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Tax avoidance

Index Tax avoidance

Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. [1]

189 relations: Accountancy Age, ActionAid, African Union, Al Jazeera, Alternative minimum tax, Amazon (company), American International Group, Arcadia Group, AstraZeneca, Bank of America, Bank secrecy, Base erosion and profit shifting, Beneficiary (trust), Bermuda Black Hole, Birmingham City F.C., BN66, Boot, Boots UK, Boris Johnson, British American Tobacco, Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland, Capital flight, Capital gains tax, Cheltenham Town F.C., Chevron Corporation, Christian Aid, Circular 230, Citigroup, Citizens for Tax Justice, Citizenship of the United States, CNNMoney, Colgate-Palmolive, Company, Conduit and Sink OFCs, Corporate social responsibility, Corporation, Coventry City F.C., Credit Suisse, Criticism of Apple Inc., CSX Transportation, CVS Caremark, Daily Mail, Debenhams, Department for International Development, Developing country, Dividend, Double Irish arrangement, Double taxation, Dutch Sandwich, East of England Co-operative Society, ..., Eaton Corporation, EBay, Edward Troup, El Paso Corp., England and Wales, Enron, Eritrea, European Union, Facebook, Fair Tax Mark, Fair Tax Town, Fetteresso Castle, Financial services, Financial Times, Forbes, Foundation (nonprofit), FTSE 100 Index, Furniss v Dawson, Gaming the system, General Electric, General Motors, George Osborne, GlaxoSmithKline, Go-Ahead Group, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Google, Government Accountability Office, Gregory v. Helvering, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, Hewlett-Packard, HM Revenue and Customs, HSBC, IBM, Income tax, Income tax in the United States, Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, Intel, Internal Revenue Service, Irish Section 110 Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), J. P. Morgan, Jeremy Corbyn, Journalism, Juridical person, K2 (tax scheme), Kellogg's, Labour Party (UK), Liberal Democrats (UK), Like-kind exchange, List of foundations established in Vaduz, Lush (company), Luxembourg Leaks, LyondellBasell, Manchester United F.C., Marks & Spencer, Marshalls, MCI Inc., McKesson Corporation, Member state of the European Union, Microsoft, Midcounties Co-operative, Monaco, Netflix, New Labour, New Slains Castle, Northrop Grumman, Occupy movement, OECD, Offshore company, Offshore financial centre, Offshore trust, Owens & Minor, Panama Papers, PayPal, PepsiCo, Perpetual traveler, Pfizer, Phillips Petroleum Company, Prem Sikka, Private Eye, Private foundation, Property tax, Public Interest Research Group, Public opinion, Ramsay principle, Ryder, SABMiller, Sainsbury's, Saks, Inc., Salary, Scotmid, Settlor, Simmons & Simmons, Singapore Sling (tax avoidance), SSE plc, Starbucks, Subsidiary, Swiss Leaks, Tax, Tax advisor, Tax avoidance, Tax break, Tax evasion, Tax haven, Tax Justice Network, Tax noncompliance, Tax Reform Act of 1986, Tax residence, Tax shelter, Taxation in the United States, Tesco, Texaco, The Co-operative Group, The Conversation (website), The Emperor's New Clothes (2015 film), The Guardian, The Independent, The Phone Co-op, Topshop, Tosco Corporation, Transfer pricing, Trust company, Trust law, Trustee, Twitter, Uber, UBS, UK Uncut, United States, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of the Treasury, Value-added tax, Vince Cable, Vodafone, Wayback Machine, Weyerhaeuser, WHSmith, Window tax, World War II, Yahoo!. Expand index (139 more) »

Accountancy Age

Accountancy Age is a trade magazine for accountants and financial staff in the United Kingdom.

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ActionAid

ActionAid is an international non-governmental organization whose primary aim is to work against poverty and injustice worldwide.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Alternative minimum tax

The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a supplemental income tax imposed by the United States federal government required in addition to baseline income tax for certain individuals, corporations, estates, and trusts that have exemptions or special circumstances allowing for lower payments of standard income tax.

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Amazon (company)

Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.

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American International Group

American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.

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Arcadia Group

Arcadia Group Ltd. (formerly Arcadia Group plc and Burton Group plc) is a British multinational retailing company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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AstraZeneca

AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.

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Bank of America

Bank of America Corporation (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

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Bank secrecy

Banking secrecy, alternately known as financial privacy, banking discretion, or bank safety,Guex (2000), p. 240 is a conditional agreement between a bank and its clients that all foregoing activities remain secure, confidential, and private.

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Base erosion and profit shifting

Base erosion and profit shifting (or BEPS) refers to corporate tax planning strategies used by multinational companies that artificially "shift" profits from higher-tax locations, to lower-tax locations, thus "eroding" the tax-base of the higher-tax locations.

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Beneficiary (trust)

In trust law, a beneficiary or cestui que use, a.k.a. cestui que trust, is the person or persons who are entitled to the benefit of any trust arrangement.

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Bermuda Black Hole

Bermuda black hole is the term given to the final destination of corporate tax avoidance schemes which end up in an offshore tax haven/offshore financial centre.

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Birmingham City F.C.

Birmingham City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Birmingham, England.

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BN66

Budget Note 66 (BN66) is the mechanism by which the UK Government introduced clause 55 of the Finance Bill 2008, which would later become Section 58 of the UK Finance Act 2008.

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Boot

A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe.

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Boots UK

Boots UK (formerly Boots the Chemists Ltd), trading as Boots, is a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway, Thailand and other territories.

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Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.

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British American Tobacco

British American Tobacco plc (BAT) is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland

The Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland records buildings of national architectural or historic interest which are considered to be under threat.

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Capital flight

Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.

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Capital gains tax

A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.

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Cheltenham Town F.C.

Cheltenham Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England.

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Chevron Corporation

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.

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Christian Aid

Christian Aid is the official relief and development agency of 41 British and Irish churches, and works to support sustainable development, stop poverty, support civil society and provide disaster relief in South America, the Caribbean, Africa and Asia (Including the Middle East).

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Circular 230

Circular 230 is a publication of certain U.S. Treasury regulations which include the rules governing practice before the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

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Citigroup

Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Citizens for Tax Justice

Citizens for Tax Justice is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank and advocacy group founded in 1979 focusing on tax policies and their impact.

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Citizenship of the United States

Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.

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CNNMoney

CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.

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Colgate-Palmolive

The Colgate-Palmolive Company is an American worldwide consumer products company focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal care products.

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Company

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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Conduit and Sink OFCs

Conduit OFC and Sink OFC is an empirical quantitative method of classifying corporate tax havens, offshore financial centres and tax havens.

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Corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business) is a type of international private business self-regulation.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Coventry City F.C.

Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club based in Coventry, West Midlands, England.

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Credit Suisse

Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.

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Criticism of Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is a multinational American technology company which sells consumer electronics that have been claimed by critics to combine stolen and/or purchased designs that it claims are its own original creations.

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CSX Transportation

CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

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CVS Caremark

CVS Caremark (formerly Caremark Rx) (stylized as CVScaremark, previously CVS/caremark) is the prescription benefit management subsidiary of CVS Health, headquartered in Woonsocket, Rhode Island.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Debenhams

Debenhams plc is a British multinational retailer operating under a department store format in the United Kingdom and Ireland with franchise stores in other countries. The company was founded in the eighteenth century as a single store in London and has now grown to 178 locations across the UK, Ireland and Denmark. It sells a range of clothing, household items and furniture and has been known since 1993 for its 'Designers at Debenhams' brand range. Headquartered in Regent's Place in the London Borough of Camden, Debenhams is listed on the London Stock Exchange. The company owns the Danish department store chain, Magasin du Nord, and has a subsidiary in Ireland.

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Department for International Development

The Department for International Development (DFID) is a United Kingdom government department responsible for administering overseas aid.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dividend

A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.

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Double Irish arrangement

Double Irish arrangement is a tax scheme used by some U.S. corporations in Ireland (including Apple, Google and Facebook amongst others), to shield non-U.S. income from the pre Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) U.S. worldwide 35% tax system, and almost all Irish taxes.

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Double taxation

Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes).

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Dutch Sandwich

A Dutch Sandwich is a corporate tax avoidance strategy used by some US multinational corporations to move profits sourced in EU countries, to offshore tax havens (such as the Bermuda black hole), and by-pass the various EU withholding tax regimes created to avoid movements of EU-sourced profits to tax havens.

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East of England Co-operative Society

The East of England Co-operative Society is the fourth largest consumer co-operative in the United Kingdom.

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Eaton Corporation

Eaton Corporation Plc is a multinational power management company with 2017 sales of $20.4 billion, founded in the United States with corporate headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.

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EBay

eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.

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Edward Troup

Sir John Edward Astley Troup (born 26 January 1955) is a British tax lawyer, and was a civil servant at HM Treasury and then HM Revenue & Customs.

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El Paso Corp.

El Paso Corporation was a provider of natural gas and related energy products and was one of North America's largest natural gas producers until its acquisition by Kinder Morgan in 2012.

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England and Wales

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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Enron

Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Fair Tax Mark

The Fair Tax Mark is an independent accreditation awarded after an assessment based on "Transparency tax rate, disclosure and avoidance"...

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Fair Tax Town

The Fair Tax Town (FTT) movement (also called the Powys tax rebellion) is a movement established by several shop owners in Crickhowell, Powys, Wales.

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Fetteresso Castle

Fetteresso Castle is a 14th-century towerhouse, rebuilt in 1761 as a Scottish gothic style Palladian manor, with clear evidence of prehistoric use of the site.

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Foundation (nonprofit)

A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a legal category of nonprofit organization that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes.

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FTSE 100 Index

The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation.

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Furniss v Dawson

Furniss v. Dawson is an important House of Lords case in the field of UK tax.

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Gaming the system

Gaming the system (also gaming the rules, bending the rules, abusing the system, cheating the system, milking the system, playing the system, or working the system) can be defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system in order, instead, to manipulate the system for a desired outcome.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.

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George Osborne

George Gideon Oliver Osborne (born 23 May 1971) is a British Conservative Party politician, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Tatton from June 2001 until he stood down on 3 May 2017.

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GlaxoSmithKline

GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.

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Go-Ahead Group

The Go-Ahead Group plc is a provider of passenger transport in the UK, with over one billion journeys made on its bus and trains services each year.

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Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio.

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Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Government Accountability Office

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.

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Gregory v. Helvering

Gregory v. Helvering,, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court concerned with U.S. income tax law.

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Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010

The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 is a law that was enacted by the 111th United States Congress, by means of the reconciliation process, in order to amend the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

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Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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HM Revenue and Customs

Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HM Revenue and Customs or HMRC) is a non-ministerial department of the UK Government responsible for the collection of taxes, the payment of some forms of state support and the administration of other regulatory regimes including the national minimum wage.

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HSBC

HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Income tax in the United States

Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the federal, most state, and many local governments.

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Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy

The Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank that works on state and federal tax policy issues.

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Internal Revenue Service

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.

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Irish Section 110 Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)

An Irish Section 110 special purpose vehicle ("SPV") or section 110 company, is an Irish tax resident company, which qualifies under Section 110 of the Irish Taxes Consolidation Act 1997 ("TCA") for a special tax regime that enables the SPV to attain "tax neutrality": i.e. the SPV pays no Irish taxes.

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J. P. Morgan

John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Jeremy Corbyn

Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (born 26 May 1949).

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Journalism

Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.

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Juridical person

A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.

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K2 (tax scheme)

K2 was an offshore wealth management scheme in which salaries of individuals in the United Kingdom were channelled through shell corporations in Jersey, Channel Islands.

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Kellogg's

Kellogg's is a DBA for the Kellogg Company, an American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Liberal Democrats (UK)

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.

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Like-kind exchange

A like-kind exchange under United States tax law, also known as a 1031 exchange, is a transaction or series of transactions that allows for the disposal of an asset and the acquisition of another replacement asset without generating a current tax liability from the sale of the first asset.

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List of foundations established in Vaduz

Many philanthropic, charitable and other not-for-profit foundations are established in Vaduz, Liechtenstein.

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Lush (company)

Lush is a cosmetics retailer headquartered in Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom.

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Luxembourg Leaks

Luxembourg Leaks (sometimes shortened to Lux Leaks or LuxLeaks) is the name of a financial scandal revealed in November 2014 by a journalistic investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

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LyondellBasell

LyondellBasell Industries N.V. is a public multinational chemical company with American and European roots, incorporated in the Netherlands, with U.S. operations headquarters in Houston, Texas, and global operations in London, UK.

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Manchester United F.C.

Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.

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Marks & Spencer

Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London.

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Marshalls

Marshalls is a chain of American off-price department stores owned by TJX Companies.

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MCI Inc.

MCI, Inc. (d/b/a Verizon Business) was an American telecommunication corporation, currently a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, with its main office in Ashburn, Virginia.

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McKesson Corporation

McKesson Corporation is an American healthcare company distributing pharmaceuticals and providing health information technology, medical supplies, and care management tools.

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Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

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Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Midcounties Co-operative

The Midcounties Co-operative is the largest independent consumer co-operative in the United Kingdom.

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Monaco

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Netflix

Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California.

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New Labour

New Labour refers to a period in the history of the British Labour Party from the late-1990s until 2010 under the leadership of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

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New Slains Castle

Slains Castle, also known as New Slains Castle to distinguish it from nearby Old Slains Castle, is a ruined castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

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Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman.

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Occupy movement

The Occupy movement is an international socio-political movement against social and economic inequality and the lack of "real democracy" around the world.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Offshore company

The term "offshore company" or "offshore corporation" is used in at least two distinct and different ways.

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Offshore financial centre

An offshore financial centre (OFC) is a jurisdiction specializing in providing corporate and commercial services, such as offshore banking licenses (international banking license) or the incorporation of offshore companies (international business companies).

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Offshore trust

An offshore trust is a conventional trust that is formed under the laws of an offshore jurisdiction.

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Owens & Minor

Owens & Minor is a Fortune 500 company based in Mechanicsville, Virginia.

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Panama Papers

The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.

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PayPal

PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfers and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like cheques and money orders.

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PepsiCo

PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.

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Perpetual traveler

The term "perpetual traveler" (also "PT", "permanent tourist", or "prior taxpayer") refers to the idea that by basing different aspects of one's life in different countries and not spending too long in any one place, a person can reduce taxes, avoid civic duties, and increase personal freedom.

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Pfizer

Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.

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Phillips Petroleum Company

Phillips Petroleum Company was an American oil company incorporated in 1917 that expanded into petroleum refining, marketing and transportation, natural gas gathering and the chemicals sectors.

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Prem Sikka

Prem Sikka is professor of accounting at the University of Sheffield and emeritus professor of accounting at the University of Essex.

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Private Eye

Private Eye is a British fortnightly satirical and current affairs news magazine, founded in 1961.

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Private foundation

A private foundation is a legal entity set up by an individual, a family or a group of individuals, for a purpose such as philanthropy or other legal economic object.

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Property tax

A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.

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Public Interest Research Group

Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) are a federation of U.S. and Canadian non-profit organizations that employ grassroots organizing and direct advocacy with the goal of effecting liberal political change.

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Public opinion

Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.

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Ramsay principle

"Ramsay principle" is the shorthand name given to the decision of the House of Lords in two important cases in the field of UK tax, reported in 1982.

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Ryder

Ryder System, Inc., or Ryder, is an American provider of transportation and supply chain management products, and is especially known for its fleet of rental trucks.

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SABMiller

SABMiller plc was a multinational brewing and beverage company headquartered in Woking, England on the outskirts of London until 10 October 2016 when it was acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev.

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Sainsbury's

Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector in the United Kingdom.

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Saks, Inc.

Saks, Inc., originally Proffitt's Inc. until 1998, was a Fortune 1000 operator of high-end department stores in the United States under the nameplate Saks Fifth Avenue.

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Salary

A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.

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Scotmid

The Scottish Midland Co-operative Society, trading as Scotmid Co-operative, is an independent retail consumers' co-operative that originated in the Central Belt, particularly Edinburgh and the Lothians.

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Settlor

In law a settlor is a person who settles property on trust law for the benefit of beneficiaries.

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Simmons & Simmons

Simmons & Simmons is an international legal practice with over 1,500 people and 21 offices located in major business and financial centres throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

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Singapore Sling (tax avoidance)

A Singapore Sling is a tax avoidance scheme in which a large multinational company sells products to a subsidiary owned by them in a jurisdiction with lower tax rates, which acts as a 'marketing hub'.

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SSE plc

SSE plc (formerly Scottish and Southern Energy plc) is a Scottish energy company headquartered in Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Starbucks

Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.

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Subsidiary

A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.

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Swiss Leaks

Swiss Leaks (or SwissLeaks) is the name of a journalistic investigation, released in February 2015, of a giant tax evasion scheme allegedly operated with the knowledge and encouragement of the British multinational bank HSBC via its Swiss subsidiary, HSBC Private Bank (Suisse).

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Tax

A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Tax advisor

A tax advisor or tax consultant is a person with advanced training and knowledge of tax law.

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Tax avoidance

Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.

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Tax break

Tax break is any item which avoids taxes, including any tax exemption, tax deduction, or tax credit.

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Tax evasion

Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.

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Tax haven

A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).

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Tax Justice Network

The Tax Justice Network (or TJN), is an independent advocacy group consisting of a coalition of international researchers and activists with a shared concern about tax avoidance, tax competition, tax evasion, and tax havens.

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Tax noncompliance

Tax noncompliance is a range of activities that are unfavorable to a state's tax system.

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Tax Reform Act of 1986

The U.S. Congress passed the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA) to simplify the income tax code, broaden the tax base and eliminate many tax shelters.

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Tax residence

The criteria for residence for tax purposes vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and "residence" can be different for other, non-tax purposes.

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Tax shelter

Tax shelters are any method of reducing taxable income resulting in a reduction of the payments to tax collecting entities, including state and federal governments.

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Taxation in the United States

The United States of America has separate federal, state, and local government(s) with taxes imposed at each of these levels.

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Tesco

Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.

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Texaco

Texaco, Inc. ("The Texas Company") is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation.

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The Co-operative Group

The Co-operative Group, trading as the Co-op, is a British consumer co-operative with a diverse family of retail businesses including food retail and wholesale; electrical retail; financial services; insurance services; legal services and funeralcare, with in excess of 4,200 locations.

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The Conversation (website)

The Conversation is an independent, not-for-profit media outlet that uses content sourced from the academic and research community.

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The Emperor's New Clothes (2015 film)

The Emperor's New Clothes is a 2015 documentary film about the growing disparity between economic classes, directed by Michael Winterbottom and starring actor/activist Russell Brand.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Phone Co-op

The Phone Co-op is a consumer co-operative in the United Kingdom, which provides landline, mobile telephone and Internet services, including web hosting and broadband.

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Topshop

Topshop (originally Top Shop) is a British multinational fashion retailer of clothing, shoes, make-up and accessories.

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Tosco Corporation

Tosco (The Oil Shale COrporation) was an independent US based petroleum refining and marketing corporation.

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Transfer pricing

In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control.

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Trust company

A trust company is a corporation, especially a commercial bank, organized to perform the fiduciary of trusts and agencies.

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Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.

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Trustee

Trustee (or the holding of a trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, is a synonym for anyone in a position of trust and so can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another.

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Twitter

Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

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Uber

Uber Technologies Inc. (doing business as Uber) is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab, food delivery, and transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with operations in 633 cities worldwide.

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UBS

UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.

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UK Uncut

UK Uncut is a network of United Kingdom-based protest groups established in October 2010 to protest against cuts to public services and tax avoidance in the UK.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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Value-added tax

A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.

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Vince Cable

Sir John Vincent Cable (born 9 May 1943) is a British politician serving as Leader of the Liberal Democrats and Member of Parliament for Twickenham since 2017.

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Vodafone

Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.

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Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.

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Weyerhaeuser

Weyerhaeuser (pronounced "Warehouser") Company, is one of the world's largest private owners of timberlands, owning or controlling nearly 12.4 million acres of timberlands in the U.S. and managing additional 14.0 million acres timberlands under long-term licenses in Canada.

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WHSmith

WHSmith PLC (also known as WHS or colloquially as Smith's, and formerly W. H. Smith & Son) is a British retailer, headquartered in Swindon, Wiltshire, which operates a chain of high street, railway station, airport, port, hospital and motorway service station shops selling books, stationery, magazines, newspapers, entertainment products and confectionary.

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Window tax

The window tax was a property tax based on the number of windows in a house.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tax_avoidance

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