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Tbilisi

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Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people. [1]

348 relations: Abanotubani, Abbasid Caliphate, Abkhaz language, Abkhazians, Abo of Tiflis, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Agricultural University of Georgia, Akaki Tsereteli, Akhmeteli–Varketili Line, Alexander Griboyedov, Alexander Mikaberidze, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis, Alexander Pushkin, Alp Arslan, Anchiskhati Basilica, Ankara, Anno Domini, April 9 tragedy, Aq Qoyunlu, Arena, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenians in Tbilisi, Art Museum of Georgia, Art Nouveau, Asia, Association football, Assyrian people, Astana, Athens, Atlanta, Avchala, Avlabari, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanis, B.C. VITA Tbilisi, Baku, Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, Bank of Georgia headquarters, Basketball, Bassiani, Battle of Didgori, Battle of Krtsanisi, Batumi, BC Armia, BC Dinamo Tbilisi, BC MIA Academy, BC TSU Tbilisi, Beaux-Arts architecture, Belarus, ..., Bilbao, Biltmore Hotel Tbilisi, Bird of prey, Black Death, Bogdan (bus model), Bolsheviks, Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, Boxing, Bridge of Peace, Bristol, Budapest, Bugha al-Kabir, Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Caliphate, Caspian Sea, Catholic Church, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Caucasus University, Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917), Chechen language, Chișinău, China, Circa, Constitution of Georgia (country), Czech Republic, Dachi of Iberia, David Agmashenebeli Avenue, David IV of Georgia, David X of Kartli, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Doha, Doppelmayr Garaventa Group, Dublin, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Georgia (country), Eastern Orthodox Church, Eduard Shevardnadze, Egypt, Emirate of Tbilisi, Estonians, Ethnic group, 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Saburtalo Line, Safavid dynasty, Saguramo Range, Sasanian Empire, Seating capacity, Seljuk Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Shah, Shevardeni Stadium, Shia Islam, Shota Rustaveli, Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Silk Road, Sister city, Skyscraper, Slovenia, Sofia, Soviet Union, Stalinist architecture, Subdivisions of the Soviet Union, Sulfur, Sultan, Supreme Court of Georgia (country), Tabriz, Tahmasp I, Tamar of Georgia, Tbilisi Circus, Tbilisi City Assembly, Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi International Airport, Tbilisi Medical Academy, Tbilisi Metro, Tbilisi railway station, Tbilisi Rock Festival (1980), Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral, Tbilisi Sports Palace, Tbilisi State Academy of Arts, Tbilisi State Conservatoire, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower, Tbilisi Zoo, Tehran, Teimuraz II of Kakheti, Tetri, The Knight in the Panther's Skin, Third Perso-Turkic War, Tiflis Governorate, Timur, Timur's invasions of Georgia, Toleration, Transcaucasia, Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Treaty of Georgievsk, Treaty of Gulistan, Trialeti Range, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkmen incursions into Georgia, UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, Ukraine, Ukrainians, University of Georgia (Tbilisi), Uzun Hasan, Vakhtang I of Iberia, Vali (governor), Vilnius, Vokrug sveta, Vorontsov, Warsaw, Wedding Palace (Tbilisi), World Meteorological Organization, Wrestling, Yazidis, Yerevan, Zaza Pachulia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, 1956 Georgian demonstrations, 1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup, 1978 Georgian demonstrations, 1980–81 European Cup Winners' Cup, 2015 Tbilisi flood. 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Abanotubani

Abanotubani (აბანოთუბანი, literally "bath district") is the ancient district of Tbilisi, Georgia, known for its sulfuric baths.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abkhaz language

Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.

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Abkhazians

Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.

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Abo of Tiflis

Abo of Tiflis (أبو التفليسي,; აბო თბილელი, abo tbileli; c. 756 – January 6, 786) was an Arab Christian martyr and the Patron Saint of the city of Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).

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Agricultural University of Georgia

The Agricultural University of Georgia (AUG) is a non-profit, private, higher education institution located in the suburban setting of the large city of Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Akaki Tsereteli

Prince Akaki Tsereteli (აკაკი წერეთელი) (1840–1915), often mononymously known as Akaki, was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure.

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Akhmeteli–Varketili Line

The Akhmeteli-Varketili Line (ახმეტელი-ვარკეთილის ხაზი) (formerly known as Didube-Samgori and Gldani-Varketili) is a line of the Tbilisi Metro.

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Alexander Griboyedov

Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Грибое́дов, Aleksándr Sergeyevich Griboyedov or Sergéevich Griboédov; 15 January 179511 February 1829), formerly romanized as Alexander Sergueevich Griboyedoff, was a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer.

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Alexander Mikaberidze

Alexander Mikaberidze (ალექსანდრე მიქაბერიძე; born 27 January 1978) is a Georgian lawyer, author and historian who specializes in Napoleonic studies, Russian history and Georgian history.

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Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis

The St.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.

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Anchiskhati Basilica

The Anchiskhati Basilica of St Mary is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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April 9 tragedy

The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi massacre or Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 21 deaths and hundreds of injuries.

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Aq Qoyunlu

The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.

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Arena

An arena, is a covered or not covered enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenians in Tbilisi

The Armenians have historically been one of the main ethnic groups in the city of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Armenians are the largest ethnic minority in Tbilisi at 4.8% of the population. Armenians migrated to the Georgian lands in the Middle Ages, during the Muslim rule of Armenia. They formed the single largest group of city's population in the 19th century. Official Georgian statistics of 2014 put the number of Armenians in Tbilisi 53,409 people. Tbilisi or Tiflis (as most Armenians call it) was the center of cultural life of Armenians in the Russian Empire from early 19th century to early 20th century.

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Art Museum of Georgia

The Art Museum of Georgia (AMG) (საქართველოს ხელოვნების მუზეუმი, sak'art'velos khelovnebis muzeumi), alternatively known as Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts, is one of the leading museums in the country of Georgia.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Astana

Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Atlanta

Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.

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Avchala

Avchala (ავჭალა) is a northern suburb of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, part of the city's Gldani-Nadzaladevi district.

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Avlabari

Avlabari (ავლაბარი Avlabari) is a neighborhood of Old Tbilisi on the left bank (east side) of the Kura River.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Azerbaijanis

Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.

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B.C. VITA Tbilisi

B.C. VITA Tbilisi is a professional basketball team based in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Baku

Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline

The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Bank of Georgia headquarters

The Bank of Georgia headquarters (საქართველოს ბანკის სათავო ოფისი) is a building in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Bassiani

Bassiani is a nightclub in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.

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Battle of Didgori

The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire at the narrow place of Didgori, 40 km west of the Tbilisi, on August 12, 1121.

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Battle of Krtsanisi

The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.

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Batumi

Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.

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BC Armia

BC Armia (საკალათბურთო კლუბი არმია), also known as Armia Tbilisi, is a professional basketball club based in Tbilisi, that plays in the Georgian Super Liga.

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BC Dinamo Tbilisi

BC Dinamo Tbilisi (საკალათბურთო კლუბი,,დინამო’’) is a professional basketball club that is based in Tbilisi, that plays in the Georgian Superliga.

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BC MIA Academy

BC MIA Academy (საკალათბურთო კლუბი შსს აკადემია) is a professional basketball club based in Tbilisi, that plays in the Georgian Superliga.

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BC TSU Tbilisi

BC T.S.U. is a professional basketball club based in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Beaux-Arts architecture

Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Bilbao

Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.

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Biltmore Hotel Tbilisi

The Biltmore Hotel Tbilisi (სასტუმრო „ბილტმორ თბილისი“) is a luxury hotel in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, operated by the Millennium & Copthorne Hotels.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Bogdan (bus model)

Bogdan (Богдан) is the brand of the Ukrainian buses and trolleybuses made by Bogdan Corporation.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena

Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, formerly known as Lenin Dinamo Stadium and later Boris Paichadze National Stadium, is a stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the home stadium of Dinamo Tbilisi, Georgia national rugby union team and Georgia national football team.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Bridge of Peace

The Bridge of Peace (მშვიდობის ხიდი, mshvidobis khidi) is a bow-shaped pedestrian bridge, a steel and glass construction illuminated with numerous LEDs, over the Kura River in downtown Tbilisi, capital of Georgia.

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Bristol

Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.

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Budapest

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Bugha al-Kabir

Bugha al-Kabir or Bugha the Great, also known as Bugha al-Turki ("Bugha the Turk"), was a 9th-century Turkic general who served the Abbasids.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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Caucasus University

Caucasus University is a privately held university in Georgia, Caucasus.

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Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917)

The Caucasus Viceroyalty was the Imperial Russian administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy (главноуправляющий) (1801–1844, 1882–1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844–1882, 1904–1917).

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Chechen language

Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.

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Chișinău

Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Constitution of Georgia (country)

The Constitution of Georgia (საქართველოს კონსტიტუცია, sakartvelos k'onstitutsia) is the supreme law of Georgia.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dachi of Iberia

Dachi (დაჩი, also Darchi, დარჩი, or Darchil, დარჩილი), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) reigning, according to a medieval Georgian literary tradition, for 12 years, from c. 522 to 534.

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David Agmashenebeli Avenue

David Agmashenebeli Avenue (დავით აღმაშენებლის გამზირი) is one of the main avenues in the historical part of Tbilisi, known for its 19th-century classical architecture.

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David IV of Georgia

David IV, also known as David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი) (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.

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David X of Kartli

David X (დავით X) (1482–1526) was a king of the Georgian kingdom of Kartli from 1505 to 1525.

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Democratic Republic of Georgia

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.

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Doha

Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.

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Doppelmayr Garaventa Group

The Doppelmayr Garaventa Group is an Austrian–Swiss company that manufactures chairlifts, cable cars, gondolas, surface tows for ski and amusement parks, as well as urban people movers and material handling systems.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Eastern Georgia (country)

Eastern Georgia (აღმოსავლეთ საქართველო, aghmosavlet' sak'art'velo) is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea region of Adjara.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eduard Shevardnadze

Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Emirate of Tbilisi

The Emirs of Tbilisi (თბილისის საამირო, إمارة تفليسي) ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122).

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Estonians

Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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EuroLeague

The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Falcon

Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.

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FC Dinamo Tbilisi

FC Dinamo Tbilisi (დინამო თბილისი) is a professional football club based in Tbilisi, Georgia, that competes in the Erovnuli Liga, the top flight of Georgian football.

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FC Locomotive Tbilisi

FC Locomotive Tbilisi is a Georgian football club from the capital, Tbilisi.

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FC Saburtalo Tbilisi

FC Saburtalo is a Georgian football club, based in Tbilisi.

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FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free University of Tbilisi

The Free University of Tbilisi is a private university established in 2007 via the merge of ESM Tbilisi and the Tbilisi Institute of Asia and Africa.

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Freedom Square, Tbilisi

Freedom Square (Georgian: თავისუფლების მოედანი Tavisuplebis moedani, pronounced), formerly known as Erivan (or Erivanskaya) or Pashkevich-Erivanskaya Square (Georgian: ერევანსკი მოედანი, Erevansk'i moedani, Russian: Эриванская площадь, Erivanskaya ploshchad) under Imperial Russia and Lenin Square under the Soviet Union, is located in the center of Tbilisi at the eastern end of Rustaveli Avenue.

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Full communion

Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgian Airways

Georgian Airways (ჯორჯიან ეარვეისი), formerly Airzena, is the privately owned flag carrier of Georgia, with its headquarters in Tbilisi.

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Georgian Golden Age

The Georgian Golden Age (tr) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its power and development.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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Georgian lari

The lari (ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia.

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Georgian National Museum

The Georgian National Museum (tr) unifies several leading museums in Georgia.

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Georgian National Opera Theater

The Georgian National Opera and Ballet Theater of Tbilisi (თბილისის ოპერისა და ბალეტის სახელმწიფო აკადემიური თეატრი), formerly known as the Tiflis Imperial Theater, is an opera house situated on Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Georgian Orthodox Church

The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Georgian Technical University

Georgian Technical University (GTU, formerly V.I. Lenin Georgian Polytechnical Institute) is the main and largest technical university of Georgia.

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Georgians

The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Gondola lift

A gondola lift is a means of cable transport and type of aerial lift which is supported and propelled by cables from above.

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Governorate (Russia)

A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.

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Greece

No description.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Handball

Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.

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Hawk

Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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Heraclius II of Georgia

Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.

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History of the Soviet Union (1982–91)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi

The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi (თბილისის წმინდა სამების საკათედრო ტაძარი Tbilisis cminda samebis sakatedro tadzari) commonly known as Sameba (სამების ლავრა for Trinity) is the main cathedral of the Georgian Orthodox Church located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Iakob Gogebashvili

Iakob Gogebashvili (იაკობ გოგებაშვილი) (October 15, 1840 – June 1, 1912) was a Georgian educator, children’s writer and journalist, considered to be the founder of the scientific pedagogy in Georgia.

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Ilia Chavchavadze

Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე; 8 November 1837 — 12 September 1907) was a Georgian writer, political figure, poet, and publisher who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia.

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Ilia State University

Ilia State University (ISU), located in Tbilisi, Georgia, is a higher education institution, established in 2006 as a merger of six different educational and research institutions.

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Imedi Media Holding

Imedi Media Holding (იმედი მედია ჰოლდინგი) is a private television and Radio Company in Georgia.

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Ingush language

Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.

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Innsbruck

Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.

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International Black Sea University

The International Black Sea University (IBSU) (შავი ზღვის საერთაშორისო უნივერსიტეტი) was established in 1995 in Tbilisi, Georgia and was opened by the second president of Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze and the former prime minister of Turkey Tansu Çiller in accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers and the License of Opening given by the Ministry of Education of Georgia.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jahan Shah

Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 in Khoy – 1467 in Tabriz) (جهان شاه; Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks dynasty in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c. 1438 – 1467.

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Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال ‌الدین خوارزمشاه; Turkmen: Jelaleddin Meňburun or Jelaleddin Horezmşa; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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July 13

No description.

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Kabardian language

Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.

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Kakha Kaladze

Kakhaber "Kakha" Kaladze (კახაბერ (კახა) კალაძე; born 27 February 1978) is a Georgian politician and retired footballer.

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Kartli

Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.

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Kartlis Deda

Kartlis Deda (ქართლის დედა; Mother of a Kartli or Mother of a Georgian) is a monument in Georgia’s capital Tbilisi.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kharkiv

Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.

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Khazars

The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

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Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kingdom of Georgia

The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Kingdom of Kakheti

The Second Kingdom of Kakheti (კახეთის სამეფო, k'axetis samepo; also spelled Kaxet'i or Kakhetia) was a late medieval/early modern monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kakheti, with its capital first at Gremi and then at Telavi.

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Kingdom of Kartli

The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.

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Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti

The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kura (Caspian Sea)

The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kutaisi

Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Leitner Ropeways

Leitner Ropeways is a business that manufactures and distributes products and equipment for ropeways, snow groomers, urban transportation systems, and wind energy in Italy and internationally.

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Lelo Saracens

Lelo Saracens (or formally Rugby Club Lelo Tbilisi) is a Georgian semi-professional rugby union club from Tbilisi, who plays in the Georgia Championship, the first division of Georgian rugby.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Lincoln, Nebraska

Lincoln is the capital of the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Lancaster County.

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List of cities and towns in Georgia (country)

The following list of Georgian cities is divided into three separate lists for Georgia itself, and the disputed territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

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List of people from Tbilisi

This is a list of famous people who have lived in Tbilisi, including both natives and residents.

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List of the busiest airports in the former USSR

This is a list of the busiest airports in the Post-Soviet states (handling more than 1,000,000 passengers per year), ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.

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Ljubljana

Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.

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Lublin

Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.

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Lviv

Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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Maccabi Brinkford Tbilisi

Maccabi Brinkford Tbilisi is the Georgian professional basketball club, that is based in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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MAN Lion's City

The MAN Lion's City is a range of low-floor and low-entry public buses built by German truck and bus manufacturer MAN Truck & Bus (previously MAN Nutzfahrzeuge) since 1996 primarily for the European market, but is also available in chassis-only variants worldwide.

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MAN Truck & Bus

MAN Truck & Bus AG (formerly MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG) is the largest subsidiary of the MAN SE corporation, and one of the leading international providers of commercial vehicles.

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Marjanishvili Theatre

Kote Marjanishvili State Academic Drama Theatre (კოტე მარჯანიშვილის სახელობის სახელმწიფო აკადემიური დრამატული თეატრი) is a state theatre in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Marksman

A marksman is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using accurate precision scoped projectile weapons (in modern days most commonly a designated marksman rifle or a sniper rifle) to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges.

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Marshrutka

Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.

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Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia

Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia took place from 735 to 737.

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Marwan II

Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (691 – 6 August 750; Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.

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Mayor of Tbilisi

The Mayor of Tbilisi is an elected politician in Tbilisi.

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Medieval architecture

Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages.

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Metekhi

Metekhi (Metechi; მეტეხი) is a historic neighborhood of Tbilisi, Georgia, located on the elevated cliff that overlooks the Mtkvari river.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Microclimate

A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.

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Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.

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Mikheil Meskhi Stadium

The Mikheil Meskhi Stadium, also known as the Lokomotivi Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in Tbilisi, Georgia named after the famous Georgian international footballer.

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Minsk

Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.

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Mirza Fatali Akhundov

Mirza Fatali Akhundzade (Mirzə Fətəli Axundov میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده) or Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzade (میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده), also known as Akhundov (12 July 1812 – 9 March 1878), was a celebrated ethnic Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism, "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language".

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Moldova

Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasions of Georgia

Mongol conquests of Kingdom of Georgia, which at that time consisted of Georgia proper, Armenia, and much of the Caucasus, involved multiple invasions and large-scale raids throughout the 13th century.

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Mtskheta

Mtskheta (მცხეთა) is a city in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia.

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Nantes

Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Narikala

Narikala (ნარიყალა) is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River.

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Natakhtari

Natakhtari (ნატახტარი) is a village in the Mtskheta municipality, Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, Georgia.

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Natakhtari Airfield

Natakhtari Airfield is an domestic airport located in Natakhtari, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Georgia.

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National Bank of Georgia

National Bank of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი, Sakartvelos Erovnuli Bank’i) is the central bank of Georgia.

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National Basketball Association

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).

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National Botanical Garden of Georgia

The National Botanical Garden of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბოტანიკური ბაღი), formerly the Tbilisi Botanical Garden (თბილისის ბოტანიკური ბაღი), is located in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia, and lie in the Tsavkisis-Tskali Gorge on the southern foothills of the Sololaki Range (a spur of the Trialeti Range).

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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National Parliamentary Library of Georgia

The National Parliamentary Library of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტის ეროვნული ბიბლიოთეკა, sakartvelos p'arlament'is erovnuli bibliotek'a) is a governmental organization under the Parliament of Georgia.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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News Corporation

The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Nikoloz Tskitishvili

Nikoloz Tskitishvili (ნიკოლოზ ცქიტიშვილი; born April 14, 1983) is a Georgian professional basketball player for Byblos Club of the Lebanese Basketball League.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odessa

Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Old Georgian language

Old Georgian (ძველი ქართული ენა dzveli kartuli ena, Old Georgian: ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႳႪႨ, enay kartuli) the literary language of Georgian monarchies in the 5th century.

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Old Tbilisi

Old Tbilisi (ძველი თბილისი, dzveli t'bilisi) was an administrative district (raioni) in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia, from 2007 to 2013.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Ossetians

The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parliament of Georgia

The Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი, sakartvelos p'arlament'i) is the supreme legislature of Georgia.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Peace of Amasya

The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Pheasant

Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polo

Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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Poti

Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Raion

A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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RC Armazi Marneuli

RC Armazi is a Georgian semi-professional rugby club from Marneuli, who plays in the Didi 10, the first division of Georgian rugby.

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RC Army Tbilisi

Rugby Club Armia Tbilisi is a Georgian semi-professional rugby union club from Tbilisi, who plays in the Georgia Championship, the first division of Georgian rugby.

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RC Locomotive Tbilisi

Rugby Club Locomotive Tbilisi is a Georgian semi-professional rugby union club from Tbilisi, who plays in the Georgia Championship, the first division of Georgian rugby.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Army invasion of Georgia

The Red Army invasion of Georgia (15 February – 17 March 1921), also known as the Soviet–Georgian War or the Soviet invasion of Georgia,Debo, R. (1992).

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rose Revolution

The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution (ვარდების რევოლუცია vardebis revolutsia), describes a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rupert Murdoch

Keith Rupert Murdoch, (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian mafia

Russian organized crime or Russian mafia, sometimes referred to as Bratva ("brotherhood"), is a collective of various organized crime elements originating in the former Soviet Union.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Russo-Georgian War

The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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Rustaveli Avenue

Rustaveli Avenue (რუსთაველის გამზირი, Rust'avelis Gamziri), formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli.

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Rustaveli Theatre

Rustaveli National Theatre (შოთა რუსთაველის სახელობის აკადემიური თეატრი) is the largest and one of the oldest theaters of Georgia, located in its capital Tbilisi on Rustaveli Avenue.

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Rustavi 2

Rustavi 2 Broadcasting Company (სამაუწყებლო კომპანია რუსთავი 2), better known as Rustavi 2, is the most successful private television broadcasting company in Georgia.

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Saarbrücken

Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.

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Saburtalo Line

The Saburtalo Line (საბურთალოს ხაზი) is a line of the Tbilisi Metro in Georgia.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Saguramo Range

Saguramo Range (საგურამოს ქედი) is an east-west mountain range in Eastern Georgia located immediately to the north of the city of Tbilisi.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Seating capacity

Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Shah

Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).

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Shevardeni Stadium

Shevardeni Stadium mainly serves as a training base for Georgian Rugby Union National Team.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shota Rustaveli

Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160—after c. 1220), mononymously known simply as Rustaveli, was a medieval Georgian poet.

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Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University

Shota Rustaveli Theater and Georgia State Film University (TAFU) is one of the oldest universities in the Caucasus and Georgia.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.

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Slovenia

Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Sofia

Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stalinist architecture

Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.

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Subdivisions of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union had several kinds of country subdivisions.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Supreme Court of Georgia (country)

The Supreme Court of Georgia represents the court of the highest and final administration of justice in the country.

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Tabriz

Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.

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Tahmasp I

Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.

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Tamar of Georgia

Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.

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Tbilisi Circus

The Tbilisi Circus (თბილისის ცირკი) is the main circus in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.

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Tbilisi City Assembly

The Tbilisi Sakrebulo (tr) is a representative body in the city government of Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi City Hall

Tbilisi City Hall (თბილისის მერია, t'bilisis meria) is a clock-towered edifice situated in the southern side of Freedom Square (in Georgian - tavisuplebis moedani), Tbilisi, capital of Georgia.

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Tbilisi International Airport

Shota Rustaveli Tbilisi International Airport (თბილისის შოთა რუსთაველის სახელობის საერთაშორისო აეროპორტი) formerly Novo Alexeyevka International Airport, is the main international airport in Georgia, located southeast of the capital Tbilisi.

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Tbilisi Medical Academy

The Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy, commonly referred to as Tbilisi Medical Academy, is a Georgian private medical university located in Tbilisi.

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Tbilisi Metro

The Tbilisi Metro (თბილისის მეტროპოლიტენი) is a rapid transit metro system in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi railway station

Tbilisi Railway station is a railway station located in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi Rock Festival (1980)

The Spring Rhythms.

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Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral

The Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.

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Tbilisi Sports Palace

Tbilisi Sport Palace (თბილისის სპორტის სასახლე) is an indoor sports arena situated in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi State Academy of Arts

The Tbilisi State Academy of Arts (თბილისის სახელმწიფო სამხატვრო აკადემია) is one of the oldest universities in Georgia and Caucasus.

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Tbilisi State Conservatoire

Tbilisi State Conservatoire (თბილისის სახელმწიფო კონსერვატორია) is the State Conservatoire of Georgia, located in the capital Tbilisi.

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Tbilisi State Medical University

Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) (თბილისის სახელმწიფო სამედიცინო უნივერსიტეტი (თსსუ)) is a leading medical university in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi State University

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower

Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower (თბილისის ტელეანძა, tbilisis teleandza) is a free-standing tower structure used for communications purposes.

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Tbilisi Zoo

The Tbilisi Zoological Park (თბილისის ზოოლოგიური პარკი, t'bilisis zoologiuri parki) is the oldest and largest zoo in Georgia, in the country's capital of Tbilisi.

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Teimuraz II of Kakheti

Teimuraz II (თეიმურაზ II) (1680–1762) of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from 1732 to 1744, then of Kartli from 1744 until his death.

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Tetri

Tetri (თეთრი) is a fractional currency used in the country of Georgia.

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The Knight in the Panther's Skin

The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's national poet Shota Rustaveli.

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Third Perso-Turkic War

The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate.

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Tiflis Governorate

Tiflis Governorate (Old Russian: Тифлисская губернія; ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia).

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Timur's invasions of Georgia

Georgia, a Christian kingdom in the Caucasus, was subjected, between 1386 and 1403, to several disastrous invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia.

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Toleration

Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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Transcaucasia

Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.

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Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.

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Treaty of Georgievsk

The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.

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Treaty of Gulistan

The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.

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Trialeti Range

Trialeti Range (თრიალეთის ქედი) is an east-west mountain range of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the central part of Georgia.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkmen incursions into Georgia

After the devastating invasions by Timur and subsequent enfeeblement of the Kingdom of Georgia, it soon faced a new threat.

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UEFA Cup Winners' Cup

The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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University of Georgia (Tbilisi)

The University of Georgia (tr) is a university founded in 2002 in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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Uzun Hasan

Uzun Hasan or Uzun Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was the 9th shahanshah of the Oghuz Turkic Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, and generally considered to be its strongest ruler.

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Vakhtang I of Iberia

Vakhtang I Gorgasali (ვახტანგ I გორგასალი, Vaxt’ang I Gorgasali) (c. 439 or 443 – 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century.

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Vali (governor)

Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.

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Vilnius

Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Vokrug sveta

Vokrug sveta (Вокруг света, literally: "Around the World") is a Russian geographic magazine.

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Vorontsov

Vorontsov, also spelled Woronzow or Woroncow (Воронцо́в), is the name of a celebrated Russian noble family whose members attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and became Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852 with the style of Serene Highness.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Wedding Palace (Tbilisi)

The Wedding Palace or Palace of Rituals (რიტუალების სასახლე) is a building in Tbilisi designed by architect Victor Djorbenadze.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

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Yazidis

The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Yerevan

Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Zaza Pachulia

Zaza Pachulia, Aug.

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Zviad Gamsakhurdia

Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

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1956 Georgian demonstrations

The March 1956 demonstrations (also known as the 1956 Tbilisi riots or 9 March massacre) in the Georgian SSR were a series of protests against Nikita Khrushchev's revisionist de-Stalinization policy, which shocked Georgian supporters of Marxist–Leninist ideology.

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1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup

The 1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup season was the fifth season of the European top-tier level professional basketball club competition FIBA European Champions Cup (now called EuroLeague).

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1978 Georgian demonstrations

On 14 April 1978, demonstrations in Tbilisi, capital of the Georgian SSR, took place in response to an attempt by the Soviet government to change the constitutional status of languages in Georgia.

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1980–81 European Cup Winners' Cup

The 1980–81 season of the European Cup Winners' Cup was won by FC Dinamo Tbilisi in the final against FC Carl Zeiss Jena.

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2015 Tbilisi flood

A significant flood occurred in the Vere River valley in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, on the night of 13 to 14 June 2015.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tbilisi

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