Pure Ones.
The English words Daoism and Taoism are alternative romanizations for the same-named Chinese philosophy and religion.
Daosheng (ca. 360–434), or Zhu Daosheng, was an eminent Six Dynasties era Chinese Buddhist scholar.
Daoshi usually refer to Taoist priests, professional Taoists who provide religious and ritual performances Daoshi may also refer to.
Daozang (Wade-Giles: Tao Tsang), meaning "Taoist Canon", consists of around 1,400 texts that were collected c. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Taoist texts).
David Dilley Bannon (born David Wayne Dilley; April 22, 1963), nicknamed Race, is an American author and translator.
Detachment, also expressed as non-attachment, is a state in which a person overcomes his or her attachment to desire for things, people or concepts of the world and thus attains a heightened perspective.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Dragon dance is a form of traditional dance and performance in Chinese culture.
The Dragon Gate sect (lóngménpài 龍門派) of the Complete Reality School (全真派) of Taoism incorporates elements of Buddhism and Confucianism into a comprehensive form of Taoism.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
Fenghuang are mythological birds of East Asia that reign over all other birds.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
Fuji is a method of "planchette writing", or "spirit writing", that uses a suspended sieve or tray to guide a stick which writes Chinese characters in sand or incense ashes.
Ge Chaofu (Chinese: 葛巢甫) is a member of the Chinese Ge family who lived during the 4th and 5th centuries CE.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Guo Xiang (died 312 AD) is credited with the first and most important revision of the text known as the Zhuangzi which, along with the Tao Te Ching, forms the textual and philosophical basis of the Taoist school of thought.
The Guodian Chu Slips were unearthed in 1993 in Tomb no.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hay House is a New Thought and self-help publisher founded in 1984 by author Louise Hay,, Michael Kinsman, December 4, 2005, San Diego Union-Tribune when she self-published her books Heal Your Body and You Can Heal Your Life.
Hell money is a form of joss paper printed to resemble legal tender bank notes.The notes are not an official form of recognized currency or legal tender since their sole intended purpose is to be offered as burnt offerings to the deceased as a superstitious solution to resolve their ancestors’ financial problems.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Heshang Gong (also Ho-Shang Kung) was a reclusive hermit from the 1st century CE who wrote a commentary on Laozi’s Dao De Jing.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Huang Gongwang (1269–1354) was born Lu Jian during the late Song Dynasty in Changshu, Jiangsu.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The I Ching,.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a Santa Cruz, California based website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value.
Jan Jakob Maria de Groot (18 February 185424 September 1921) was a Dutch sinologist and historian of religion.
The Jade Emperor (or 玉帝) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝). In Daoist theology he is the assistant of Yuanshi Tianzun, who is one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jīng (Wade-Giles: ching1) is the Chinese word for "essence", specifically kidney essence.
Joss paper (or, also known as ghost money) are sheets of paper or papercrafts made into burnt offerings common in Chinese ancestral worship such as the veneration of the deceased family members and relatives on holidays and special occasions.
Kristofer Marinus Schipper (23 October 1934, Järnskog, Eda Municipality), is a Dutch sinologist.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Lie Yukou (fl. ca. 400 BCE) is considered the author of the Daoist book Liezi, which uses his honorific name Liezi.
Lin Yutang (October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer, translator, linguist, philosopher and inventor.
The Lingbao School (Simplified Chinese: 灵宝派; Traditional Chinese: 靈寶派; pinyin: Líng Bǎo Pài), also known as the School of the Sacred Jewel or the School of Numinous Treasure, was an important Daoist school that emerged in China in between the Jin Dynasty and the Liu Song Dynasty in the early fifth century CE.
Lingbao Tianzun, also known in English as the Lord of Lingbao, is a Taoist god.
Lion dance is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture and other Asian countries in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume to bring good luck and fortune.
This is a list of the Celestial Masters, leaders of Zhengyi Dao, continuing Wudoumi Dao (Way of the Five Pecks of Rice).
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons.
Liu Yiming (1734–1821) was one of the main representatives of Taoist Internal Alchemy, or Neidan.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macrocosm and microcosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.
Mi Fu (also given as Mi Fei, 1051–1107)Barnhart: 373.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Muqi Fachang (1210? - 1269?) (Chinese: 牧溪法常; Japanese: 牧谿 Mokkei) was a Chinese Chan Buddhist monk and painter who lived in the 13th century, around the end of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279). Today, he is considered to be one of the greatest Chan painters in history.
Neidan, or internal alchemy, is an array of esoteric doctrines and physical, mental, and spiritual practices that Taoist initiates use to prolong life and create an immortal spiritual body that would survive after death (Skar and Pregadio 2000, 464).
Neijia is a term in Chinese martial arts, grouping those styles that practice neijing, usually translated as internal martial arts, occupied with spiritual, mental or qi-related aspects, as opposed to an "external" approach focused on physiological aspects.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Ni Zan (1301–1374) was a Chinese painter during the Yuan and early Ming periods.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
Nuo folk religion, or extendedly Chinese popular exorcistic religion, is a variant of Chinese folk religion with its own system of temples, rituals, orders of priests and gods, which is interethnic and practiced across central and southern China but is also intimately connected to the Tujia people.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A pronunciation respelling for English is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words in the English language, which does not have a phonemic orthography (i.e. the spelling does not reliably indicate pronunciation).
Pu is a Chinese word meaning "unworked wood; inherent quality; simple" that was an early Daoist metaphor for the natural state of humanity, and relates with the Daoist keyword ziran (literally "self so") "natural; spontaneous".
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used in the belief that it promotes health, spirituality, and martial arts training.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.
Qiu Chuji (1148 – 23 July 1227), also known by his Taoist name Changchun zi, was a Daoist disciple of Wang Chongyang.
The Quanzhen School is a branch of Taoism that originated in Northern China under the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Realpolitik (from real; "realistic", "practical", or "actual"; and Politik; "politics") is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and ethical premises.
China has long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio-philosophical traditions of the world.
Religion in Taiwan is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices, predominantly those pertaining to Chinese culture.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Research Association of Laozi Taoist Culture or Chinese Research Association of Laozi Taoist Culture (RALTC or CRALTC) is a religious and academic organisation founded in March 2008 in China.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
The School of Naturalists or the School of Yin-yang (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a Warring States era philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements.
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
Sengzhao (or Seng-Chao) (僧肇, Sōjō; 384–414) was a Chinese Buddhist philosopher from Later Qin around 384-417 at Chang'an.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
The Shangqing School (Chinese:上清) or Supreme Clarity is a Daoist movement that began during the aristocracy of the Western Jin dynasty.
Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.
The Chinese statesman Shen Buhai (c. 400c. 337) was Chancellor of the Han state under Marquis Zhao of Han for fifteen years, from 354 BC to 337 BC.
Shitao or Shi Tao (1642–1707), born into the Ming dynasty imperial clan as Zhu Ruoji (朱若極), was a Chinese landscape painter in the early Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).
Shu or Shu Han (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stuart Wilde (24 September 1946 – 1 May 2013) was a British writer.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
A taijitu (w) is a symbol or diagram (图 tú) in Chinese philosophy representing Taiji (太极 tàijí "great pole" or "supreme ultimate") representing both its monist (wuji) and its dualist (yin and yang) aspects.
Taipingjing ("Scriptures of the Great Peace") is the name of several different Daoist texts.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.
Tao yin (sometimes referred to as Taoist yoga) is a series of exercises (mainly in lying and sitting positions, but also in standing positions) practiced by Taoists to cultivate ch'i, the internal energy of the body according to Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Taoism is believed to be the inspiration for spiritual concepts in Japanese culture.
Taoism or "Do" is thought to be the earliest state philosophy for the Korean people spanning several thousand years.
Taoism in Vietnam (Đạo giáo Việt Nam) is believed to have been introduced into the country during the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.
While there are many historical and modern schools of Taoism, with different teachings on the subject, it is safe to say that many Taoist priests regard their diet as extremely important to their physical, mental and spiritual health in one way or another, especially where the amount of qi in the food is concerned.
The Columbia History of Chinese Literature is a reference book edited by Victor H. Mair and published by the Columbia University Press in 2002.
The Haunted Monastery is a gong'an detective novel written by Robert van Gulik and set in Imperial China (roughly speaking the Tang Dynasty).
The Tao of Pooh is a book written by Benjamin Hoff.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
The Three Pure Ones also translated as the Three Pure Pellucid Ones, the Three Pristine Ones, the Three Divine Teachers, the Three Clarities, or the Three Purities are the Taoist Trinity, the three highest Gods in the Taoist pantheon.
The Three Treasures or Three Jewels are basic virtues in Taoism.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The Taishang Ganying Pian (太上感應篇), or Lao Tse's Treatise on the Response of the Tao, is a Taoist scripture from the 12th century that has been very influential in China.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
Victor Henry Mair (born March 25, 1943) is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Wang Bi (226–249), courtesy name Fusi, was a Chinese neo-Daoist philosopher.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Way of the Celestial Masters is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE.
The Way of the Five Pecks of Rice or the Way of the Celestial Master, commonly abbreviated to simply The Celestial Masters, was a Chinese Taoist movement founded by the first Celestial Master Zhang Daoling in 142 CE.
Wayne Walter Dyer (May 10, 1940 – August 29, 2015) was an American philosopher, self-help author, and a motivational speaker.
The White Cloud Temple or the Monastery of the White Clouds is a Daoist temple located in Beijing, China.
Wu are spirit mediums who have practiced divination, prayer, sacrifice, rainmaking, and healing in Chinese traditions dating back over 3,000 years.
Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.
Wu Wei (ca. 1459–1508) was a Chinese landscape painter during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xian is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as.
The Xiang’er (Simplified Chinese: 想尔, Traditional Chinese: 想爾) is a commentary to the Dao De Jing that is best known for being one of the earliest surviving texts from the Way of the Celestial Master variant of Daoism.
Xing Yi Quan is classified as one of the Wudang styles of Chinese martial arts.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuanshi Tianzun, the Celestial Venerable of the Primordial Beginning or the Primeval Lord of Heaven, is one of the highest deities of religious Taoism.
The zàng-fǔ organs are functional entities stipulated by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zhang Ling (34–156), courtesy name Fuhan, was an Eastern Han Dynasty Taoist figure credited with founding the Way of the Celestial Masters sect of Taoism, which is also known as the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice.
Zhengyi Dao or the Way of Orthodox Unity is a Chinese Daoist movement that emerged during the Tang dynasty as a transformation of the earlier Tianshi Dao movement.
Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
Zou Yan (305240 BC) was an ancient Chinese philosopher best known as the representative thinker of the Yin and Yang School (or School of Naturalists) during the Hundred Schools of Thought era in Chinese philosophy.
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