305 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abkhazians, Abo of Tiflis, Ag Qoyunlu, Akaki Tsereteli, Akhmeteli–Varketili Line, Alexander Griboyedov, Alexander Pushkin, Alp Arslan, Anchiskhati Basilica, Ankara, April 9 tragedy, Arabs, Arena, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenians in Tbilisi, Art Nouveau, Association football, Assyrian people, Astana, Athens, Atlanta, Avchala, Avlabari, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanis, Baku, Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, Bank of Georgia headquarters, Battle of Didgori, Battle of Krtsanisi, Batumi, BC Dinamo Tbilisi, Belarus, Bilbao, Bird of prey, Black Death, Bolsheviks, Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, Boxing, Bristol, Budapest, Bugha al-Kabir, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Caspian Sea, Catholic Church, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, ..., Caucasus University, Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917), Chișinău, China, Circa, Colchis, Constitution of Georgia (country), Czech Republic, Dachi of Iberia, David IV of Georgia, David X of Kartli, Davit Narmania, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Doha, Dublin, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Georgia (country), Eastern Orthodox Church, Egypt, Emirate of Tbilisi, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Estonians, Ethnic group, Euroleague, Falcon, FC Dinamo Tbilisi, FC Locomotive Tbilisi, FM broadcasting, France, Free University of Tbilisi, Freedom Square, Tbilisi, Full communion, Gabriel Sundukian, Georgia (country), Georgia within the Russian Empire, Georgian Airways, Georgian lari, Georgian National Museum, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Technical University, Georgians, German Empire, Germans, Greece, Greeks, Guangzhou, Handball, Hawk, Heraclius II of Georgia, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi, Hong Kong Observatory, Hot spring, House of Romanov, Hovhannes Tumanyan, Humid subtropical climate, Hungary, Iakob Gogebashvili, Ilia Chavchavadze, Imedi Media Holding, IMELI, Innsbruck, International Air Transport Association airport code, International Black Sea University, Iran, Ireland, Islam, Israel, Istanbul, Jahan Shah, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Jerusalem, Jews, Judaism, Kakheti, Kartli, Kazakhstan, Köppen climate classification, Kempinski, Kharkiv, Khazars, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kiev, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, Kraków, Kura River, Kurds, Kutaisi, Laiwu, Latvia, Lelo Saracens, Leo Tolstoy, Lincoln, Nebraska, List of cities and towns in Georgia (country), List of Tbilisians, Ljubljana, Lublin, Lviv, Marjanishvili Theater, Marksman, Marshrutka, Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia, Marwan II, Mayor of Tbilisi, Medieval architecture, Metekhi, Metres above sea level, Microclimate, Mikhail Lermontov, Mikheil Meskhi Stadium, Mikheil Saakashvili, Military occupations by the Soviet Union, Minsk, Mirza Fatali Akhundov, Mohammad Khan Qajar, Moldova, Mongol invasions of Georgia and Armenia, Mongols, Mtskheta, Nantes, Nar-Dos, Narikala, National Bank of Georgia, National Basketball Association, National Botanical Garden of Georgia, National Parliamentary Library of Georgia, Near East, Neoclassical architecture, News Corporation, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikoloz Tskitishvili, Oceanic climate, Odessa, Old Georgian language, Old Tbilisi, Ossetians, Palermo, Paris, Parliament of Georgia, Parthian Empire, Patron saint, Peace of Amasya, Perch Proshyan, Pheasant, Poland, Polo, Post-Soviet states, Poti, Prague, Qajar dynasty, Qatar, Raffi (novelist), Raion, Rapid transit, Rashidun Caliphate, Red Army, Red Army invasion of Georgia, Riga, Roman Empire, Rose Revolution, Rugby union, Rupert Murdoch, Russian Empire, Russian mafia, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russo-Georgian War, Rustaveli Avenue, Rustaveli Theatre, Rustavi 2, Saarbrücken, Saburtalo Line, Safavid dynasty, Saguramo Range, Sasanian Empire, Seating capacity, Seljuq dynasty, Semi-arid climate, Shevardnadze, Shia Islam, Shota Rustaveli, Silk Road, Simon Zavarian, Skyscraper, Slovenia, Stalinist architecture, State of Palestine, Subdivisions of the Soviet Union, Sulfur, Sultan, Supreme Court of Georgia (country), Tabriz, Tamar of Georgia, Tbilisi Circus, Tbilisi City Assembly, Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi Metro, Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre, Tbilisi Railway station, Tbilisi Rock Festival (1980), Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral, Tbilisi Sports Palace, Tbilisi State Conservatoire, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower, Tbilisi Zoo, Tehran, Teimuraz II of Kakheti, Tetri, The Bridge of Peace (Georgia), The Knight in the Panther's Skin, The Renaissance, Third Perso-Turkic War, Tiflis Governorate, Timur, Timur's invasions of Georgia, Toleration, Transcaucasia, Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Trialeti Range, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Turkmen invasions of Georgia, Twin towns and sister cities, UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, Ukraine, Ukrainians, United Arab Emirates, United States, University of Georgia (Tbilisi), Uzun Hassan, Vakhtang I of Iberia, Vilnius, Vladimir Minorsky, Vokrug sveta, Vorontsov, Wali, Warsaw, Wrestling, Yazidis, Yerevan, Zaza Pachulia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, 1956 Georgian demonstrations, 1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup, 1978 Georgian demonstrations, 1990 Tbilisi aerial tramway accident, 2015 Tbilisi flood. 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Abkhazians, Abkhaz people and the Abkhaz or (Abkhaz:, Apswa; აფხაზები, ap'khazebi) are a Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
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Saint Abo of Tiflis or Abo Tbileli (in Georgian: აბო თბილელი, Arabic: أبو التبليسي) (c. 756-January 6, 786) is a Christian martyr and the Patron Saint of the city of Tbilisi, Georgia.
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The Ağ Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans Ağqoyunlu, Akgoýunly, Persian: آق قویونلو or آغ قویونلو), was a Sunni Azerbaijani Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Eastern Turkey, part of Iran, and northern Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
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Prince Akaki Tsereteli (აკაკი წერეთელი) (1840-1915) was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure.
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The Akhmeteli-Varketili Line (ახმეტელი-ვარკეთილის ხაზი) (formerly known as Didube-Samgori and Gldani-Varketili) is a line of the Tbilisi Metro.
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Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Грибое́дов, Aleksándr Sergeyevich Griboyedov or Sergéevich Griboédov; January 15, 1795 – February 11, 1829), formerly romanized as Alexander Sergueevich Griboyedoff, was a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer.
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Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
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Alp Arslan (Turkic; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072) was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.
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The Anchiskhati Basilica of St Mary is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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Ankara (English; Turkish), formerly known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey, located in Central Anatolia.
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The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi Massacre, Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.
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Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.
The Armenians have historically been one of the main ethnic groups in the city of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
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Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Astana (Астана) is the capital of Kazakhstan.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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Atlanta (locally) is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2013 population of 447,841.
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Avchala (ავჭალა) is a northern suburb of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, part of the city's Gldani-Nadzaladevi district.
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Avlabari (ავლაბარი Avlabari) is a neighborhood of Old Tbilisi on the left bank (east side) of the Kura River.
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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
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Azerbaijanis (Azərbaycanlılar, آذربایجانلیلار) or Azeris are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group living mainly in the country of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan in the Caucasus.
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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region.
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The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Bank of Georgia headquarters (საქართველოს ბანკის სათავო ოფისი) is a building in Tbilisi, Georgia.
The Battle of Didgori (დიდგორის ბრძოლა) was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the declining Great Seljuq Empire at the place of Didgori, 40 km west of Tbilisi, (the modern-day capital of Georgia), on August 12, 1121.
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The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
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Batumi (ბათუმი, formerly known as Batum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia.
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BC Dinamo Tbilisi (საკალათბურთო კლუბი,,დინამო’’) is a professional basketball club based in Tbilisi, that plays in the Georgian Superliga.
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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
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Bilbao (Bilbo) is a municipality and city in Spain, the capital of the province of Biscay in the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
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Birds of prey, also known as raptors, hunt and feed on other animals.
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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, formerly known as Boris Paichadze National Stadium, is a stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the home stadium of Dinamo Tbilisi, Georgia national rugby union team and Georgia national football team.
Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.
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Bristol is a city, unitary authority and county in South West England with an estimated population of 442,500 in 2015.
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Budapest (names in other languages) is the capital and the largest city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
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Bugha al-Kabir or Bugha the Elder, also known as Bugha al-Turki ("Bugha the Turk"), was a 9th-century Turkic general who served the Abbasids.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
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The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include the Greater Caucasus Range, which extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, aligned west-northwest to east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea; and the Lesser Caucasus, which runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland, which at their western end converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia in the far north east of Turkey. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of above sea level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
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Caucasus University is a privately held university which is located in Georgia, Caucasus.
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The Caucasus Viceroyalty was the Imperial Russian administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy (главноуправляющий) (1801–1844, 1882–1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844–1882, 1904–1917).
Chișinău (also historically known as Kishinev) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca or ca. (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date.
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In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis (კოლხეთი Kolkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhis, presumably from Kartvelian ḳolkheti or ḳolkha) was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus.
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The Constitution of Georgia (საქართველოს კონსტიტუცია, sakartvelos k'onstitutsia) is the supreme law of Georgia.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
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Dachi (დაჩი, also Darchi, დარჩი, or Darchil, დარჩილი), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) reigning, according to a medieval Georgian literary tradition, for 12 years, from c. 522 to 534.
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David IV, also known as David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი, Davit Aghmashenebeli) (1073 – 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.
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David X (დავით X) (1482–1526) was a king of the Georgian kingdom of Kartli from 1505 to 1525.
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Davit Narmania (დავით ნარმანია; born 7 March 1979) is a Georgian politician and the current Mayor of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
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The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა Sakartvelos Demokratiuli Respublika) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia.
Doha (الدوحة, or, literally in MSA: "the big tree", locally: "rounded bays") is the capital city and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
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Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland.
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Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches.
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Eastern Georgia (აღმოსავლეთი საქართველო, aghmosavlet' sak'art'velo) is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea region of Adjara.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Emirs of Tbilisi (თბილისის საამირო, إمارة تبليسي) ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122).
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The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies.
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Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic people related to the Finns that mainly inhabit the country Estonia south of Finland and the Finnish Gulf.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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The Turkish Airlines Euroleague, commonly known as the Euroleague, is the highest level tier and most important professional club basketball competition in Europe, with teams from up to 18 different countries, members of FIBA Europe.
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A falcon is any one of 37 species of raptors in the genus Falco, widely distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica.
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FC Dinamo Tbilisi (თბილისის დინამო) is a Georgian professional football team, based in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
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FC Locomotive Tbilisi is a Georgian football club from the capital, Tbilisi.
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FM broadcasting is a VHF broadcasting technology, pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong, which uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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The Free University of Tbilisi is a private university established in 2007 via the merge of ESM Tbilisi and the Tbilisi Institute of Asia and Africa.
Freedom Square (Georgian: თავისუფლების მოედანი Tavisuplebis moedani, pronounced), formerly known as Erivan (or Erivanskaya) or Pashkevich-Erivanskaya Square (Georgian: ერევანსკი მოედანი, Erevansk'i moedani, Russian: Эриванская площадь, Erivanskaya ploshchad) under Imperial Russia and Lenin Square under the Soviet Union, is located in the center of Tbilisi at the eastern end of Rustaveli Avenue.
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In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines.
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Gabriel Sundukian (Գաբրիել Սունդուկյան; 11 July 1825 - 29 March 1912) was an Armenian writer and playwright, the founder of modern Armenian drama.
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Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The country of Georgia was part of the Russian Empire between 1801 and 1918.
Georgian Airways (ჯორჯიან ეარვეისი), formerly Airzena, is the privately owned flag carrier of the Republic of Georgia, with its headquarters in Tbilisi.
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The Lari (ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia.
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The Georgian National Museum (საქართველოს ეროვნული მუზეუმი, sak'art'velos erovnuli muzeumi) unifies several leading museums in Georgia.
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The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sak’art’velos samots’ik’ulo avt’okep’aluri mart’lmadidebeli eklesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church.
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The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; საქართველოს საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos sabch'ota socialist'uri resp'ublik'a; Грузинская Советская Социалистическая Республика Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
Georgian Technical University (GTU, formerly V.I. Lenin Georgian Polytechnical Institute) is the main and largest technical university of Georgia.
Georgians (tr) are an indigenous Caucasian nation and ethnic group.
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Guangzhou (Mandarin 廣州 Guǎngzhōu, also known as Canton, and less commonly as Kwangchow)"".
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Handball (also known as team handball, Olympic handball, European team handball, European handball, or Borden ball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
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Hawk is a common name for some small to medium-sized diurnal birds of prey, widely distributed and varying greatly in size.
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Heraclius II, or Erekle II (ერეკლე II) also known as The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (November 7, 1720, or October 7, 1721 – January 11, 1798) was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
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The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi (თბილისის წმინდა სამების საკათედრო ტაძარი Thbilisis cminda samebis sakathedro tadzari) commonly known as Sameba (სამება for Trinity) is the main cathedral of the Georgian Orthodox Church located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
The Hong Kong Observatory is a department of the Hong Kong government.
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A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
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The House of Romanov (Рома́нов) was the second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
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Hovhannes Tumanyan (Հովհաննես Թումանյան) (– March 23, 1923) was an Armenian writer and public activist.
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A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
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Iakob Gogebashvili (იაკობ გოგებაშვილი) (October 15, 1840 – June 1, 1912) was a Georgian educator, children’s writer and journalist, considered to be the founder of the scientific pedagogy in Georgia.
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Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე) (1837–1907) was a Georgian politician, lawyer, journalist, writer and poet who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia.
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Imedi Media Holding (იმედი მედია ჰოლდინგი) is a private television and Radio Company in Georgia.
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IMELI is the old Institute of Marx, Engels, and Lenin building (მარქს-ენგელს-ლენინის ინსტიტუტის შენობა in Georgian), also referred to by the abbreviation IMELI (იმელი in Georgian).
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Innsbruck is the capital city of the federal state of Tyrol (Tirol) in western Austria.
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An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
The International Black Sea University (IBSU) (შავი ზღვის საერთაშორისო უნივერსიტეტი) was established in 1995 in Tbilisi, Georgia and was opened by the 2nd President of Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze and the former Prime Minister of Turkey Tansu Çiller in accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers and the License of Opening given by the Ministry of Education of Georgia.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.
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Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 in Khoy – 1467 in Tabriz) (جهان شاه; Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks tribal federation in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c. 1438 – 1467.
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Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال الدین خوارزمشاه; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
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Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
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Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kempinski Hotels S.A. is an international hotel chain founded as the Hotelbetriebs-Aktiengesellschaft in Berlin, Germany, in 1897, which makes it Europe's oldest luxury hotel group.
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Kharkiv (Харків), or Kharkov (p), is the second-largest city of Ukraine.
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The Khazars (Hazarlar, Xäzärlär., כוזרים (Kuzarim), خزر (khazar), Хаза́ры, خزر, Χάζαροι, p./Cosri/Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the breakup of the western Turkish steppe empire, known as the Khazar Khanate or Khazaria.
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The Khwarazmian dynasty (or; also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:.
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Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.
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In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Greek Ἰβηρία, იბერია) was the name for a kingdom of the Southern Caucasus, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia.
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The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.
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The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801 or 1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kartli and the Kingdom of Kakheti, which had existed independently since the disintegration of the united Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century.
Kraków also Cracow, or Krakow is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
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Kura River (მტკვარი, Mt'k'vari; Կուր, Kur; Kür; Cyrus; rûbara kur; Kura) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
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The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its second largest city, after the capital Tbilisi.
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Laiwu is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.
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Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.
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Lelo Saracens (or formally Rugby Club Lelo Tbilisi) is a Georgian semi-professional rugby union club from Tbilisi, who plays in the Georgia Championship, the first division of Georgian rugby.
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Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й,; –), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist regarded as one of the greatest of all time.
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Lincoln is the capital of the State of Nebraska and the second-most populous city in Nebraska.
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The following list of Georgian cities is divided into three separate lists for Georgia itself, and the disputed territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
This is a list of famous people who have lived in Tbilisi, including both natives and residents.
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Ljubljana (locally also, Laibach, Lubiana, Labacum or Aemona) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
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Lublin (Люблін, Liublin, לובלין Lublin) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
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Lviv (Львів L'viv,; Lwów,; Львов L'vov,; Lemberg, Latin: Leopolis, the city of the lion) is a city in western Ukraine that was the capital of the Kingdom of Ruthenia before being incorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1339 and turning into regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship, and later (since 1772) the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, then known as Lemberg.
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Marjanishvili State Academic Drama Theatre (კოტე მარჯანიშვილის სახელობის სახელმწიფო აკადემიური დრამატული თეატრი) is the second state theatre in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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A marksman, or sharpshooter, is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using projectile weapons, usually with a rifle but most commonly with a designated marksman rifle or a special application rifle, to shoot at long range targets.
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Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Bulgaria and Georgia.
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Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia (მურვან ყრუს შემოსევა საქართველოში) took place from 735 to 737.
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (688 – 6 August 750) (Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
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The Mayor of Tbilisi is an elected politician in Tbilisi.
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Medieval architecture is architecture common in Medieval Europe.
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Metekhi (Metechi; მეტეხი) is a historic neighborhood of Tbilisi, Georgia, located on the elevated cliff that overlooks the Mtkvari river.
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Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL), or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m.a.s.l.), is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation of a location in reference to historic mean sea level; the determination of what actually constitutes mean sea level over time however, may be determined by other parameters, such as the effects of climate history and climate change, and may have differed in the past, as well as in the future, from that established by historic, modern, documented elevations.
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A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area.
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Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –), a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
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The Mikheil Meskhi Stadium, also known as the Lokomotivi Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia named after the famous Georgian international footballer.
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Mikheil Saakashvili (მიხეილ სააკაშვილი,; Міхеїл Саакашвілі; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.
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The article lists military occupations by the Soviet Union from the prelude to the aftermath of World War II and subsequent Cold War.
Minsk (Мінск; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Nyamiha rivers.
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Mirza Fatali Akhundzade (Mirzə Fətəli Axundov) or Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzade (میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده), also known as Akhundov (12 July 1812 in Nukha – 9 March 1878 in Tiflis), was a celebrated ethnic Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism, "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language".
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Āghā Moḥammad Khān Qājār (1742–1797; آغا محمد خان قاجار)‎ was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
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Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.
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Mongol conquests of Kingdom of Georgia, which at that time consisted of Georgia proper, Armenia, and dominated much of the Caucasus, involved multiple invasions and large-scale raids throughout the 13th century.
The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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Mtskheta (მცხეთა) is a city in Kartli province of Georgia.
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Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in West France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
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Michael Hovhannisyan (Միքայել Հովհաննիսյան), known by the pen name Nar-Dos, (Նար-Դոս) (March 1, 1867 – July 13, 1933) was an Armenian writer.
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Narikala (ნარიყალა) is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River.
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The National Bank of Georgia is the central bank of Georgia.
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The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world.
The National Botanical Garden of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბოტანიკური ბაღი), formerly the Tbilisi Botanical Garden (თბილისის ბოტანიკური ბაღი) is located in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia, and lie in the Tsavkisis-Tskali Gorge on the southern foothills of the Sololaki Range (a spur of the Trialeti Range).
The National Parliamentary Library of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტის ეროვნული ბიბლიოთეკა, sakartvelos p'arlament'is erovnuli bibliotek'i) is a governmental organization under the Parliament of Georgia.
Near East (Proche-Orient) is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.
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Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– September 11, 1971) was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.
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Nikoloz Tskitishvili (ნიკოლოზ ცქიტიშვილი; born April 14, 1983) is a Georgian professional basketball player who currently plays for the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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Odessa or Odesa (Оде́са,; p) is the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,003,705.
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Old Georgian (ძველი ქართული ენა) was the literary language of Georgia beginning in the 5th century.
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Old Tbilisi (ძველი თბილისი, dzveli t'bilisi) is an administrative district (raioni) in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia.
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The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
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Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos, بَلَرْم, Balarm; Phoenician: זִיז, Ziz) is a city in Insular Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Province of Palermo.
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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
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Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი, sakartvelos parlament'i Ақырҭшəыла Апарламент, akyrtshwyla ap'arlament'Under the constitution of Georgia, Article 8, Abkhazian language is the second state language along with Georgian in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia. http://parliament.ge/index.php?option.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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A patron saint or a patron hallow is a saint who in Roman Catholicism is regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
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The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه; Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
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Pertch Proshian (Պերճ Պռոշյան, Hovhannes Ter-Arakelian,, Ashtarak – 23 November 1907, Baku) was an Armenian writer.
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Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
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The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union.
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Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi; formerly known to the Turks as Faş) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
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Prague (Praha) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic.
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The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Qacarlar) was a PersianizedAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3 royal family of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Southwest Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Hakob Melik Hakobian (Յակոբ Մելիք-Յակոբեան (classical); Հակոբ Մելիք-Հակոբյան (reformed); 1835 - 1888), better known by his pen name Raffi (Րաֆֆի; رافی), was an Armenian author, a prominent figure of 19th century Armenian literature.
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A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
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Rapid transit, also known as metro, subway, underground, or colloquially as "the train", is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
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The Rashidun Caliphate (الخلافة الراشدة, c. 632–661) is the collective term comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون)—in Islamic history and was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar).
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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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The Red Army invasion of Georgia (15 February – 17 March 1921), also known as the Soviet–Georgian War or the Soviet invasion of Georgia,Debo, R. (1992).
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and the largest city of Latvia.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Revolution of Roses (often translated into English as the Rose Revolution) (ვარდების რევოლუცია vardebis revolutsia) was a change of power in Georgia in November 2003, which took place after widespread protests over the disputed parliamentary elections.
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Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Keith Rupert Murdoch, AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian American business magnate.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian Mafia (russkaya mafiya) or Bratva (brothers, brotherhood), is a term used to refer to the collective of various organized crime elements originating in the former Soviet Union.
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The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
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The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
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The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.
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The Russo-Georgian War was an armed conflict between Georgia, Russia, and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
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Rustaveli Avenue (რუსთაველის გამზირი, Rust'avelis Gamziri), formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli.
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Rustaveli National Theatre (შოთა რუსთაველის სახელობის აკადემიური თეატრი) is the largest and one of the oldest theaters of Georgia, located in its capital Tbilisi on Rustaveli Avenue.
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Rustavi 2 Broadcasting Company (სამაუწყებლო კომპანია რუსთავი 2), better known as Rustavi 2, is the most successful private television broadcasting company in Georgia.
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Saarbrücken (ltz. Saarbrécken, fr. Sarrebruck, local dialect Saarbrigge) is the capital of the state of Saarland, Germany.
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The Saburtalo Line (საბურთალოს ხაზი) is a line of the Tbilisi Metro in Georgia.
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The Safavid dynasty (سلسلهٔ صفويان; Səfəvilər sülaləsi, صفويلر سولالهسى) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia (modern Iran) after the fall of the Sasanian Empire - following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D., and "is often considered the beginning of modern Persian history".
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Saguramo Range (საგურამოს ქედი) is an east-west mountain range in Eastern Georgia located immediately to the north of the city of Tbilisi.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law.
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The Seljuq dynasty (سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; Selçuklular; Selçuklar) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
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A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely.
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Shevardnadze is a Georgian surname, originally from the province of Guria.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი) was a 12th-century Georgian poet.
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The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
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Simon Zavarian Simon Zavarian, (Armenian:Սիմոն Զաւարեան) also known by his nom de guerre Anton (Անտոն), (1866–1913) was one of the three founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and part of Armenian national liberation movement, along Kristapor Mikaelian and Stepan Zorian.
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A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses.
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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
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Stalinist architecture (ста́линский ампи́р stalinskiy ampir – Stalin's Empire style or ста́линский неоренесса́нс stalinskiy neorenessans – Stalin's Neo-renaissance), also referred to as Stalinist Empire style, or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
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The State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), also known simply as Palestine, is a partially recognized ''de jure'' state in the Middle East.
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The Soviet Union had several kinds of country subdivisions: In addition, some cities and regions, while located within subnational entities had special status.
Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
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Sultan (سلطان) is a noble title with several historical meanings.
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The Supreme Court of Georgia represents the court of the highest and final administration of justice in the country.
Tabriz (تبریز,; تبریز, Təbriz) is the most populated city in the northwest of Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran, and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province.
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Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as Queen regnant of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
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The Tbilisi Circus (თბილისის ცირკი) is the main circus in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
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The Tbilisi Sakrebulo (tr) is a representative body in the city government of Tbilisi, Georgia.
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Tbilisi City Hall (თბილისის მერია, t'bilisis meria) is a clock-towered edifice situated in the southern side of Freedom Square (in Georgian - tavisuplebis moedani), Tbilisi, capital of Georgia.
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The Tbilisi Metro (თბილისის მეტროპოლიტენი) is a rapid transit metro system in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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The Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre (თბილისის ზაქარია ფალიაშვილის სახელობის ოპერისა და ბალეტის სახელმწიფო აკადემიური თეატრი, The Zakaria Paliashvili Tbilisi State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet) is situated on Freedom Square in the center of Tbilisi, Georgia.
Tbilisi Railway station is a railway station located in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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The Spring Rhythms.
The Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
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Tbilisi Sport Palace (თბილისის სპორტის სასახლე) is an Indoor sports arena situated in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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Tbilisi State Conservatoire (თბილისის სახელმწიფო კონსერვატორია) is the State Conservatoire of Georgia, located in the capital Tbilisi.
Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) (თბილისის სახელმწიფო სამედიცინო უნივერსიტეტი (თსსუ)) is a leading medical university in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
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Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower (თბილისის ტელეანძა) is a free-standing tower structure used for communications purposes.
The Tbilisi Zoological Park (თბილისის ზოოლოგიური პარკი, t'bilisis zoologiuri parki) is the oldest and largest zoo in Georgia, in the country's capital of Tbilisi.
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Tehran (also Romanized as Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
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Teimuraz II (თეიმურაზ II) (1680–1762) of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from 1732 to 1744, then of Kartli from 1744 until his death.
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Tetri (თეთრი) is a fractional currency used in the country of Georgia.
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The Bridge of Peace (მშვიდობის ხიდი, mshvidobis khidi) is a bow-shaped pedestrian bridge over the Kura River in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia.
The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი "one who owns a panther skin") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, consisting of over 1600 shairi quatrains, written in the 12th century by the Georgian epic poet Shota Rustaveli, the "crown and glory of the Georgian culture".
The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate.
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Tiflis Governorate (Old Russian: Тифлисская губернія; ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia).
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Timur (تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Temur; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia.
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Georgia, a Christian kingdom in the Caucasus, was subjected, between 1386 and 1403, to several disastrous invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia.
Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves.
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Transcaucasia (Закавказье) or the South Caucasus is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia.
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The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); FebruaryMay 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
Trialeti Range (თრიალეთის ქედი) is an east-west mountain range of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the central part of Georgia.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.
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After the devastating invasions by Timur and subsequent enfeeblement of the Kingdom of Georgia, it soon faced a new threat.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
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The United Arab Emirates (دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates or the UAE,الامارات is a country located in the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea borders with Qatar and Iran.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The University of Georgia (tr) is a university founded in 2002 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Uzun Hasan or Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was a sultan of the Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans.
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Vakhtang I Gorgasali (ვახტანგ I გორგასალი) or Vakhtang the Wolf Head (c. 439 or 443 – 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century.
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Vilnius ((Polish: Wilno, see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 539,939 as of 2014. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city of the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the Vilnius City Municipality and of the Vilnius District Municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. The first known written record of Vilnius as the Lithuanian capital is known from Gediminas' letters in 1323. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for its Old Town of beautiful architecture, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz.
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Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
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Vokrug sveta (Вокруг света, literally: "Around the World") is a Russian geographic magazine.
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Vorontsov, also Woronzow, Woroncow (Воронцо́в) is the name of a celebrated Russian family which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and became Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852.
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Walī (ولي, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء), is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "helper", etc.
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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
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Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
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The Yazidis (also Yezidi, Êzidî) are a Kurdish religious community whose syncretic but ancient religion Yazidism (a kind of Yazdânism) is linked to Zoroastrianism and ancient Mesopotamian religions, however Yazidis form a distinct and independent religious community and have their own culture.
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Yerevan (Երևան), is the capital and largest city of Armenia, and one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
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Zaza Pachulia, Aug.
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Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
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The March 1956 demonstrations (also known as the 1956 Tbilisi riots or 9 March massacre) in the Georgian SSR were a series of protests to Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy, which shocked Georgian supporters of Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist ideology.
The 1961–62 season and fifth of the FIBA European Champions Cup was won by Dinamo Tbilisi after beating Real Madrid in the first ever single game final in the result of 90–83, in Geneva, Switzerland.
14 April 1978 demonstrations in Tbilisi, capital of the Georgian SSR, took place in response to an attempt by the Soviet government to change the constitutional status of languages in Georgia.
The 1990 Tbilisi aerial tramway accident was an aerial tramway accident in Tbilisi, the capital of Soviet Georgia on June 1 1990, which resulted in at least 20 deaths and 15 injuries.
A significant flood occurred in the Vere River valley in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, on the night of 13 to 14 June 2015.
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5 Lines Radio, 5linesradio, Asia/Tbilisi, Capital of Georgia, Capital of Georgia (country), T'Bilisi, T'bilisi, Tbilisi, GA, Tbilisi, Georgia, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia, Tbilisi, USSR, Tbilisi/Tiflis, Tbilissi, Tbilsi, Tbisili, Tblisi, Teflis, Tfilis, Thbilisi, Tibilisi, Tiblisi, Tifflis, Tiflis, Tiflis Province, Ottoman Empire, Tp'ilisi, Tphilisiis, თბილისი.