198 relations: Abdullah Khan II, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Adobe, Akgul Amanmuradova, Aleksey Kuropatkin, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Shatilov, Alexei Kosygin, Alexey Shchusev, Ali-Shir Nava'i, Alimqul, Alina Kabaeva, Altai Mountains, Amir Timur Museum, Applied arts, Association football, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Babur, Basmachi movement, Bazaar, Beijing, Bektemir, Berlin, Bolsheviks, Book of Sui, Boris Grabovsky, Buddhism, Bukhara, Cantonment, Central Asia, Chilanzar, Chirchiq River, Chorsu Bazaar, Commonwealth of Independent States, Continental climate, Coordinated Universal Time, Denis Istomin, Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, Duke University Press, Dynasty, Earthquake engineering, Emir, Empire of Japan, FC Bunyodkor, February Revolution, Gates of Tashkent, Genghis Khan, Grand duke, Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich of Russia, ..., Hakim Karimovich Zaripov, Hermitage Museum, History of the Northern Dynasties, Inha University in Tashkent, InterContinental, Iroda Tulyaganova, Islam, Islam Karimov, Islamic calligraphy, Jadid, Joseph Stalin, Kangju, Kazakhstan, Köppen climate classification, Khanate of Kokand, Khujand, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kiev, Konstantin von Kaufman, Kortrijk, Koryo-saram, Kukeldash Madrasah (Tashkent), La Marseillaise, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Lenin's Mausoleum, List of Hokims of the Tashkent Region, Maksim Shatskikh, Mausoleum, Mediterranean climate, Michael Kolganov, Mikhail Chernyayev, Mikhail Frunze, Mirobod, Mirzo Ulugbek, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moscow, Mughal Empire, Muslim conquest of Persia, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National University of Uzbekistan, Navoi Theater, Oasis, October Revolution, Old Book of Tang, Olmazar, Pakhtakor Tashkent FK, Panjakent, Persian Empire, Persian language, Persian people, Peter Odemwingie, Philo Farnsworth, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Portrait miniature, Precipitation, Premier of the Soviet Union, President of Pakistan, Prime Minister of India, Prisoner of war, Ptolemy, Quran, Ravshan Irmatov, Rowman & Littlefield, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Revolution, Russian Turkestan, Russians, Saint Petersburg, Saman Khuda, Samanid Empire, Samarkand, Samarkand Kufic Quran, Saratov, Sasanian Empire, Seattle, Seoul, Sergeli, Sergey Kirov, Shahnameh, Shaybanids, Shaykhontohur, Shymkent, Silk Road, Sister city, Sogdia, Sogdian language, Soviet Union, Square, Stone Tower (Ptolemy), Suzani (textile), Syr Darya, Tajiks, Tashkent (1784), Tashkent Declaration, Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration, Tashkent Institute of Railway Transport Engineers, Tashkent International Airport, Tashkent Metro, Tashkent Soviet, Tashkent State Institute of Law, Tashkent State University of Economics, Tashkent Tower, Tashkent University of Information Technologies, Tashkent–Samarkand high-speed rail line, Tatars, The Great Game, The Moscow News, Tian Shan, Timeline of Tashkent, Timur, Timurid dynasty, Trams in Tashkent, Trans-Caspian railway, Transoxiana, Tsar, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkestan Military District, Turkic peoples, Tursunoy Saidazimova, Uchtepa, Ukrainians, Ulama, University of World Economy and Diplomacy, Uthman, Uyghurs, Uzbek language, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan Super League, Uzbeks, Valerian Kuybyshev, Vasilis Hatzipanagis, Vladimir K. Zworykin, Vladimir Kozlov, Vladimir Lenin, Westminster International University in Tashkent, World Meteorological Organization, Xuanzang, Yakkasaray, Yarkant County, Yashnobod, Yunus Khan, Yunusabad, Zoroastrianism, 1966 Tashkent earthquake. Expand index (148 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah Khan (Abdollah Khan Ozbeg) (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek/Turkoman ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785).
The Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi Fanlar akademiyasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси Фанлар академияси) is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
Akgul Charievna Amanmuradova (Оқгул Омонмуродова; born June 23, 1984) is a professional tennis player from Uzbekistan.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Alexander "Alex" Shatilov (אלכסנדר "אלכס" שטילוב, Александр Шатилов; born March 22, 1987) is an Israeli artistic gymnast.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev (Алексе́й Ви́кторович Щу́сев; – 24 May 1949) was an acclaimed Russian and Soviet architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalin's Empire Style.
Mīr 'Alisher Navaiy (9 February 1441 – 3 January 1501), also known as Nizām-al-Din ʿAlisher Herawī (Chagatai-Turkic/نظامالدین علیشیر نوایی) was a Chagatai Turkic poet, writer, politician, linguist, mystic, and painter.
`Alimqul (also spelt Alymkul, Alim quli, Alim kuli) (ca. 1833 – 1865) was a warlord in the Kokand Khanate, and its de facto ruler from 1863 to 1865.
Alina Maratovna Kabaeva (Али́на Мара́товна Каба́ева,; Әлинә Марат кызы Кабаева; born 12 May 1983) is a Russian Honored Master of Sports, a retired individual rhythmic gymnast, a model and film star, and a politician.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The Amir Timur Museum is located in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bektemir is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
Boris Pavlovich Grabovsky (Бори́с Па́влович Грабо́вский 26 May 1901 – 13 January 1966) was a Soviet engineer who invented a first fully electronic TV set (video transmitting tube and video receiver) that was demonstrated in 1928.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
A cantonment is a military or police quarters.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chilanzar (also spelled Chilonzor) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
The Chirchiq or Chirchik (Chirchiq, Чирчиқ, Чирчик) is a river of Uzbekistan, a major right tributary of the Syr Darya.
Chorsu Bazaar is the traditional bazaar located in the center of the old town of Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Denis Olegovich Istomin (born 7 September 1986, Orenburg, Russian SFSR) is an Uzbekistani professional tennis player of Russian descent.
Djamolidine Mirgarifanovich Abdoujaparov (Jamoliddin Mirgarifanovich Abdujaparov, Жамолиддин Миргарифанович Абдужапаров; Джамолиди́н Миргарифанович Абдужапа́ров, born 28 February 1964) is a former professional road racing cyclist from Uzbekistan.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Football Club Bunyodkor (Bunyodkor futbol klubi) is a professional football club based in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The Gates of Tashkent, in present-day Uzbekistan, were built around the town at the close of the 10th century, but did not survive to the present.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.
Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich of Russia (14 February 1850 – 26 January 1918) was the first-born son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna of Russia and a grandson of Nicholas I of Russia.
Hakim Karimovich Zaripov (variously Zaripov Khakim Karimovich) is an Uzbek circus performer.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The History of the Northern Dynasties (Běishǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon.
Inha University in Tashkent or IUT (Toshkent Shahridagi Inha Universiteti in Uzbek) is a branch of Korean Inha University in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
InterContinental Hotels & Resorts has over 180 hotels, located in more than 60 countries across the globe.
Iroda Tulyaganova (translit, born 7 January 1982) is a former professional tennis player from Uzbekistan.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.
The Jadids were Muslim modernist reformers within the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kangju was the Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia which became for a couple of centuries the second greatest power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Khujand (Xujand; Xo‘jand/Хўжанд; Xojand), formerly known as Leninabad (Leninobod; Leninâbâd) in 1936-1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufmann (Константи́н Петро́вич фон-Ка́уфман; 2 March 1818 – 16 May 1882) was the first Governor-General of Russian Turkestan.
Kortrijk (in English also Courtrai or Courtray; official name in Dutch: Kortrijk,; West Flemish: Kortryk or Kortrik, Courtrai,; Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.
Koryo-saram (Корё сарам; 고려사람) or Koryoin (고려인) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves.
Kukeldash Madrasah is a medieval madrasa in Tashkent, located close to Chorsu Bazaar and Chorsu Metro station.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
Lenin's Mausoleum (formerly Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum (1953-1961)) (p), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that currently serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.
A Hokim (UZB. Hokim, ҳokim) is head of the local executive authority in Tashkent.
Maksim Aleksandrovich Shatskikh (Максим Александрович Шацких; born 30 August 1978) is an Uzbekistani former professional footballer of Russian origin.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Michael Kolganov (מיכאל קולגנוב, born October 24, 1974) is an Israeli sprint canoeist and former world champion.
Mikhail Grigorievich Chernyayev (Russian: Михаил Григорьевич Черняев) (24 October 1828, Tubyshki, Mogilev Governorate – 16 August 1898) was a Russian general, who, together with Konstantin Kaufman and Mikhail Skobelev, led the Russian conquest of Central Asia under Alexander II.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Mirobod is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Mirzo Ulugbek (also spelled Mirzo Ulug'bek or Mirza Ulugbeg) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
National University of Uzbekistan is the oldest and largest university of Uzbekistan; it has 12 schools.
The Navoi Theater Alisher Navoiy nomidagi davlat akademik katta teatri, "Alisher Navoi State Academic Bolshoi Theatre") is the national opera theater in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
Olmazar (also spelled Olmazor) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
FC Pakhtakor Tashkent (Paxtakor Toshkent futbol klubi.,پخته کار, Футбольный клуб Пахтакор Ташкент) is an Uzbek professional football club, based in the capital Tashkent.
Panjakent (Панҷакент.; پنجکنت; Пенджикент), also spelled Panjikent, Panjekent, Panjikant or Penjikent, is a city in the Sughd province of Tajikistan on the Zeravshan River, with a population of 33,000 (2000 census).
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peter Osaze Odemwingie (born 15 July 1981) is a Nigerian professional footballer who plays as a forward and winger.
Philo Taylor Farnsworth (August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor and television pioneer.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ravshan Sayfiddinovich Irmatov (Ravshan Sayfiddinovich Ermatov, Равшан Сайфиддинович Эрматов; born August 9, 1977) is a Uzbek professional football referee.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russian Turkestan (Русский Туркестан, Russkiy Turkestan) was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire (administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship), comprising the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saman Khuda (Saman Khoda, Saman-khudat) was an 8th-century Persian noble whose descendants (the House of Saman) later became rulers of Persia (the Samanid Empire).
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
The Samarkand Kufic Quran (also known as the Uthman Quran, Samarkand codex, Samarkand manuscript and Tashkent Quran) is an 8th or 9th century manuscript Quran written in the territory of modern Iraq in the Kufic script.
Saratov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, Russia, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream (north) of Volgograd.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Sergeli is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Sergei Mironovich Kirov (born Kostrikov; – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
The Shaybanids (سلسله شیبانیان) were a PersianizedIntroduction: The Turko-Persian tradition, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed.
Shaykhontohur (also spelled Shayxontohur) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Shymkent (Shymkent, شىمكەنت, known until 1993 as Chimkent (Чимкент, چىمكېنت; Чимкент, Čimkent), is a city in the Republic of Kazakhstan; one of the three cities which have the status equal to that of a region (the city of republican significance). It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with an estimated population of 669,326 in 2012. After joining adjacent areas to the city the population has sharply risen to 858,147 in the beginning of 2015; as by 1 st May of 2018, Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics estimated the city population to be equal to 988 894. According to the region and city officials, millionth resident of Shymkent was born on 17th May, 2018. Shymkent is a major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the city is also a notable cultural centre, with an international airport. Shymkent is situated west of Almaty and to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted.
Ptolemy, the Greco-Egyptian geographer of Alexandria, wrote about a "Stone Tower" (λίθινος πύργος in Greek, Turris Lapidea in Latin) which marked the mid-point on the ancient Silk Road – the network of overland trade routes taken by caravans between Europe and Asia.
Suzani is a type of embroidered and decorative tribal textile made in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Tashkent State, or simply Tashkent was an independent historical secessionist state in Central Asia, which constituted nowadays Tashkent Region as well as South Kazakhstan Region.
The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration (Uzbek: Toshkent Irrigatsiya va Melioratsiya Instituti) or TIIM is a unique university in Central Asia, which works for the development of the water industry, and supplies the country with professionals in this field.
Tashkent Institute of Railway Transport Engineers is higher education institution in the field of railway transport in Uzbekistan.
Islam Karimov Tashkent International Airport (Islom Karimov Toshkent Xalqaro Aeroporti –) is the main international airport of Uzbekistan and the 3rd busiest airport in Central Asia (after Almaty International Airport and Astana International Airport in Kazakhstan).
The Tashkent Metro (Toshkent metropoliteni) is the rapid transit system serving the city of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
The Tashkent Soviet was a public organisation set up in Tashkent during the Russian Revolution.
Tashkent State University of Law (TSUL) is a public law school in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
The Tashkent State University of Economics (Toshkent Davlat Iqtisodiyot Universiteti, Тошкент Давлат Иқтисодиёт Университети) is one of the largest higher education establishments in the sphere of economics in Uzbekistan and in Central Asia.
The Tashkent Television Tower (Toshkent Teleminorasi) is a tower, located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan and is the 11th tallest tower in the world.
Tashkent University of Information Technologies (Ташкентский Университет Информационных Технологий, often abbreviated ТАТУ, TUIT), in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, is one of the largest universities in Uzbekistan.
The Tashkent to Samarkand high-speed rail line is a high-speed rail connection between Tashkent and Samarkand, the two largest Uzbek cities.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia's oldest English-language newspaper.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Tashkent tramway network formed part of the public transport system in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan.
The Trans-Caspian Railway (also called the Central Asian Railway, Среднеазиатская железная дорога) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 191827 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.
The Turkestan Military District (Туркестанский военный округ (ТуркВО), Turkestansky voyenyi okrug (TurkVO)) was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Tursunoy Saidazimova (occasionally spelled Tursunoi Saidazimova) was a Uzbek actress in the early days of the USSR and a well-known victim of honor killing.
Uchtepa (also spelled Uch Tepa) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The University of World Economy and Diplomacy is located in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan is the common English name for the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and later, the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), that refers to the period of Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1991.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Uzbekistan Super League (O'zbekiston Superligasi) also called Pepsi O'zbekiston Superligasi due to sponsorship by Pepsi, is the top division of football in Uzbekistan, and is operated under the auspices of the Uzbekistan Professional Football League and Uzbekistan Football Association.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Valerian Vladimirovich Kuybyshev (Валериа́н Влади́мирович Ку́йбышев; – 25 January 1935) was a Russian revolutionary, Red Army officer, and prominent Soviet politician.
Vasilis "Vasia" Hatzipanagis (Βασίλης Χατζηπαναγής,, born 26 October 1954) is a retired Greek footballer.
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (Влади́мир Козьми́ч Зворы́кин, Vladimir Koz'mich Zvorykin; July 29, 1982) was a Russian-born American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology.
Oleg Aleksandrovich Prudius (Олег Александрович Прудиус; Олег Олександрович Прудіус, Oleh Oleksandrovych Prudius; born April 27, 1979) better known by his ring name Vladimir Kozlov, is a Ukrainian-American producer and retired professional wrestler.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Westminster International University in Tashkent (WIUT) is Uzbekistan's first international university.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yakkasaray (also spelled Yakkasaroy) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
Yashnobod (former Hamza) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Yunus Khan (c. 1416 – 1487) (يونس خان), was Khan of Moghulistan from 1462 until his death in 1487.
Yunusabad (also spelled Yunusobod or Yunus Abad) is one of 11 districts (tuman) of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1966 Tashkent earthquake (Ташкентское землетрясение) occurred on 26 April in the Uzbek SSR.
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