209 relations: Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Almaty, Altai Mountains, Altai people, Arabic, Arabic script, Astrakhan Khanate, Astrakhan Oblast, Astrakhan Tatars, Azerbaijanis, İske imlâ alphabet, Balkars, Bashkir language, Bashkortostan, Batu Khan, Belarus, Białystok, Bilge Khagan, Black Sea, Bohoniki, Brooklyn, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Bulgars, Caucasian race, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chulyms, Constanța County, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Cossacks, Crimea, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Tatar language, Crimean Tatars, Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands, Cumans, Dobruja, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ethnic group, Europe, Exonym and endonym, Expansion of Russia 1500–1800, French language, Gabdulkhay Akhatov, Gdańsk, Genghis Khan, Gobi Desert, Golden Horde, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, ..., Great Horde, Great stand on the Ugra river, Grodno, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, Hacı I Giray, Haplogroup, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup Q-M242, Haplogroup R1a, Harbin, Hazaras, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Human leukocyte antigen, Interethnic marriage, Islam, Jerzy Łojek, Jochi, Karachay-Balkar language, Karachays, Kasimov, Kaunas, Kazakh Khanate, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire, Kazan, Kazan Governorate, Khakas people, Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Kievan Rus', Kipchak languages, Kipchaks, Kirov, Kirov Oblast, Kruszyniany, Kryashens, Kul Tigin, Kumyk language, Kumyks, Kuznetsk Basin, Latin, Lipka Tatars, List of Tatars, Lithuania, Lithuania proper, Madrasa, Mintimer Shaimiev, Mishar Tatar dialect, Mishar Tatars, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, Mongolic languages, Mongoloid, Mongols, Mordovia, Moscow, Mutual intelligibility, New York City, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Nogai Horde, Nogais, Nomad, Nomadic empire, Old Believers, Old Tatar language, Orenburg, Orkhon inscriptions, Orthodoxy, Ottoman Empire, Oxford English Dictionary, Pannonian Basin, Penza, Penza Oblast, Perm, Persian language, Podolia, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polygamy, Post-Soviet states, Protestantism, Qasim Khanate, Qolşärif Mosque, RIM-24 Tartar, Romania, Russia, Russian Census (2010), Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Far East, Russian language, Russians, Russo-Crimean Wars, Russo-Kazan Wars, Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Ryazan, Ryazan Oblast, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Saratov, Sejm, Shamanism, Shiwei, Shors, Siberia, Siberian Tatars, Siberian Turkic languages, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire, Soviet Union, Spruce-fir forests, Steak tartare, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Szlachta, Taiga, Tambov, Tambov Oblast, Tang dynasty, Tartar sauce, Tartarus, Tartary, Tashkent, Tat people (Caucasus), Tatar confederation, Tatar language, Tatarstan, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Trakai, Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Tsardom of Russia, Tubalar, Turco-Mongol tradition, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Ufa, Ukraine, Ulyanovsk, Ural (region), Uzbeks, Vilnius, Volga Bulgaria, Volga region, Volga River, Volga Tatars, Vytautas, Warsaw, Wild Fields, World War II, Xinjiang, Yaña imlâ alphabet, Yenisei River, Yeniseysk, Yuan dynasty, Zilant. Expand index (159 more) » « Shrink index
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that arose during the break-up of the Golden Horde.
Astrakhan Oblast (Астраха́нская о́бласть, Astrakhanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in southern Russia.
Astrakhan Tatars (Əsterxan tatarları, Әsterhan tatarlary.) are a subgroup of the Tatar people.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
İske imlâ ("Old Orthography") is a variant of the Arabic script, used for the Tatar language before 1920 and the Old Tatar language.
The Balkars (Малкъарлыла, таулула Malqarlıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
The Republic of Bashkortostan (Башҡортостан Республикаһы, p), also historically known as Bashkiria (p), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)).
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Bilge Khagan (Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Bilge qaγan) (683 – 25 November 734) was the khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bohoniki is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Sokółka, within Sokółka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Chelyabinsk Oblast (Челя́бинская о́бласть, Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia in the Ural Mountains region, on the border of Europe and Asia.
The Chulyms, also Chulym Tatars, (self-designation: Чулымнар, Татарлар, Öс кижилер, Пестын кижилер) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia.
Constanța is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the Dobruja region.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The steppe and forest-steppe of Ukraine and southern Russia is good agricultural land, but it was traditionally held by pastoral nomads.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gabdulkhay Khuramovich Akhatov (Russian: Габдулха́й Хура́мович Аха́тов; Volga Tatar: Габделхәй Хурам улы Əхәтов; September 8, 1927 - November 25, 1986) was a Soviet Volga Tatar Linguist, Turkologist and an organizer of science (earning his first Ph.D in 1954) and then a second doctorate of Philology in 1965.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gorzów Wielkopolski (abbreviated Gorzów Wlkp.; Landsberg an der Warthe; Łącbarg) is a city in western Poland, on the Warta river.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Great Horde was a Tatar-Mongol khanate that existed from about 1466 to 1502.
The Great Stand on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy in 1480, which ended when the Tatars departed without conflict. It is seen in Russian historiography as the end of Tatar rule over Moscow.Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800, (Indiana University Press, 2002), 80.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow (born June 29, 1957) IPA:, is a Turkmen politician who has served as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007.
Hacı I Giray, Melek Haji Girai (بیر-حاجى كراى; Melek Hacı Geray, ملک خاجى كراى‎; died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Interethnic marriage is a form of exogamy that involves a marriage between spouses who belong to different ethnic groups or races.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jerzy Łojek (3 September 1932 – 7 October 1986) was a Polish historian and opposition activist in People's Republic of Poland.
Jochi (Зүчи, Zu’qi; Jos'y, جوشى;; Cuçi, Джучи, جوچى; also spelled Djochi, Jöchi and Juchi) (c. 1182– February 1227) was the eldest son of Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life.
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.
The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, таулула Qaraçaylıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the North Caucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay–Cherkess Republic.
Kasimov (Касимов; Касыйм; historically Xankirmän, Gorodets Meshchyorsky, Novy Nizovoy) is a town in Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Oka River.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
The Kazakh Khanate (Қазақ Хандығы, Qazaq Handyǵy, قازاق حاندىعى) was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Russian traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Ural'sk) and Atyrau (Gur'yev).
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
The Kazan Governorate (Каза́нская губе́рния; قازان عوبئرناسئ; Хусан кӗперниӗ, Husan kĕperniĕ), or the Government of Kazan, was a governorate (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR from 1708–1920, with its seat in the city of Kazan.
The Khakas, or Khakass (Khakas: Тадарлар, Tadarlar), are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in southern Siberia.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by approximately 26–28 million people in much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, spanning from Ukraine to China.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Kirov (p), formerly known as Vyatka (Вя́тка) and Khlynov (Хлы́нов), is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyatka River.
Kruszyniany is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krynki, within Sokółka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
Kryashens (Kryashen: кряшенняр, керәшен(нәр),, кряшены; sometimes called Baptised Tatars (крещёные тата́ры)) are a sub-group of the Volga Tatars, frequently referred to as one of the minority ethnic groups in Russia.
Kul Tigin (Old Turkic:, Kültigin, (勒/阙特勤, Pinyin: quètèqín, Wade-Giles: chüeh-t'e-ch'in, Xiao'erjing: ٿُؤ تْ ٿٍ, AD 684–731) was a general of the Second Turkic Khaganate. He was a second son of Ilterish Qaghan, the dynasty's founder, and the younger brother of Bilge Kaghan, the fourth kaghan. Tigin means something like prince. During the reign of Qapagan Khaghan, Kul Tigin and his older brother earned reputation for their military prowess. They defeated Yenisei Kirghiz, Turgesh, and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Iron Gate (Central Asia) south of Samarkand. They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz tribes. Upon the death of Qapagan Khaghan, his son Inel Qaghan attempted to illegally ascend to the throne, defying the traditional Lateral succession law, but Kül-Tegin refused to recognize the takeover. He raised an army, attacked, and killed Inel and his trusted followers. He placed his elder brother Bilge Khagan on the throne, and took the title of Shad, an equivalent of commander-in-chief of the army for himself. In 731 Kül-Tegin fell ill and died. A stele in memory of Kul Tigin, which included inscriptions in both the Turkic and Chinese, was erected at his memorial complex at the present site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-2. Kül-Tegin is also mentioned in the inscription erected in memory of his older brother Bilge Kagan at the neighbouring site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-1. Prince Kül-Tegin descended from the Gold (Kagan's) clan of the Ashina ruling family called Shar-Duly (Middle Persian zarr duli "Golden bird Duli", i.e. "Golden/Red Raven"). All royal Oguzes traced their descent from this mythical bird Dulu/Tulu. The headdress on the glabella part of Kül-Tegin sculpture in the Husho-Tsaidam enclave (Orkhon, Northern Mongolia) carries a bird with wings spread like an eagle, personifying a Raven.
Kumyk (къумукъ тил,L. S. Levitskaya, "Kumyk language", in Languages of the world. Turkic languages (1997). (in Russian) qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 426,212 speakers — the Kumyks — in the Dagestan, North Ossetia, and Chechen republics of the Russian Federation.
Kumyks (къумукълар, qumuqlar, кумыки) are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau (in northern Dagestan to the south of the Terek river), the lands bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and the banks of the Terek river.
The Kuznetsk Basin (often abbreviated as Kuzbass or Kuzbas, Russian: Кузнецкий бассейн, Кузбасс) in southwestern Siberia, Russia, is one of the largest coal mining areas in the world, covering an area of around.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group numbering 6.7 million in the late 20th century, including all subgroups of Tatars, such as Volga Tatars, Lipka Tatars and Crimean Tatars.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuania proper (Lithuania propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Didžioji Lietuva; ליטע, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language was spoken.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mintimer Sharipovich Shaimiev (Минтимер Шәрип улы Шәймиев; Mintimér Šarípovič Šajmíjev) (born January 20, 1937) was the first to hold title of President of Tatarstan, a republic within Russia.
Mishar Tatar or Misher Tatar, also Western Tatar (мишәр Mişär, мишәр татар Mişär Tatar, көнбатыш татар könbatış tatar) is a dialect of Tatar spoken by Mishar Tatars mainly located at Penza, Ulyanovsk, Orenburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd, Saratov oblasts of Russia and in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, and Mordovia of Russian Federation and Finland.
The Mishar Tatars (self definition: мишәрләр, мишәр татарлары) are a subgroup of the Volga Tatars of Tatars and the indigenous people of the Mordovia, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, and Chuvashia of Russian Federation, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Orenburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd, Saratov Oblasts of Russia and immigrant minority of Finland.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Нижегоро́дская о́бласть, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), also known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Nogay Horde, Nohai Horde or Nogay Yortu was a confederation of about eighteen Turkic and Mongol tribes that occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppe from about 1500 until they were pushed west by the Kalmyks and south by the Russians in the 17th century.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
The Old Tatar language (İske imlâ: يسكى تاتار تلى, translit. İske Tatar Tele, also Old Bashkir language, Volga Turki) was a literary language used among the some ethnic groups of Volga-Ural region (Tatars, Bashkirs and others) from the Middle Ages till the 19th century.
Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.
The Orkhon inscriptions (Orhun Yazıtları, Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Penza (p) is a city and the administrative center of Penza Oblast, Russia, located on the Sura River, southeast of Moscow.
Penza Oblast (Пе́нзенская о́бласть, Penzenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qasim Khanate or Kingdom of Qasim or Khanate of Qasım (Касыйм ханлыгы/Касыйм патшалыгы; Касимовское ханство/Касимовское царство, Kasimovskoye khanstvo/Kasimovskoye tsarstvo) was a Tatar khanate, a vassal of Russia, which existed from 1452 until 1681 in the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with its capital Kasimov, in the middle course of the Oka River.
The Qolşärif Mosque (pronounced, also spelled Qol Sharif, Qol Sherif and Kol Sharif via the Tatar Qol Şärif mäçete, Qolşärif mäçete, and Kul Sharif via the Russian мечеть Кул-Шариф, mechet Kul-Sharif) located in Kazan Kremlin, was reputed to be – at the time of its construction – one of the largest mosques in Russia, and in Europe outside of Istanbul.
The General Dynamics RIM-24 Tartar was a medium-range naval surface-to-air missile (SAM), and was among the earliest surface-to-air missiles to equip United States Navy ships.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.
The Russo-Kazan Wars was a series of wars fought between the Khanate of Kazan and Muscovite Russia from 1438, until Kazan was finally captured by Ivan the Terrible and absorbed into Russia in 1552.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
Ryazan (a) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southeast of Moscow.
Ryazan Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
Saratov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Saratov Oblast, Russia, and a major port on the Volga River located upstream (north) of Volgograd.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shiwei was an umbrella term for the Food (or Work or Catastrophe) Council Mongols and Tungusic peoples that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach.
Shors or Shorians (Shor шор-кижи) are a Turkic people in the Kemerovo Oblast in Russia.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siberian Tatars refers to the indigenous population of Tatars of the forests and steppes of South Siberia stretching from somewhat east of the Ural Mountains to the Yenisei River in Russia.
The Siberian Turkic or Northeastern Common Turkic languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and society.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Fir and spruce forests are greatly affected by slight fluctuations in climate.
Steak tartare is a meat dish made from raw ground meat (beef or horsemeat).
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tambov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Tambov Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tsna and Studenets Rivers, about south-southeast of Moscow. Population: 280,161 (2010 Census); 293,658 (2002 Census);.
Tambov Oblast (Тамбо́вская о́бласть, Tambovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tartare sauce (spelled tartar sauce in the USA) is a mayonnaise or aioli-based sauce of French origin, and is typically of a rough consistency due to the addition of diced gherkins or other varieties of pickles.
In Greek mythology, Tartarus (Τάρταρος Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tat people (also: Tati, Parsi, Daghli, Lohijon, Caucasian Persians, Transcaucasian Persians) are an Iranian people, presently living within Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia (mainly Southern Dagestan).
Tatar (Татар) was one of the five major Mongol tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.
Tomsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River.
Trakai (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort in Lithuania.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Tubalar are an ethnic group native to the Altai Republic in Russia.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulyanovsk is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River east of Moscow.
The Urals (Ура́л) are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga Region (Поволжье, Povolzhye, literally: "along the Volga") is an historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volga Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group, native to the Volga-Ural region, Russia.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yaña imlâ (Cyrillic: Яңа имля; Tatar for new orthography) was a modified variant of Arabic script that was in use for the Tatar language in 1920–1927.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yeniseysk (p) is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zilant (Зилант) is a legendary creature, something between a dragon and a wyvern.