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Ab-o-Atash Park (پارکِ آب و آتش., Pārk-e Āb-o-Ātaš), literally the "Water-and-Fire Park", also known as the Ebrahim Park (پارکِ ابراهیم, Pārk-e Ebrāhim), is a park in northern Tehran, Iran.
Abbās Ābād (عباسآباد - approximate latitude of 35°44'08"N and longitude of 51°26'08"E) is a large north-central neighborhood of Tehran, Iran, designated within the Seventh Municipal District of the capital.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abdol Aziz Farmanfarmaian (Shiraz, 1920 – June 21, 2013 Spain) was an Iranian architect, offspring of Iranian nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and a member of the Qajar dynasty of Iran.
The Glassware and Ceramic Museum of Iran (موزهٔ آبگینه و سفالینه ایران, Muze-ye Abgineh va Sofalineh-ye Irān) or simply Abgineh Museum (موزهٔ آبگینه, Muze-ye Abgineh) is located at 30 Tir Street (formerly known as Ghavam Al Saltaneh Street), in Tehran, Iran.
Achaemenid architecture (Persian: معماری هخامنشیان) includes all architectural achievements of the Achaemenid Persians manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation (Persepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples made for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings (such as the burial tomb of Cyrus the Great).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
Ahmad Shāh Qājār (احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Ajudanieh (آجودانیه; The official name: Shahid Sabari, شهید سباری) is a neighbourhood in the north of Tehran, Iran.
The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.
Alborz College (in Persian:دبیرستان البرز), is a college preparatory high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran.
Alborz Province (استان البرز, Ostan-e Alborz) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.
Sardar Asaad Bakhtiari (1856–1917) (Luri/Persian: سردار اسعد بختیاری), also known as Haj Ali-Gholi Khan, Sardar Asaad II (born Ali-Gholi Khan) was the 3rd son of Hossein Gholi Khan and an Iranian revolutionary, a chieftain of the Bakhtiari Haft Lang tribe, he was one of the primary figures of the Persian Constitutional Revolution.
Allameh Tabataba'i University (ATU; ˌælɒːˈme tæbɒːtæbɒːˈʔiː دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی) is the largest specialized public university in humanities and social sciences in Iran, with 15624 students and 422 full-time faculty members.
Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani (میرزا تقیخان فراهانی) known as Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر) (1807 – 10 January 1852), also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (Shah of Persia) for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.
Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Amirkabir), formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic, is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran.
Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ararat Stadium (Արարատ մարզադաշտ; ورزشگاه آرارات) is a football stadium with 10,000 seats built in 1971 and located in the Ararat Sports Complex in the Vanak neighbourhood of Tehran, Iran.
Arash the Archer (آرش کمانگیر Āraš-e Kamāngīr) is a heroic archer-figure of Iranian mythology.
ArchDaily is a weblog covering architectural news, projects, products, events, interviews and competitions, opinion pieces, among others, catering to architects, designers and other interested parties.
An articulated bus (either a motor bus or trolleybus) is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyrians in Iran (آشوریان ایران), are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iran.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
The Azadegan League (ليگ آزادگان), also known as League 1 (لیگ یک), is the second highest division of professional football in Iran.
Azadi Cinema Complex is a cineplex building located at Beheshti Street in Tehran.
The Āzādi Sport Complex (مجموعه ورزشی آزادی) formerly known as Āryāmehr Sport Complex (مجموعه ورزشی آریامهر) is the national sports complex of Iran based in Tehran.
The Azadi Stadium (ورزشگاه آزادی varzeshgāh-e āzādi) formerly known as Aryamehr Stadium (ورزشگاه آریامهر varzeshgāh-e āryāmehr) is an all-seater football stadium in Tehran, Iran.
The Azadi Tower (برج آزادی,; "Freedom Tower"), formerly known as the Shahyad Tower (برج شهیاد,; "Shah's Memorial Tower"), is a monument located at Azadi Square, in Tehran, Iran.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) was one of the largest European industrial conglomerates of the 20th century, founded by Czech engineer Emil Škoda in 1859 in Plzeň, then in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
Baadraan Tehran Football Club (باشگاه فوتبال بادران تهران), commonly known as Baadraan, is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, that competes in the Azadegan League.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baharestan (بهارستان.) is a locality east of the central part of Tehran in Iran.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahrām Chōbīn (Middle Persian:; بهرام چوبین), also known by his epithet Mihrevandak ("servant of Mihr (Mithra)", was a famous spahbed (senior army commander) during late sixth-century Iran. He usurped the Sasanian throne from Khosrow II, ruling for a year as Bahram VI (590-591). However, he was later defeated by Khosrow II and was forced to flee.
Bahram Fire temple, Mil Hill or Rey Fire temple (آتشکده بهرام or تپه میل or آتشکده ری) is one of the historical religious places in Rey, Iran which has stood since the Sassanid Empire.
A bakhsh (بخش) is a type of administrative division of Iran.
The Bakhtiari (بختیاری) are a southwestern Iranian tribe, and a subgroup of the Lurs.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Bank Melli Iran (BMI; lit) is the first national and commercial retail bank of Iran.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
Behran Oil Company (شرکت نفت بهران) is an oil refining company with headquarters in Tehran.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Capital District (Distrito Capital) is Venezuela's federal district.
Persia (Iran) has had numerous capital cities and royal centers throughout its history.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Located in Tehran, beside Laleh Park, and founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum of Iran exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from the 16th century to the present.
Carrefour S.A. is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in the Hauts-de-Seine Department near Paris.
A carriageway (British English) or roadway (North American English) consists of a width of road on which a vehicle is not restricted by any physical barriers or separation to move laterally.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Central District of Tehran County (بخش مرکزی شهرستان تهران) is a district (bakhsh) in Tehran County, Tehran Province, Iran.
The Central Federal District (p) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
Central Hungary (Közép-Magyarország) is one of the seven statistical regions in Hungary (NUTS 1 and NUTS 2).
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chitgar Lake is an artificial and recreational lake located to the north of Chitgar Park in northwestern Tehran, Iran.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cinema Farhang is the most famous movie theater in Tehran and also in Iran.
The Circassians in Iran (East Circassian and West Circassian: Адыгэхэр Къажэрей, Adyghexer Kŭazhéreĭ; چرکس های ایران) are an ethnic minority in Iran.
The City Theater (تئاتر شهر, Teātr-e Šahr) is a performing arts complex in Tehran, the capital of Iran.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A commercial district or commercial zone is any part of a city or town in which the primary land use is commercial activities (shops, offices, theaters, restaurants and so on), as opposed to a residential neighbourhood, an industrial zone, or other types of neighbourhoods.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The counties of Iran, called shahrestan (شهرستان), are administrative divisions of larger provinces (ostan).
Courthouse of Tehran (کاخِ دادگستریِ تهران Kākh-e Dādgostari-ye Tehrān), is the historical courthouse of Tehran, the capital of Iran.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Damavand Street is a street in central and eastern Tehran, Iran.
Dar ul-Funun (دارالفنون, meaning "Polytechnic"), established in 1851, was the first modern university and modern institution of higher learning in Iran (Persia).
Darband (دربند), formerly a village close to Tajrish, Shemiran, is a neighborhood inside Tehran's metropolitan limits.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darrous is a neighborhood in Shemiran, northern Tehran, Iran.
Davoodiyeh is a large district of northern Tehran, Iran.
Dizin (دیزین) is the largest Iranian ski resorts.
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Edward Granville Browne, FBA (7 February 1862 – 5 January 1926) was a British orientalist.
Ekhtiyariyeh (اختیاریه; also Romanized as Ekhtiyāriyeh or Extiyāriye(h)) is a neighborhood in the district of Shemiran in northern Tehran, Iran.
Elahieh (also spelt Elahiyeh; الهیه) is an affluent and upper-class district in northern Tehran.
The Embassy of the United Kingdom in Tehran is the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Esteghlal Football Club (Persian:باشگاه فوتبال استقلال, meaning independence) until 1979 known as Taj Football Club (Persian: تاج, meaning Crown) is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran that plays in the Persian Gulf Pro League.
A majority of the population of Iran (approximately 67–80%) consists of Iranic peoples.
FC Ararat (آرارات تهران) is an Armenian diaspora football team based in Tehran, Iran who play in the Tehran Province League.
The Fajr International Film Festival (جشنواره بینالمللی فیلم فجر) and Fajr Film Festival (little: FIFF; جشنواره فیلم فجر) are Iran's annual film festivals, held every February and April in Tehran, Iran.
Fajr International Theater Festival (est. 1983) occurs annually in Iran, featuring local and international theatrical works and performers.
Farah Pahlavi, née Diba (فرح پهلوی; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the exiled shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Fardis (Persian: فردیس) is a city in Alborz Province, Iran.
Farmanieh (also spelled Farmaniye) is a district located in Shemiran, Tehran, Iran centered on Farmanieh Street.
Farrukhzad (Farrūkhzādag; New Persian: فرخزاد), was an Iranian aristocrat from the House of Ispahbudhan and the founder of the Bavand dynasty, ruling from 651 to 665.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
The Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges (FEAS) is a non-profit international organization comprising the main stock exchanges in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.
Ferdows Garden (باغ فردوس) is a historical complex located in the district of Tajrish in Shemiran (northern Tehran), Iran.
Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
Fereydun (فریدون - Feraydūn or Farīdūn; Middle Persian: Frēdōn; Avestan: Θraētaona), also pronounced and spelled Freydun, Faridon and Afridun, is the name of an Iranian mythical king and hero from the kingdom of Varena.
The FIVB Volleyball World League was an annual international men's volleyball competition.
A footbridge (also called a pedestrian bridge, pedestrian overpass, or pedestrian overcrossing) is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists, animal traffic, and horse riders, instead of vehicular traffic.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Qeytarieh (also spelled Gheytarieh) is a district in north-eastern Tehran, located within the larger Shemiran district.
The Golestan Palace (کاخ گلستان, Kākh-e Golestān) is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.
The Grand Bazaar (بازار بزرگ) is an old historical bazaar in Tehran, Iran.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
Greater Tehran is the urban agglomeration around Tehran that covers central part of Tehran Province and eastern part of Alborz Province.
Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
A haboob (translit) is a type of intense dust storm carried on an atmospheric gravity current, also known as a weather front.
Hakim Expressway starts from the junction of Resalat Expressway and Kordestan Expressway after Resalat Tunnel and ends in Allame Jafari (Nour) Square.
Hasan Abad (script – حسن آباد), also spelled Hasanabad, is an old and historical area within the Monirie District of Tehran, Iran.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Hemmat Expressway is a route in Tehran, Iran.
Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 – 7 October 1978) was a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris, France.
Hossein Amanat (حسین امانت., born 1942) is an Iranian-Canadian architect.
The House of Mihrān or House of Mehrān was a leading Iranian noble family (šahrdārān), one of the Seven Great Houses of the Sassanid Persian Empire which claimed descent from the earlier Arsacid dynasty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Vishtaspa (fl. 550 BC), known under his Hellenized name Hystaspes (Ὑστάσπης), was a Persian satrap of Bactria and Persis.
Imam Hossein Square, or Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn, is a square in eastern central Tehran, Iran.
The Imam Khomeini metro station is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 1 and Line 2.
The International Film Festival for Children and Youth is an Iranian film festival targeting children and youth.
International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), founded by Mohsen Ghafory-Ashtiany, is an international earthquake engineering and seismology institute based in Iran.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran Club (کلوپ ایران) was an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran.
Iran Hyper Star is an Iranian subsidiary of French multinational retailer Carrefour in Iran.
The Iran International Exhibitions Company (IIEC) oversees and operates all international and specialized exhibitions held in Iran.
Iran Standard Time (IRST) or Iran Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran.
Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS)(Persian:دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران) is one of the largest medical universities in Iran.
The Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iranian Americans or Persian Americans are U.S. citizens who are of Iranian ancestry or who hold Iranian citizenship.
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայեր iranahayer) also known as Persian-Armenians (պարսկահայեր parskahayer), are Iranians of Armenian ethnicity who may speak Armenian as their first language.
Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.
Iranian Canadians or Persian Canadians are citizens of Canada whose national background is traced from Iran or people possessing Iranian and Canadian dual citizenship.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The Imperial crown jewels of Iran (جواهرات ملی ایران, Jawāhrāt-e millī-ye Irān) include elaborate crowns, thirty tiaras, and numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejeweled swords and shields, a number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems, and several other more unusual items (such as a large golden globe with the oceans made of emeralds) collected by the Iranian monarchy from the 16th century (Safavid dynasty) on.
Iranians abroad or Iranian diaspora are Iranian people living outside Iran and their children born abroad.
Iranian Georgians (ირანის ქართველები; گرجیهای ایران) are Iranian citizens who are ethnically Georgian, and are an ethnic group living in Iran.
The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.
Iranian mythology or Iranic mythology may involve in the mythology of Iranian peoples, a branch of Indo-Europeans.
The Iranian National Ballet Company (سازمان باله ملی ایران) was Iran's only state ballet institution until the Islamic revolution of 1979 and also the most known and recognized of all dance companies in the Middle East.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iranians in France comprise immigrants from Iran to France, and their French-born descendants of Iranian national background.
Iranians in Germany include immigrants from Iran to Germany as well as their descendants of Iranian heritage or background.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Azad University (IAU; دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی, Dāneshgāh-e Āzād-e Eslāmi) is a non-governmental private university system in Iran.
The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran in a mayor–council government system, and budgets of the Municipality of Tehran.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Jamshidieh Park (or Jamshidieh Stone Garden), is a park located in the neighbourhood of Niavaran at the base of Kolakchal mountain.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kamranieh (also spelled Kamraniyeh) is an upper class neighbourhood located in the north of the city of Tehran in Iran in the area called Shemiran.
Karaj County (شهرستان کرج) is a county in Alborz Province in Iran.
Karaj Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 5.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A kebab shop is a quick service food establishment specialising in various fast food and street food dishes, primarily Döner kebab and related sandwiches.
Keyumars (کیومرث) is the Persian form of the name Gayō Marətan (appearing in medieval Zoroastrian texts as Gayōmard or Gayōmart), the Avestan name of the mythological first human being in the world.
Kharazmi University (in Persian: دانشگاه خوارزمی, formerly known as Tarbiat Moallem University, in Persian: دانشگاه تربیت معلم) is a major institution of higher education, offering a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in a variety of disciplines.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
Kurdistan Expressway (Highway) is a North-South Expressway in Tehran, Iran.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Havana Province (Provincia de la Habana) was one of the provinces of Cuba, prior to being divided into two new provinces of Artemisa and Mayabeque on January 1, 2011.
This is a list of metropolitan areas in Middle East, with their population according to different sources.
Iranian football's 2nd division (ليگ دسته دوم ایران) is the third-highest football division overall in the Iranian football league system.
Iranian football's 3rd division (ليگ دسته سوم ایران) is the fourth-highest football division overall in the Iranian football league system.
Leila Araghian (لیلا عراقیان; born in 1983), is an Iranian architect.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
In public transit, a limited-stop bus, tram, or train service is a service that stops less frequently than local service.
The list of Expressways in Tehran as of the middle of 2013.
Iran has one of the highest urban population growth rates in the world.
The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.
This is a list of 40 metropolitan areas and urban areas in Asia with the largest population according to several sources.
This is a list of encyclopedias accessible on the Internet.
This is a list of ski areas and resorts in Iran.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The following is a list of notable sports stadiums, ordered by their capacity, which refers to the maximum number of spectators they can normally accommodate.
This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower: "a tall human structure, always taller than it is wide, meant for public or regular operational access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or free-standing, which means no guy-wires for support." The definition means the exclusion from this list of continuously habitable buildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts.
This is a list of universities in Iran.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Malek National Museum and Library is a museum and national library in Tehran, Iran.
Manūchehr (in, older Persian Manōčihr, Avestan Manuščiθra), is a character in the Shahnameh.
Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard since 2016) is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in the Mastercard International Global Headquarters in Purchase, New York, United States.
The Mazanderani people (مازرون; مردم مازندرانی) or Tabari people (تپورون; مردم تبری) are an Iranian peopleAcademic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294 whose homeland is the North of Iran (Tabaristan).
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Tehran Mehrabad International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی مهرآباد), is a joint airport and one of the two international airports serving Tehran, the largest city in Iran.
Mellat Park (پارک ملت), literally the Nation Park, is an urban park in northern Tehran, Iran.
Mercer is the world's largest human resources consulting firm.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mihran Bahram-i Chubin was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Mihran.
Milad Tower (برج میلاد), also known as the Tehran Tower (برج تهران), is a multi-purpose tower in Tehran, Iran.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Minsk Region or Minsk Voblasć or Minsk Oblast (Мі́нская во́бласць, Minskaja voblasć; Минская о́бласть, Minskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Belarus.
Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhafbashi was a pioneering Iranian photographer and cinematographer.
Modarres Expressway (بزرگراه مدرس), prior to 1979 Iranian Revolution known as the Shahanshahi Expressway (بزرگراه شاهنشاهی; Imperial Expressway) is an expressway in Tehran.
Moghavemat Tehran Football Club is an Iranian football club who are owned by the Basij and based in Tehran, Iran.
Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway is a short expressway in Tehran that connects Second Sadeghiye Square to Azadi Square.
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad-Vali Khan, Khalatbari Tonekāboni (محمدولیخان تنکابنی), (1846 in Tonekabon, Iran – 18 September 1926 in Tehran, Iran), known as Sepahdar A'zam was the leader of the constitutionalist revolutionary forces from Iran's Northern provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran and known as one of the greatest statesmen and military commanders of Persian history as well as its wealthiest nobleman.
Mohammad-Ali Afshani (سید محمدعلی افشانی; born 1960, Dehdasht, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province) is an Iranian politician who is the current mayor of Tehran.
Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani (محسن هاشمی رفسنجانی, born 24 October 1961 in Qom) is an Iranian politician, academic and engineer who currently serves as member and chairman of City Council of Tehran.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mount Damavand (دماوند), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state defined in opposition to international law.
The Museum of the Qasr Prison (موزه زندان قصر muze-ye zendān-e qasr) is a historical complex in Tehran, Iran.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Naft Novin Tehran Football Club (باشگاه فوتبال نفت نوین تهران) is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran.
Abū Bakr 'Abdollāh b. Moḥammad b. Šahāvar b. Anūšervān al-Rāzī (نجمالدین رازی) commonly known by the laqab, or sobriquet, of Najm al-Dīn Dāya, meaning "wetnurse" (573 AH/1177 - 654 AH/1256) was a 13th-century Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia.
The National Garden (باغ ملی) is a historical and governmental compound in Tehran, Iran.
The National Museum of Iran (موزهٔ ملی ایران) is located in Tehran, Iran.
Nelson Mandela Boulevard (بلوار نلسون ماندلا) (old name: Jordan Street and Africa Boulevard) still known as Jordan is an affluent and upper-class district in northern Tehran, where a lot of people consider Jordan District as being very similar to Kensington District in London, UK as the area is a residential and commercial locale and is filled with the homes and businesses of many politicians, diplomats, expatriates, and artists.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Niavaran Palace Complex (مجموعه کاخ نیاوران – Majmue ye Niāvarān) is a historical complex situated in Shemiran (northern Tehran), Iran.
Niroye Zamini Football Club (نیروی زمینی) is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Oghab Tehran Football Club is an Iranian football team based in Tehran, Iran.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) is a governing body of sports in Asia, currently with 45 member National Olympic Committee.
Oudlajan (عودلاجان) is a historic neighborhood in Tehran, Iran.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Pars Oil Company is an oil refining company with headquarters in Tehran.
Parseh Tehran Football Club (former named Damash Tehran / Karaj) was an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Pasdaran (Persian: پاسداران) is a neighborhood of northern Tehran centered on Pasdaran Avenue.
Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.
Paykan Football Club (باشگاه فوتبال پيکان) is a football team based in Tehran, Iran.
Persepolis Football Club (باشگاه فوتبال پرسپولیس), is a Persian Gulf Pro League professional football club based in Tehran, Iran.
The Persia Constitution of 1906 (قانون اساسی مشروطه 1906), was the first constitution of Persia (Iran) that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Hassan Pirnia, Hossein Pirnia, and Ismail Mumtaz, among others.
The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade (Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).
The Persian Gulf Pro League (لیگ برتر خلیج فارس), formerly known as the Iran Pro League (لیگ برتر فوتبال ایران), is the highest division of professional football in Iran.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
A primate city (Latin: "prime, first rank") is the largest city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.
A protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), in a religious context initially referred to the first human or, more generally, to the first organized body of progenitors of mankind in a creation story (as in Adam and Eve), or of surviving humanity after a cataclysm (as in Deucalion or Noah).
Iran is subdivided into thirty-one provinces (استان Ostān, plural استانها Ostānhā), each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: مرکز, markaz) of that province.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Rah Ahan Yazdan Sports Club (باشگاه ورزشی راهآهن یزدان), commonly known as Rah Ahan Tehran Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rashkan Castle was a castle in Tehran Province in northern Iran.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Resalat Expressway is an east-west expressway in Tehran, Iran.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Ray County (شهرستان ری) is a county in Tehran Province in Iran.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Roshd International Film Festival is a film festival in Iran.
The Roudaki Hall (تالار رودکی – Tālār e Rudaki), officially the Vahdat Hall (تالار وحدت – Tālār e Vahdat), is a performing arts complex in Tehran, Iran.
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudaki Abū 'Abd Allāh Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Rūdhakī (ابو عبدالله جعفر بن محمد رودکی; died 941), better known as Rudaki رودکی), and also known as "Adam of Poets" (آدم الشعرا), was a Persian poet regarded as the first great literary genius of the Modern Persian language. Rudaki composed poems in the "New Persian" alphabet and is considered a founder of classical Persian literature. His poetry contains many of the oldest genres of Persian poetry including the quatrain, however, only a small percentage of his extensive poetry has survived.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
Ruy González de Clavijo (died 2 April 1412) was a Castilian traveller and writer.
The Sa'dabad Complex (مجموعه سعدآباد – Majmue ye Sa’dābād) is a 300 hectare complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchs, located in Shemiran, Greater Tehran, Iran.
The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Safir Office Machines Museum is a private museum located in Tehran, Iran.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sanati Kaveh Tehran F.C. (کاوه تهران) was an Iranian football, club was based in Tehran, Iran.
A sandwich bar is a restaurant or take-away food shop that primarily sells sandwiches.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The Sarajevo Canton, officially the Canton of Sarajevo (Kanton Sarajevo, Sarajevska županija, Сарајевски кантон) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sasanian architecture refers to the Persian architectural style that reached a peak in its development during the Sasanian era.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
The Seoul Capital Area (SCA), Sudogwon or Gyeonggi region is the metropolitan area of Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do located in north-west South Korea.
The Shah Mosque (مسجد شاه), also known as the Soltāni Mosque (مسجد سلطانی) meaning "royal", renamed the Imam Mosque (مسجد امام), after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, is a principal, ASHARQ AL-AWSAT mosque in the northern section of the Grand Bazaar in Tehran, Iran.
Shahed University (Persian: دانشگاه شاهد) was founded in 1990.
Shahid Beheshti University is one of the most prestigious universities in Iran.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Shahrak-e Gharb or Qarb Town (شهرک غرب – Šahrak e Qarb, "West Town"), also known as Qods Town (شهرک قدس – Šahrak e Qods, "Hallow Town"), is a planned town built as a massive project of modern apartment buildings and villas in the north-western part of Tehran, Iran.
Sharif University of Technology (SUT, دانشگاه صنعتی شریف) is a public research university in Tehran, Iran and is widely considered to be the nation's leading institution for engineering and physical science disciplines.
Shemirān (شمیران,, also Romanized as Shemīrān or Šemirân), also known as Shemirānāt (شمیرانات) is the capital of Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, but is actually located just north of the borders of Tehran County along Chamran Expressway and Sadr Expressway and it is the northernmost district of the city of Tehran.
Shemiranat County (شهرستان شمیرانات) is a county in Tehran Province in Iran.
Shemshak is a ski resort situated to the north-east of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sir Thomas Herbert, 1st Baronet (1606–1682), was an English traveller, historian and a gentleman of the bedchamber of King Charles I while Charles I was in the custody of Parliament (from 1647 until the King's execution in January 1649).
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Siyavakhsh (also spelled Siyavash) was an Iranian aristocrat from the House of Mihran who was descended from Bahrām Chōbin, the famous spahbed of the Sasanian Empire and briefly its emperor.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Swedish Iranians consist of people of Iranian nationality who have settled in Sweden, as well as Swedish residents and citizens of Iranian heritage.
The Tabi'at Bridge (پل طبیعت Pol-e Tabi'at which literally means Nature Bridge) is the largest pedestrian overpass built in Tehran, Iran.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajrish (تجريش,, also Romanized as Tajrīš) is a former village in Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, which has since been absorbed into Tehran.
Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
Tarbiat Modares University (دانشگاه تربیت مدرس Dāneshgāh-e Tarbiyat Modares, lit. "Professor Training University") is an exclusively graduate university with its main campus in Tehran, Iran.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tehran Bus Rapid Transit was officially inaugurated in 2008 in order to facilitate the motor traffic in Tehran.
Tehran City Council (anjoman-e šahr-e teḥrān) was the directly-elected city council of Tehran and the first such institution to convene in Iran, serving as a model for other city councils in the country.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
Tehran County (شهرستان تهران) is a county in Tehran Province in Iran.
Tehran Derby (Persian: شهرآورد تهران Shahrāvard-e Tehrān), also known as Red-Blue Derby (Persian:شهرآورد سرخابی Shahrāvard-e Sorkhābi) is a football match between the two prominent Tehran clubs Esteghlal Tehran and Persepolis Tehran of Iran.
Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport (فرودگاه بینالمللی امام خمینی), is the primary international airport of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, located 30 kilometers southwest of Tehran, near the localities of Robat Karim and Eslamshahr and spread over an area of 13,500 hectares of land.
Tehran International Book Fair (نمایشگاه بینالمللی کتاب تهران) is an annual international book fair held in Tehran, Iran.
Tehran International Puppet Theatre Festival (est.1989) or Mobarak International Puppet Theater Festival occurs in Tehran, Iran, about every two years.
Tehran International Tower (برج بینالمللی تهران) is a 56-story building in Tehran, Iran.
The Tehran Metro (متروی تهران, Metro-ye Tehrān) is a rapid transit system serving Tehran, the capital of Iran.
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, (Persian: موزه هنرهای معاصر تهران), also known as TMoCA, is among the largest art museums in Iran.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Tehran Provincial League, formerly known as Tehran Clubs Championship is the premier football league of Tehran Province and is 5th in the Iranian football pyramid after the 3rd Division.
Tehran railway station (ايستگاه راه آهن تهران, Istgah-e Rah Ahan-e Tehran) is located in Rahahan Square, at the foot of Valiasr Street in the southern part of Tehran, the capital of Iran.
The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967.
The Tehran Symphony Orchestra (TSO, ارکستر سمفونیک تهران), founded in 1933, is Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra.
Tehran University of Art (دانشگاه هنر تهران) is the biggest art university in Iran.
Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران) is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly-ranked medical university of Iran.
The Tehran Zoological Garden, also known as Eram Zoo, is located 4 kilometer on the Tehran - Karaj Expressway in the Eram amusement Park.
Tehrani accent (لهجهٔ تهرانی) is a dialect of modern Persian language spoken in Tehran Province, and the most common colloquial variant of the modern Persian language.
Tekyeh Dowlat (تکیه دولت) was a Royal Theater in Tehran, Iran.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
A theatre, theater or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tochal (توچال) is a mountain and ski resort located on the Alborz mountain range, adjacent to the metropolitan area of Tehran in northern Iran.
Tochal Complex consists of many recreational and sports facilities located in Velenjak, north of Tehran.
ToopKhāneh (توپخانه; which literally means "Artillery Barracks"), also spelt as Tūpkhāneh, is a major town square (Maidan-e Toopkhaneh) and a neighborhood in the south of the central district of the city of Tehran, Iran.
Tourism in Iran is diverse, providing a range of activities from hiking and skiing in the Alborz and Zagros mountains, to beach holidays by the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, but the main reason that tourist visit Iran is because of Iran Cultural and Iran History and places such as Persepolis, Naghsh-e Rosta, Naghshe Jahan and other places in Iran also we have near 22 World Cultural Heritage.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Tehran trolleybus system (Persian:سامانهٔ اتوبوس برقی تهران) serves Tehran, the capital city of Iran.
Tuğrul Tower (also transliterated Toghrul, Tughrol, or Tughrul) is a 12th-century monument, located in the city of Rey, Iran.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Valiasr Street (خیابان ولیعصر.) is a tree-lined street in Tehran, Iran, dividing the metropolis into western and eastern parts built in 1922 to 1927, considering the end of asphalt plan it ended in 1933.
Velenjak (ولنجک) is an affluent neighbourhood, northwest of Tehran, in Iran.
The Vendidad or Videvdat is a collection of texts within the greater compendium of the Avesta.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum retrieved 25 February 2012 (July 18, 1903 – February 14, 1980), was an Austrian-born architect best known as a pioneer in the design of shopping malls in the United States.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
West Asian Games (also known as WAG & formerly known as West Asian Games Federation (WAGF)) is a multi-sport event held every 4 years among the athletes from Western Asia.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.
The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
A winter storm is an event in which varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form (i.e. freezing rain).
The World Federation of Exchanges (WFE), formerly the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV), or International Federation of Stock Exchanges, is the trade association of 63 publicly regulated stock, futures, and options exchanges.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Yusef Abad (also transliterated as Yousef Abad,Yusuf Abad,Yusof Abad, Yousuf Abad, Persian: یوسف آباد, Hebrew: יוסף אבאד) is an old neighborhood of Tehran, consisting of an area developed through nearly parallel streets including; Sayed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi (usually considered to be the main street of Yusef Abad area), Ibn-e-sina (Avicena or Poor Sina), Jahan Ara, Mahram (Modabber), and Akbari (Mostowfi).
The Yusef Abad Synagogue (کنیسه یوسف آباد Kanise e Yusef Ābād, בית הכנסת יוסף-אבד) is one of the largest synagogues in Tehran, Iran.
Zafaraniyeh (main street: Shahid Sarlashkar Fallahi) is an affluent neighbourhood in the north of Tehran, Iran.
Zahhāk or Zahāk (ضحّاک) is an evil figure in Persian mythology, evident in ancient Persian folklore as Aži Dahāka (اژی دهاک), the name by which he also appears in the texts of the Avesta.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1908 bombardment of the Majlis of Iran took place on 23 June 1908 in Tehran, during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, when the Persian Cossack forces, commanded by Vladimir Liakhov and the other Russian officers, bombarded and by that suppressed the Iranian parliament, the Majles.
The 1968 AFC Asian Cup was the 4th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
The 7th Asian Games (بازیهای آسیایی ۱۹۷۴) were held from September 1 to 16, 1974, in Tehran, Iran.
The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the 6th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire (جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران), officially known as The 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran (دوهزار و پانصدمین سال بنیانگذاری شاهنشاهی ایران), consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
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