358 relations: Accountability, Achaemenid Empire, Ad valorem tax, Adage, Adam Smith, Advance tax ruling, Agricultural policy, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, American Revolution, Anarcho-capitalism, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian literature, Angola, Anthony Crosland, Arbitration, Arthur Cecil Pigou, Asset forfeiture, Audit, Babylon, Balance sheet, Bank tax, BBC, Beard tax, Beardsley Ruml, Bible, Body of water, Book of Genesis, Brazil, Budget constraint, Burgage, Business, Business cycle, Business sector, Canada Revenue Agency, Canal, Capital (economics), Capital gain, Capitalism, Carbon tax, Carucage, Cash and cash equivalents, Central African Republic, Chad, Chartalism, Citizenship, Classical economics, Code of Federal Regulations, Coercion, ..., Common external tariff, Common law, Commons, Compliance cost, Congestion pricing, Conservatism, Consumption tax, Corporate tax, Corvée, Counterfeit, Crowdfunding, Currency, Custom house, Customs union, Danegeld, Darius I, David R. Henderson, Deadweight loss, Democracy, Denmark, Diminishing returns, Direct tax, Dispersed knowledge, Distribution (economics), Dividend, Dividend tax, Double taxation, Economic bubble, Economic efficiency, Economic inequality, Economic rent, Economics, Education, Effect of taxes and subsidies on price, Egypt, Elasticity (economics), Electric utility, Electromagnetic spectrum, Encyclopædia Britannica, Euro, Excess burden of taxation, Excise, Externality, Extreme value theorem, Factors of production, FairTax, Farm (revenue leasing), Federal Reserve System, Federal Tax Service (Russia), Federal Unemployment Tax Act, Fee, Fiat money, Finance minister, Financial repression, Financial transaction tax, Fine (penalty), First Dynasty of Egypt, Fiscal capacity, Fiscal incidence, Fiscal policy, Fiscal year, Fixed tax, Flat tax, Force (law), France, Franchise tax, Free trade, French Revolution, Fungibility, Gasoline, Geolibertarianism, Georgism, Gift tax, Goods, Government, Government budget balance, Government debt, Government failure, Government spending, Gross domestic product, Guinea, Harm principle, Health care, Health system, Henry George, Henry George theorem, HM Revenue and Customs, Human Action, Hutch (furniture), Hypothecated tax, Imprisonment, In kind, Incentive, Income tax, Income–consumption curve, India, Indifference curve, Indirect tax, Individualist anarchism, Industrial policy, Inflation, Inheritance tax, Internal Revenue Bulletin, Internal Revenue Code, Internal Revenue Service, International taxation, Investment decisions, Investment policy, Iran, IRS tax forms, James Mirrlees, Jizya, John Locke, John Pym, Joseph (Genesis), Joseph Stiglitz, Juridical person, Karl Marx, Kenya, Labour supply, Lacey Green, Laffer curve, Land (economics), Land value tax, Latin, Legal person, Liberia, Libertarianism, Liberty, Liberty Fund, Likin (taxation), List of countries by tax rates, List of countries by tax revenue to GDP ratio, List of taxes, Listed building, Livre tournois, Lockean proviso, Long Parliament, Ludwig von Mises, Lump-sum tax, Macroeconomics, Malaysia, Market (economics), Market distortion, Marxism, Methodological individualism, Microeconomics, Mineral, Mises Institute, Mixed economy, Monetary policy, Mozambique, Natural person, Natural resource, Natural resources consumption tax, Neoclassical economics, Net worth, Netherlands, New International Version, No taxation without representation, Nobility, Non-aggression principle, Normal good, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), OECD, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., OneTax, Opportunity cost, Pay-as-you-earn tax, Payment in lieu of taxes, Payroll tax, Peasants' Revolt, Pension, Personal property, Perverse incentive, Peter Mathias, Pharaoh, Pigovian tax, Political philosophy, Politics, Poll tax, Poll tax (Great Britain), Poll tax riots, Pornography, Price, Price ceiling, Price floor, Private defense agency, Private property, Progressive tax, Property tax, Proportional tax, Protective tariff, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Public finance, Public good, Public sector, Public service, Public transport, Public utility, Public works, Publicly funded health care, Purchasing power, Qatar, Qing dynasty, Ramsey problem, Real estate, Real estate appraisal, Real estate bubble, Recession, Regressive tax, Republic of the Congo, Revealed preference, Revolutionary tax, Right to property, Road, Robbery, Roman Empire, Rosetta Stone, Sales tax, Satrap, Saudi Arabia, Scandinavia, Scutage, Seigniorage, Side effect, Sin tax, Single tax, Smuggling, Socage, Social change, Social contract, Social democracy, Social engineering (political science), Social justice, Social liberalism, Social safety net, Social security, Social welfare function, Society, Sovereignty, Stamp duty, Stamp duty in the United Kingdom, State school, Sub-Saharan Africa, Substitution effect, Talent (measurement), Tallage, Tangent, Tariff, Tax, Tax avoidance, Tax competition, Tax evasion, Tax exemption, Tax exporting, Tax haven, Tax incentive, Tax incidence, Tax law, Tax policy, Tax rate, Tax refund, Tax resistance, Tax shelter, Taxable income, Taxation as slavery, Taxation as theft, Taxpayer receipt, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Wealth of Nations, Thought experiment, Tithe, Tobacco, Toll bridge, Toll road, Toll tunnel, Trade, Trade bloc, Transfer payment, Transfer pricing, Unemployment, Unemployment benefits, Unfree labour, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Urban area, Value-added tax, Vehicle Excise Duty, Voluntary taxation, Voluntaryism, Wage, Wage labour, Walter E. 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In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property.
An adage (Latin: adagium) is a concise, memorable, and usually philosophical aphorism that communicates an important truth derived from experience, custom, or both, and that many persons consider true and credible because of its longeval tradition, i. e. being handed down generation to generation, or memetic replication.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
An advance tax ruling is a tool for multinational corporations, and for individual taxfilers for clarifying and conforming particular taxation arrangements.
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 was a federal tax act that repealed the export tax incentive (ETI), which had been declared illegal by the World Trade Organization several times and sparked retaliatory tariffs by the European Union.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 – 19 February 1977), sometimes known as Tony Crosland or C. A. R. Crosland, was a British Labour Party politician and author.
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts.
Arthur Cecil Pigou (18 November 1877 – 7 March 1959) was an English economist.
Asset forfeiture or asset seizure is a form of confiscation of assets by the state.
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity.
A bank tax, or a bank levy, is a tax on banks which was discussed in the context of the financial crisis of 2007–08.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A beard tax is one of several taxes introduced throughout history on men who wear beards.
Beardsley Ruml (5 November 1894 – 19 April 1960) was an American statistician, economist, philanthropist, planner, businessman and man of affairs in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A budget constraint represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income.
Burgage is a medieval land term used in Great Britain and Ireland, well established by the 13th century.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
In economics, the business sector or corporate sector - sometimes popularly called simply "business" - is "the part of the economy made up by companies".
The Canada Revenue Agency (or CRA); formerly Revenue Canada and the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency (or ARC), is a Canadian federal agency that administers tax laws for the Government of Canada and for most provinces and territories, international trade legislation, and various social and economic benefit and incentive programs delivered through the tax system.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
A capital gain refers to profit that results from a sale of a capital asset, such as stock, bond or real estate, where the sale price exceeds the purchase price.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
Carucage was a medieval English land tax introduced by King Richard I in 1194, based on the size—variously calculated—of the estate owned by the taxpayer.
Cash and cash equivalents (CCE) are the most liquid current assets found on a business's balance sheet.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
In macroeconomics, chartalism is a theory of money which argues that money originated with states' attempts to direct economic activity rather than as a spontaneous solution to the problems with barter or as a means with which to tokenize debt, and that fiat currency has value in exchange because of sovereign power to levy taxes on economic activity payable in the currency they issue.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
A common external tariff must be introduced when a group of countries forms a customs union.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.
A compliance cost is expenditure of time or money in conforming with government requirements such as legislation or regulation.
Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand such as higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
A consumption tax is a tax levied on consumption spending on goods and services.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A custom house or customs house was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork associated with importing and exporting goods into and out of a country.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
The Danegeld ("Danish tax", literally "Dane tribute") was a tax raised to pay tribute to the Viking raiders to save a land from being ravaged.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.
A deadweight loss, also known as excess burden or allocative inefficiency, is a loss of economic efficiency that can occur when equilibrium for a good or a service is not achieved.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.
Dispersed knowledge in economics is the notion that no single agent has information as to all of the factors which influence prices and production throughout the system.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.
A dividend tax is the tax imposed by a tax authority on dividends received by shareholders (stockholders) of a company.
Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes).
An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.
Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
In economics, economic rent is any payment to an owner or factor of production in excess of the costs needed to bring that factor into production.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Taxes and subsidies change the price of goods and, as a result, the quantity consumed.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In economics, elasticity is the measurement of how an economic variable responds to a change in another.
An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
In economics, the excess burden of taxation, also known as the deadweight cost or deadweight loss of taxation, is one of the economic losses that society suffers as the result of taxes or subsidies.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
In calculus, the extreme value theorem states that if a real-valued function f is continuous on the closed interval, then f must attain a maximum and a minimum, each at least once.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
The FairTax is a proposal to reform the federal tax code of the United States.
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The Federal Tax Service (In Russian: Федеральная налоговая служба, ФНС России) is a federal body of executive authority responsible for carrying out state registration of legal entities and natural persons as individual entrepreneurs and farmsteads.
The Federal Unemployment Tax Act (or FUTA) is a United States federal law that imposes a federal employer tax used to help fund state workforce agencies.
A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for rights or services.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
Financial repression comprises "policies that result in savers earning returns below the rate of inflation" in order to allow banks to "provide cheap loans to companies and governments, reducing the burden of repayments".
A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt.
Fiscal capacity is the ability of the state to extract revenues to provide public goods and carry out other functions of the state, given an administrative, fiscal accounting structure.
Fiscal incidence is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall economic impact of both government taxation and expenditures on the real economic income of individuals.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
A fixed tax is a lump sum tax that is not measured as a percentage of the tax base (income, wealth, or consumption).
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
In law, force means unlawful violence, or lawful compulsion.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A franchise tax is a government levy (tax) charged by some US states to certain business organizations such as corporations and partnerships with a nexus in the state.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
In economics, fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics).
Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.
In economics, a gift tax is the tax on money or property that one living person gives to another.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
Government failure, in the context of public economics, is an economic inefficiency caused by a government intervention, if the inefficiency would not exist in a true free market.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.
The Henry George theorem, named for 19th century U.S. political economist and activist Henry George, states that under certain conditions, aggregate spending by government on public goods will increase aggregate rent based on land value (land rent) more than that amount, with the benefit of the last marginal investment equaling its cost.
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HM Revenue and Customs or HMRC) is a non-ministerial department of the UK Government responsible for the collection of taxes, the payment of some forms of state support and the administration of other regulatory regimes including the national minimum wage.
Human Action: A Treatise on Economics is a work by the Austrian economist and philosopher Ludwig von Mises.
A hutch is an American English word for a type of furniture.
The hypothecation of a tax (also known as the ring-fencing or earmarking of a tax) is the dedication of the revenue from a specific tax for a particular expenditure purpose.
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.
In economics and finance, in kind refers to goods, services, and transactions not involving money or not measured in monetary terms.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the income-consumption curve is a curve in a graph in which the quantities of two goods are plotted on the two axes; the curve is the locus of points showing the consumption bundles chosen at each of various levels of income.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In economics, an indifference curve connects points on a graph representing different quantities of two goods, points between which a consumer is indifferent.
An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer).
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.
The industrial policy of a country, sometimes denoted IP, is its official strategic effort to encourage the development and growth of part or all of the manufacturing sector as well as other sectors of the economy.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
The Internal Revenue Bulletin (also known as the IRB), is a weekly publication of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service that announces "official rulings and procedures of the Internal Revenue Service and for publishing Treasury Decisions, Executive Orders, Tax Conventions, legislation, court decisions, and other items of general interest." It began publication in 1919.
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
International taxation is the study or determination of tax on a person or business subject to the tax laws of different countries or the international aspects of an individual country's tax laws as the case may be.
Investment decisions are made by investors and investment managers.
An investment policy is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy, e.g. currency exchange limits.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax forms are forms used for taxpayers and tax-exempt organizations to report financial information to the Internal Revenue Service of the United States.
Sir James Alexander Mirrlees (born 5 July 1936) is a Scottish economist and winner of the 1996 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Pym (1584 – 8 December 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Kings James I and then Charles I. He was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
Joseph (יוֹסֵף meaning "Increase", Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
In mainstream economic theories, the labour supply is the total hours (adjusted for intensity of effort) that workers wish to work at a given real wage rate.
Lacey Green is a village and civil parish in Wycombe district near Princes Risborough, in Buckinghamshire, England.
In economics, the Laffer curve illustrates a theoretical relationship between rates of taxation and the resulting levels of government revenue.
In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
The likin or lijin was a form of internal tariff in the Chinese Empire and Republic, which was first introduced as a means of financing the largely locally recruited armies to suppress the Taiping Rebellion.
A comparison of tax rates by countries is difficult and somewhat subjective, as tax laws in most countries are extremely complex and the tax burden falls differently on different groups in each country and sub-national unit.
This article lists countries alphabetically, with total tax revenue as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for the listed countries.
This page, a companion page to tax, lists different taxes by economic design.
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
The livre tournois (Tours pound) was.
The Lockean proviso is a feature of John Locke's labour theory of property which states that whilst individuals have a right to homestead private property from nature by working on it, they can do so only "at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.".
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
A lump-sum tax is a tax that is a fixed amount, no matter the change in circumstance of the taxed entity.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
In neoclassical economics, a market distortion is any event in which a market reaches a market clearing price for an item that is substantially different from the price that a market would achieve while operating under conditions of perfect competition and state enforcement of legal contracts and the ownership of private property.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Methodological individualism is the requirement that causal accounts of social phenomena explain how they result from the motivations and actions of individual agents, at least in principle.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
The natural resource consumption tax is a kind of tax which is aimed to help ensure long run sustainability by increasing awareness of natural resource consumption.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial assets owned by an institutional unit or sector minus the value of all its outstanding liabilities.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1978 by Biblica (formerly the International Bible Society).
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The non-aggression principle (or NAP; also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle or non-initiation of force) is an ethical stance that asserts that aggression is inherently wrong.
In economics, a normal good is any good for which demand increases when income increases, i.e. with a positive income elasticity of demand.
Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
The OneTax is a tax reform plan and proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that eliminates the federal income tax for all individuals earning less than $215,870.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
A pay-as-you-earn tax (PAYE) or pay-as-you-go (in Australia) is a withholding tax on income payments to employees.
A payment in lieu of taxes (usually abbreviated as PILOT, or sometimes as PILT) is a payment made to compensate a government for some or all of the property tax revenue lost due to tax exempt ownership or use of real property.
Payroll taxes are taxes imposed on employers or employees, and are usually calculated as a percentage of the salaries that employers pay their staff.
The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381.
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result which is contrary to the interests of the incentive makers.
Peter Mathias, CBE (10 January 1928 – 1 March 2016) was a British economic historian.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
A Pigovian tax (also spelled Pigouvian tax) is a tax on any market activity that generates negative externalities (costs not included in the market price).
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
The Community Charge, commonly known as the poll tax, was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of domestic rates in Scotland from 1989, prior to its introduction in England and Wales from 1990.
The poll tax riots were a series of riots in British towns and cities during protests against the Community Charge (colloquially known as the "poll tax"), introduced by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
A price ceiling is a government-imposed price control, or limit, on how high a price is charged for a product.
A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product.
A private defense agency (PDA) is an enterprise which would provide personal protection and military defense services to individuals who would voluntarily contract for its services.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
A proportional tax is a tax imposed so that the tax rate is fixed, with no change as the taxable base amount increases or decreases.
Protective tariffs are tariffs that are enacted with the aim of protecting a domestic industry.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); 210–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Ramsey problem, or Ramsey–Boiteux pricing, is a Second best policy problem concerning what price a public monopolist or a firm faced with an irremovable revenue constraint should set, in order to maximize social welfare.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation is the process of developing an opinion of value, for real property (usually market value).
A real estate bubble or property bubble (or housing bubble for residential markets) is a type of economic bubble that occurs periodically in local or global real estate markets, and typically follow a land boom.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Revealed preference theory, pioneered by economist Paul Samuelson, is a method of analyzing choices made by individuals, mostly used for comparing the influence of policies on consumer behavior.
Revolutionary tax is a major form of funding for violent non-state actors such as guerrilla and terrorist organizations.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scutage is a medieval English tax levied on holders of a knight's fee under the feudal land tenure of knight-service.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
A sin tax is an excise tax specifically levied on certain goods deemed harmful to society, for example alcohol and tobacco, candies, drugs, soft drinks, fast foods, coffee, sugar, gambling and pornography.
A single tax is a system of taxation based mainly or exclusively on one tax, typically chosen for its special properties, often being a tax on land value.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Socage was one of the feudal duties and hence land tenure forms in the feudal system.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social engineering is a discipline in social science that refers to efforts to influence particular attitudes and social behaviors on a large scale, whether by governments, media or private groups in order to produce desired characteristics in a target population.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
In welfare economics, a social welfare function is a function that ranks social states (alternative complete descriptions of the society) as less desirable, more desirable, or indifferent for every possible pair of social states.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Stamp duty is a tax that is levied on documents.
Stamp duty in the United Kingdom is a form of tax charged on legal instruments (written documents), and historically required a physical stamp to be attached to or impressed upon the document in question.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the substitution effect is one component of the effect of a change in the price of a good upon the amount of that good demanded by a consumer, the other being the income effect.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
Tallage or talliage (from the French tailler, i.e. a part cut out of the whole) may have signified at first any tax, but became in England and France a land use or land tenure tax.
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.
Tax competition, a form of regulatory competition, exists when governments are encouraged to lower fiscal burdens to either encourage the inflow of productive resources or discourage the exodus of those resources.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
Tax exporting occurs when a country (or other jurisdiction) shifts its tax burden (partially) abroad.
A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).
A tax incentive is an aspect of a country's tax code designed to incentivize or encourage a particular economic activity.
In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Tax policy is the choice by a government as to what taxes to levy, in what amounts, and on whom.
In a tax system, the tax rate is the ratio (usually expressed as a percentage) at which a business or person is taxed.
A tax refund or tax rebate is a refund on taxes when the tax liability is less than the taxes paid.
Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, or to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself.
Tax shelters are any method of reducing taxable income resulting in a reduction of the payments to tax collecting entities, including state and federal governments.
Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax.
Taxation as slavery is the belief that taxation results in an unfree society in which individuals are forced to work to enrich the government and the recipients of largesse, rather than for their own benefit.
The idea of taxation as theft is a viewpoint found in a number of political philosophies.
A taxpayer receipt is a proposed receipt given by government to taxpayers that would show the division of the citizens paid tax into different areas such as social security and military operations.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
A toll bridge is a bridge where a monetary charge (or "toll") is required to pass over.
A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.
A toll tunnel is a road tunnel operated as a toll road.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A trade block is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.
In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is a tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom.
Voluntary taxation is a theory that states that taxation should be a voluntary act.
Voluntaryism (. Collins English Dictionary.; sometimes voluntarism) is a philosophy which holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary, a term coined in this usage by Auberon Herbert in the 19th century, and gaining renewed use since the late 20th century, especially among libertarians.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.
Walter Edward Williams (born March 31, 1936) is an American economist, commentator, and academic.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
The welfare definition of economics is an attempt by Alfred Marshall, a pioneer neoclassical economist, to redefine his field of study.
Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
A windfall profits tax is a higher tax rate on profits that ensue from a sudden windfall gain to a particular company or industry.
The window tax was a property tax based on the number of windows in a house.
"Withering away of the state" is a Marxist concept coined by Friedrich Engels referring to the idea that, with realization of the ideals of socialism, the social institution of a state will eventually become obsolete and disappear, as the society will be able to govern itself without the state and its coercive enforcement of the law.
WorldNetDaily (WND) is an American news and opinion website and online news aggregator which has been described as "fringe" and far right as well as politically conservative.
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