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Taxonomy (biology)

Index Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. [1]

149 relations: Actinobacteria, Adolf Engler, Age of Enlightenment, Andrea Cesalpino, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, Archaea, Archaeopteryx, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Asian elephant, Asteraceae, August W. Eichler, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Author citation (botany), Author citation (zoology), Automated species identification, Bacteria, Bayesian inference, Bentham & Hooker system, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Biology, Bird, Botany, Brassicaceae, Cambridge University Press, Carl Linnaeus, Carl Woese, Catalogue of Life, Cell nucleus, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Circumscription (taxonomy), Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Common descent, Conservation biology, Consortium for the Barcode of Life, Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities, Cornus, Crocus, Database, Demetrios Pepagomenos, Dendrogram, Dinosaur, Domain (biology), England, Erasmus Darwin, Ernst Mayr, ..., Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary taxonomy, Family (biology), Genetypes, Genus, Glossary of scientific naming, Great chain of being, Greece, Hesperornis, Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus), Homonym (biology), Identification (biology), Incertae sedis, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Invertebrate, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Julian Huxley, Kingdom (biology), Lesbos, Life, Linnaean taxonomy, List of botanists by author abbreviation (A), Masterpiece, Middle Ages, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular genetics, Monera, Morphology (biology), Mycology, Narcissus (plant), Natural history, Neighbor joining, Neomura, Nomenclature, Nomenclature codes, Nucleic acid sequence, On the Origin of Species, Order (biology), Organism, Paleontology, Paraphyly, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophie Zoologique, Phycology, PhyloCode, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Polyphyly, Prion, Procopius, Prokaryote, Protist, Qualitative property, Quantity, Renaissance, Richard Owen, Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802), Scholasticism, Science, Scientific method, Shark, Species, Species Plantarum, Species problem, Subspecies, Svenska Spindlar, Symplesiomorphy, Systema Naturae, Systematic Biology, Systematics, Taxis, Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (general), Theophrastus, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Thomas Henry Huxley, Three-domain system, Timotheus of Gaza, Transmutation of species, Tree of life (biology), Type (biology), University of Chicago Press, University of Wyoming, Vertebrate, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Virus, Virus classification, William Bertram Turrill, Zoology, Zoonomia, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (99 more) »


The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Adolf Engler

Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Andrea Cesalpino

Andrea Cesalpino (Latinized as Andreas Cæsalpinus) (6 June 1519 – 23 February 1603) was an Italian physician, philosopher and botanist.

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Antoine Laurent de Jussieu

Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Archaeopteryx, meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Aristotle's biology

Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.

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Asian elephant

The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.

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Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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August W. Eichler

August Wilhelm Eichler, also known under his Latinized name, Augustus Guilielmus Eichler (22 April 1839 – 2 March 1887), was a German botanist who developed a new system of classification of plants to reflect the concept of evolution.

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Augustin Pyramus de Candolle

Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist.

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Author citation (botany)

In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).

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Author citation (zoology)

In zoological nomenclature, author citation refers to listing the person (or team) who first makes a scientific name of a taxon available.

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Automated species identification

Automated species identification is a method of making the expertise of taxonomists available to ecologists, parataxonomists and others via computers and other digital technology through artificial intelligence.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

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Bentham & Hooker system

A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.

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Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carl Woese

Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Catalogue of Life

The Catalogue of Life is an online database that provides the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative index of known species of animals, plants, fungi and micro-organisms.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Circumscription (taxonomy)

In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of a taxon, that is, a group of organisms.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Conservation biology

Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

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Consortium for the Barcode of Life

The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) is an international initiative dedicated to supporting the development of DNA barcoding as a global standard for species identification.

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Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities

The Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF) was formed in December 1996 by ten of the largest European natural history museums and botanic gardens to be a voice for taxonomy and systematic biology in Europe, to promote scientific research and access to European natural history collections, and to exploit European funding opportunities.

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Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species of woody plants in the family Cornaceae, commonly known as dogwoods, which can generally be distinguished by their blossoms, berries, and distinctive bark.

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Crocus (English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family comprising 90 species of perennials growing from corms.

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A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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Demetrios Pepagomenos

Demetrios Pepagomenos or Demetrius Pepagomenus (Δημήτριος Πεπαγωμένος, 1200–1300) was a Byzantine Greek savant who resided in Constantinople.

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A dendrogram (from Greek dendro "tree" and gramma "drawing") is a tree diagram frequently used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering.

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary taxonomy

Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-descendant relationship (serial descent), and degree of evolutionary change.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Genetypes is a taxonomic concept proposed in 2010 to describe any genetic sequences from type specimens.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Glossary of scientific naming

This is a list of terms and symbols used in scientific names for organisms, and in describing the names.

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Great chain of being

The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.

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No description.

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Hesperornis (meaning "western bird") is a genus of flightless aquatic birds that spanned the first half of the Campanian age of the Late Cretaceous period (83.5–78 mya).

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Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus)

Theophrastus's Enquiry into Plants or Historia Plantarum (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία, Peri phyton historia) was, along with his mentor Aristotle's History of Animals, Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, one of the most important books of natural history written in ancient times, and like them it was influential in the Renaissance.

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Homonym (biology)

In biology, a homonym is a name for a taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name, that belongs to a different taxon.

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Identification (biology)

Identification in biology is the process of assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an individual organism.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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Integrated Taxonomic Information System

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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John Ray

John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.

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Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.

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Julian Huxley

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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List of botanists by author abbreviation (A)

No description.

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Modern synthesis (20th century)

The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.

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Narcissus (plant)

Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Neighbor joining

In bioinformatics, neighbor joining is a bottom-up (agglomerative) clustering method for the creation of phylogenetic trees, created by Naruya Saitou and Masatoshi Nei in 1987.

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Neomura is a possible clade composed of the two domains of life of Archaea and Eukaryota.

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Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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Nomenclature codes

Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Philosophie Zoologique

Philosophie Zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism.

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Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.

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The International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature, known as the PhyloCode for short, is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Qualitative property

Qualitative properties are properties that are observed and can generally not be measured with a numerical result.

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Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802)

Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871) was a Scottish publisher, geologist, evolutionary thinker, author and journal editor who, like his elder brother and business partner William Chambers, was highly influential in mid-19th century scientific and political circles.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species Plantarum

Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.

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Species problem

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.

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In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.

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Svenska Spindlar

The book or Aranei Svecici (Swedish and Latin, respectively, for "Swedish spiders") was one of the major works of the Swedish arachnologist and entomologist Carl Alexander Clerck and appeared in Stockholm in the year 1757.

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In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.

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Systema Naturae

(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

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Systematic Biology

Systematic Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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A taxis (plural taxes) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.

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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Cavalier-Smith

Thomas (Tom) Cavalier-Smith, FRS, FRSC, NERC Professorial Fellow (born 21 October 1942), is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Timotheus of Gaza

Timotheus of Gaza (Τιμόθεος ὁ Γαζαῖος), sometimes referred to as Timothy of Gaza, was a Greek grammarian active during the reign of Anastasius, i.e. 491-518.

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Transmutation of species

Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Type (biology)

In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Wyoming

The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation is an 1844 work of speculative natural history and philosophy by Robert Chambers.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Virus classification

Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system.

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William Bertram Turrill

William Bertram Turrill FRS OBE (14 June 1890 – 15 December 1961) was an English botanist.

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Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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Zoonomia; or the Laws of Organic Life (1794) is a two-volume medical work by Erasmus Darwin dealing with pathology, anatomy, psychology, and the functioning of the body.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy_(biology)

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