242 relations: Actinide, Activated carbon, Adsorption, Alloy, Americium, Ammonium pertechnetate, Anaerobic organism, Aqua regia, Atomic battery, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Bacteria, Becquerel, Belgian Congo, Beta decay, Beta particle, Blood, Boiling water reactor, Bridging ligand, Bromine, Caesium, Caesium-137, Carbonyl group, Carlo Perrier, Catalysis, Centrosymmetry, CERN, Chalcogenide, Chalk River Laboratories, Chemical element, Chlorine, Close-packing of equal spheres, Clostridium, Columbia University, Columbite, Column chromatography, Congener (chemistry), Coordination complex, Corrosion, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal structure, Cumbria, Curium, Cyclotron, Davyum, Deep geological repository, Dehydrogenation, Dipole, Dmitri Mendeleev, ..., Earth, Electron, Electron capture, Electronvolt, Elution, Emilio Segrè, Emission spectrum, End-of-life (product), Endospore, Environmental chemistry, Ernest Lawrence, Excited state, Fissile material, Fission product yield, Fume hood, Gallbladder, Gamma ray, Genus, Glenn T. Seaborg, Glovebox, Gottfried Osann, Greek language, Group 7 element, Hafnium, Half-life, Heinrich Rose, Henry Moseley, Hexagonal crystal family, High-level radioactive waste management, History of the periodic table, Homarus gammarus, Human brain, Human skeleton, Hydrazine, Hydrochloric acid, Hygroscopy, Ida Noddack, Ilmenium, Iodide, Ion, Iridium, Irish Sea, Iron, Isopropyl alcohol, Isostructural, Isotope, Isotopes of molybdenum, Isotopes of ruthenium, Isotopes of technetium, Jan-Olov Liljenzin, Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, Kelvin, Kidney, Latin, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Liver, London penetration depth, Lucium, Lung, Magnetic field, Manganese, Maria reactor, Masataka Ogawa, Mass number, Mass spectrometry, Masuria, Mendeleev's predicted elements, Metal, Metal aquo complex, Metastability, Minor actinide, Molybdenum, Molybdenum(III) bromide, Molybdenum(III) chloride, Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Research Universal reactor, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Neoplasm, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron capture, Niobium, Nitric acid, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons testing, Nucleon, Nucleosynthesis, Nuclide, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Octahedral molecular geometry, Octahedron, Oklo, Osmium tetroxide, Otto Berg (scientist), Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Palermo, Palladium, Paramagnetism, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Paul W. Merrill, Pelopium, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Permanganate, Pertechnetate, Pertechnetic acid, Petten nuclear reactor, Platinum, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Poland, Positron, Potassium nonahydridorhenate, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Proton, Prussia, PUREX, Radiation protection, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radioactive waste, Radionuclide, Radiopharmaceutical, Red giant, Rhenium, Rhodium, Ruthenium, Ruthenium tetroxide, S-process, Saline (medicine), Sanskrit, Selenide, Sellafield, Spectrogram, Spent nuclear fuel, Spontaneous fission, Stable nuclide, Steel, Strontium, Strontium-90, Sulfuric acid, Tantalum, Tarnish, Technetium, Technetium hexafluoride, Technetium star, Technetium(IV) chloride, Technetium(VII) oxide, Technetium-99m, Technetium-99m generator, Telluride (chemistry), Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Thorium, Thyroid, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium(III) iodide, Tonne, Transition metal, Trirhenium nonachloride, Type-II superconductor, University of Palermo, Uraninite, Uranium, Uranium ore, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Walter Noddack, Wavelength, X-ray, Year, Yttrium, Zirconium. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Ammonium pertechnetate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4TcO4.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The boiling water reactor (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carlo Perrier (7 July 1886 – 22 May 1948) was an Italian mineralogist who did extensive research on the element technetium in 1936.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In crystallography, a point group which contains an inversion center as one of its symmetry elements is centrosymmetric.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
A chalcogenide is a chemical compound consisting of at least one chalcogen anion and at least one more electropositive element.
Chalk River Laboratories (Laboratoires de Chalk River; also known as CRL, Chalk River Labs and formerly Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories) is a Canadian nuclear research facility in Deep River, Renfrew County, Ontario, near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Columbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite and columbate, is a black mineral group that is an ore of niobium.
Column chromatography in chemistry is a chromatography method used to isolate a single chemical compound from a mixture.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Davyum was the proposed name for a chemical element found by chemist Serge Kern in 1877.
A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).
Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
"End-of-life" (EOL) is a term used with respect to a product supplied to customers, indicating that the product is in the end of its useful life (from the vendor's point of view), and a vendor stops marketing, selling, or rework sustaining it.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Nuclear fission splits a heavy nucleus such as uranium or plutonium into two lighter nuclei, which are called fission products.
A fume hood (sometimes called a fume cupboard or fume closet) is a type of local ventilation device that is designed to limit exposure to hazardous or toxic fumes, vapors or dusts.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
A glovebox (or glove box) is a sealed container that is designed to allow one to manipulate objects where a separate atmosphere is desired.
Gottfried Wilhelm Osann (26 October 1796, Weimar – 10 August 1866, Würzburg) was a German chemist and physicist.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group 7, numbered by IUPAC nomenclature, is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heinrich Rose (6 August 1795 – 27 January 1864) was a German mineralogist and analytical chemist.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
High-level radioactive waste management concerns how radioactive materials created during production of nuclear power and nuclear weapons are dealt with.
The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements and are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties.
Homarus gammarus, known as the European lobster or common lobster, is a species of clawed lobster from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and parts of the Black Sea.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Ida Noddack (25 February 1896 – 24 September 1978), née Ida Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist.
Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
Isostructural chemical compounds have similar chemical structures.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
There are 33 known isotopes of molybdenum (42Mo) ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 115, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers.
Naturally occurring ruthenium (44Ru) is composed of seven stable isotopes.
Technetium (43Tc) is the first of the two elements lighter than bismuth that have no non-radioactive isotopes; the other such element is promethium.
Jan-Olov Liljenzin (born 1936) is a Swedish chemist and professor emeritus in nuclear chemistry.
The Journal of Nuclear Cardiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in nuclear cardiology.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In superconductors, the London penetration depth (usually denoted as \lambda or \lambda_L) characterizes the distance to which a magnetic field penetrates into a superconductor and becomes equal to e−1 times that of the magnetic field at the surface of the superconductor.
Lucium was the proposed name for an alleged new element found by chemist Prosper Barrière in 1896 in the mineral monazite.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Maria reactor is Poland's second research nuclear reactor and the only one still in use.
was a Japanese chemist known for the discovery of rhenium, which he named nipponium.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major actinides.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum(III) bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula MoBr3.
Molybdenum(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula MoCl3.
The Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment (MAPLE), later renamed MDS Medical Isotope Reactors (MMIR), was a dedicated isotope-production facility built by AECL and MDS Nordion.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was a 135 MWt nuclear research reactor built in the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, one of Canada’s national science facilities.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) is a Dutch institute that performs nuclear research for the government and private companies.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.
Otto Berg (23 November 1873 – 1939) was a German scientist.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Paul Willard Merrill (August 15, 1887 – July 19, 1961) was an American astronomer whose specialty was spectroscopy.
Pelopium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist Heinrich Rose in 1845.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
The pertechnetate ion is an oxoanion with the chemical formula.
Pertechnetic acid (HTcO4) is a compound of technetium that is produced by reacting technetium(VII) oxide (Tc2O7) with water or strong oxidizing acids, such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, aqua regia.
The Petten nuclear reactors are nuclear research reactors in Petten, Netherlands.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Potassium nonahydridorhenate(VII) is an inorganic compound having the formula K2ReH9.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Ruthenium tetroxide (Ruthenium(VIII) oxide) is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO4.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of sound or other signal as they vary with time.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Technetium hexafluoride or technetium(VI) fluoride (TcF6) is a yellow inorganic compound with a low melting point.
A technetium star, or more properly a Tc-rich star, is a star whose stellar spectrum contains absorption lines of the light radioactive metal technetium.
Technetium(IV) chloride is the chemical compound composed of technetium and chlorine with the formula TcCl4.
Technetium(VII) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Tc2O7.
Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
A technetium-99m generator, or colloquially a technetium cow or moly cow, is a device used to extract the metastable isotope 99mTc of technetium from a source of decaying molybdenum-99.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Titanium(III) iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula TiI3.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trirhenium nonachloride is a compound with the formula ReCl3, sometimes also written Re3Cl9.
In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.
The University of Palermo (Università degli Studi di Palermo) is a university located in Palermo, Italy, and founded in 1806.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Walter Noddack (17 August 1893 in Berlin – 7 December 1960 in Berlin) was a German chemist.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.