251 relations: ABS-CBN, Admiralty, Affärsvärlden, Alexander Bain (inventor), Alexander Stepanovich Popov, Alfred Vail, All Red Line, Allstream Inc., Alphabet, AOL, ARPANET, Arthur Korn, Atlantic Telegraph Company, Australia Post, Australian Railway History, Édouard Belin, Émile Baudot, B&O Railroad Museum, Baltimore–Washington telegraph line, Batelco, Baud, Baudot code, Beacon, Bell MTS, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Bill Clinton, Binary number, Bristol, British Empire, BT Group, Calais, Camden Town, Canada, Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway, Cardiff, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Casa del Telegrafista, Central Telegraph, Charles Vincent Walker, Charles Wheatstone, Circuit switching, Claude Chappe, CNCP Telecommunications, Cologne, Compatible Time-Sharing System, CompuServe, Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Continuous wave, Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, ..., Correo Argentino, Dark fibre, DARPA, Darwin, Northern Territory, David Edward Hughes, De Telegraaf, Deutsche Post, Deutz, Cologne, Diplomatic cable, Diplomatic mission, Disaster, Donald Murray (inventor), Dover, DPD Group, E-carrier, East Coast of the United States, Edinburgh, Edward Davy, Eir (telecommunications), Electric Telegraph Company, Electrical telegraph, Electricity, Electromagnetic radiation, Email, England, English Channel, Europe, Euston railway station, Familygram, Fax, First transcontinental telegraph, Flag semaphore, Flat Holm, Foreign minister, France, Francis Ronalds, Francisco Salva Campillo, Frederick Bakewell, French Revolution, Frequency-division multiplexing, Galvanometer, Göttingen, Göttingen Observatory, General Post Office, GEnie, Gentex (standard), Germans, Giovanni Caselli, Globotype, Great Western Railway, Greek language, Guglielmo Marconi, Gutta-percha, Half Moon Bay, California, Heinrich Hertz, Heliograph, Hellschreiber, Instant messaging, Institution of Engineering and Technology, International Telecommunication Union, Internet, Ionosphere, Ireland, Israel Postal Company, Italy, ITelegram, ITU-T, James Anderson (sea captain), James Clerk Maxwell, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, John Lewis Ricardo, John Watkins Brett, Journalism, KDDI, Kelmscott House, Kevin Warwick, Killer application, KPN, Lavernock, Lille, London, London Paddington station, Louis Philippe I, Low Countries, Lyon, Magyar Posta, Mainframe computer, Mark Gasson, Media (communication), Michael Faraday, Modem, Morristown, New Jersey, Morse code, Multics, Napoleon III, Natural-language user interface, Nepal Telecom, New Zealand Post, Nikola Tesla, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Oliver Lodge, On-off keying, Optical Carrier transmission rates, Optical fiber, Orange S.A., Packet switching, Palaquium gutta, Pantelegraph, Paris, Pavel Schilling, Penarth, Persian language, Petabit, Peter Kyberd, Pigeon post, Pith, Pošta Srbije, Poczta Polska, Polymath, Pony Express, Post of Slovenia, Poste italiane, President of France, Printing telegraph, Prosigns for Morse code, Proximus Group, Prussian semaphore system, Ptcl, Public switched telephone network, Puerto Rico, Pulse dialing, Queen Victoria, Radio, Regent's Park, Rhine, Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Richard R. John, RMS Titanic, Robert Hooke, Robert Stephenson, Rostelecom, Royal Society, Rudolf Hell, Saint Petersburg, Salisbury Plain, Samuel Morse, Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, Scotland, Semaphore line, Shelford Bidwell, Smoke signal, SMS, South Eastern Railway, UK, Spaniards, Spark-gap transmitter, Speedwell Ironworks, SS Great Eastern, SS Jeremiah O'Brien, Submarine communications cable, Surgery, Synchronous optical networking, T-carrier, Telecommunication, Telecommunication Infrastructure Company, Telegram messenger, Telegram style, Telegraphy, Telekom Malaysia, Telephone exchange, Teleprinter, Telex, Telia Company, Telmex, Teo LT, Text messaging, Thailand Post, The AWA Review, The Daily Telegraph, The New York Times, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Victorian Internet, The WELL, Tom Standage, Transmission (telecommunications), Transmission line, United States, United States Capitol, University of Reading, UUNET, Wales, Wavelength-division multiplexing, West Drayton, Western Union, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, William Fothergill Cooke, William Henry Preece, Wireless, Wireless telegraphy, Women in telegraphy, World War I, World Wide Web. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
ABS-CBN Corporation, commonly known as ABS-CBN, is a Filipino media and entertainment group based in Quezon City. It is the Philippines' largest entertainment and media conglomerate in terms of revenue, operating income, net income, assets, equity, market capitalization, and number of employees. ABS-CBN was formed by the merger of Alto Broadcasting System and Chronicle Broadcasting Network. ABS was founded in 1946 by American electronics engineer James Lindenberg as Bolinao Electronics Corporation (BEC). In 1952, BEC was renamed Alto Broadcasting System (ABS), after Judge Antonio Quirino, brother of President Elpidio Quirino, purchased the company. The company that would later be merged with ABS was founded in 1956 as Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN) by newspaper mogul Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and his brother Fernando Lopez (then Vice President of the Philippines). The two companies were merged and incorporated as ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on 1 February 1967, and renamed ABS-CBN Corporation in 2010 to reflect the company's diversification. The common shares of ABS-CBN were first traded on the Philippine Stock Exchange in July 1992 under the ticker symbol ABS. The group owns and operates the ABS-CBN and ABS-CBN Sports+Action national television networks as well as the Radyo Patrol and My Only Radio regional radio networks. The ABS-CBN television network, in particular, is the largest contributor to the group's revenue, generating about 50 to 60 percent of the group's total annual revenue mainly from selling airtime to advertisers. The remaining revenue is generated from consumer sales, mainly from ABS-CBN Global Ltd. which distributes international television channels such as The Filipino Channel and Myx TV and from pay TV and broadband internet provider Sky. Other companies under the ABS-CBN group are motion picture company Star Cinema, music recording label Star Music, publishing firm ABS-CBN Publishing, pay TV content provider and distributor Creative Programs, and talent agency Star Magic. Among the pay TV networks and channels under the ABS-CBN group are ABS-CBN HD, ABS-CBN News Channel, ABS-CBN Sports+Action HD, Cinema One, Jeepney TV, Metro Channel, Liga, and Myx. In recent years, ABS-CBN has ventured and diversified in other businesses such as cellular telephony provider ABS-CBN Mobile, video on demand platform I Want TV, digital terrestrial television service ABS-CBN TV Plus, family entertainment center Kidzania Manila, and home shopping network O Shopping. ABS-CBN is also the principal owner of ABS-CBN Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Affärsvärlden (Swedish for "Business world") is a Swedish language weekly business magazine published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Alexander Bain (12 October 1811 – 2 January 1877) was a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov (sometimes spelled Popoff; Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в; –) was a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio.
Alfred Lewis Vail (September 25, 1807 – January 18, 1859) was an American machinist and inventor.
The All Red Line was an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked much of the British Empire.
Allstream is a business communications provider based in Toronto, Ontario that provides IP connectivity, managed IP services, unified communications and voice services through its 30,000 km national fiber network.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Arthur Korn (May 20, 1870, Breslau, Germany – December 21/December 22, 1945, Jersey City, New Jersey) was a German physicist, mathematician and inventor.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company was a company formed on 6 November 1856 to undertake and exploit a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic ocean, the first such telecommunications link.
The Australian Postal Corporation (formerly Commission), operating as Australia Post, is the government-owned corporation that provides postal services in Australia.
Australian Railway History is a monthly magazine covering railway history in Australia published by the New South Wales Division of the Australian Railway Historical Society on behalf of its seven state and territory Divisions.
Édouard Belin (Vesoul, Haute-Saône, France, 5 March 1876 – 4 March 1963 in Territet, Canton of Vaud, Switzerland) was a French photographer and inventor, best known for inventing the Bélinographe.
Jean-Maurice-Émile Baudot (11 September 1845 – 28 March 1903), French telegraph engineer and inventor of the first means of digital communication Baudot code, was one of the pioneers of telecommunications.
The B&O Railroad Museum is a museum exhibiting historic railroad equipment in Baltimore, Maryland, originally named the Baltimore & Ohio Transportation Museum when it opened on July 4, 1953.
The Baltimore–Washington telegraph line was the first long-distance telegraph system set up to run overland in the United States.
In telecommunication and electronics, baud (symbol: Bd) is a common measure of the speed of communication over a data channel.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.
Bell MTS Inc. (formerly Manitoba Telecom Services) is a subsidiary of BCE Inc. that operates telecommunications services in the Canadian province of Manitoba.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Camden Town, often shortened to Camden (a term also used for the entire borough), is a district of north west London, England, located north of Charing Cross (walking distance).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian National Railway Company (Compagnie des chemins de fer nationaux du Canada) is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), also known formerly as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.
Not to be confused with the hotel of the same name in La Higuera, Bolivia Casa del Telegrafista (house of the telegrapher) is a museum in Aracataca.
OPJS Central Telegraph (Центральный телеграф) is a Russian telecommunications company which provides different services such as fixed line telephony and internet access, IPTV, rental of communication channels, electrical documentation, integrated business solutions such as IP PBX and video surveillance.
Charles Vincent Walker FRS (20 March 1812 – 24 December 1882) was an English electrical engineer and publisher, a major influence on the development of railway telecommunications, he was also the first person to send a submarine telegraph signal.
Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique).
Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France.
CNCP Telecommunications (Canadian National-Canadian Pacific Telecommunications) was an electrical telegraph operator and later as a telecom company.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.
Condé-sur-l'Escaut is a commune of the Nord department in northern France.
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.
The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph was an early electrical telegraph system dating from the 1830s invented by English inventor William Fothergill Cooke and English scientist Charles Wheatstone.
Correo Oficial de la República Argentina Sociedad Anónima, mostly known as "Correo Argentino" (since it was privatized in 1997) is the state-owned company that covers the postal service in Argentina.
A dark fibre or unlit fibre is an unused optical fibre, available for use in fibre-optic communication.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.
David Edward Hughes (16 May 1831 – 22 January 1900), was a British-American inventor, practical experimenter, and professor of music known for his work on the printing telegraph and the microphone.
De Telegraaf (The Telegraph) is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper.
The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest.
Cologne-Deutz, often just Deutz is an inner city part of Cologne, Germany and a formerly independent town.
A diplomatic cable, also known as a diplomatic telegram or embassy cable, is a confidential text message exchanged between a diplomatic mission, like an embassy or a consulate, and the foreign ministry of its parent country.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Donald Murray (1865–1945) was an electrical engineer and the inventor of a telegraphic typewriter system using an extended Baudot code that was a direct ancestor of the teleprinter (teletype machine).
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
DPDgroup is an international parcel delivery for parcels weighing less than 30 kg.
The E-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed for digital transmission of many simultaneous telephone calls by time-division multiplexing.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward Davy (16 June 1806 – 26 January 1885) was an English physician, scientist, and inventor who played a prominent role in the development of telegraphy, and invented an electric relay.
Eir Group plc., trading as Eir, is a fixed, mobile and broadband telecommunications company in Ireland, and a former state-owned monopoly, which is currently incorporated in Jersey.
The Electric Telegraph Company was the world's first public telegraph company, founded in the United Kingdom in 1846 by Sir William Fothergill Cooke and John Lewis Ricardo, MP for Stoke-on-Trent.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Euston railway station (also known as London Euston) is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden, managed by Network Rail.
A familygram is a personal message sent by their families to sailors of the United States Navy or the Royal Navy serving in submarines.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
The first transcontinental telegraph (completed October 24, 1861) was a line that connected the existing network in the eastern United States to a small network in California, by means of a link between Omaha, Nebraska and Carson City, Nevada, via Salt Lake City.
Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.
Flat Holm (Ynys Echni) is a limestone island lying in the Bristol Channel approximately from Lavernock Point in the Vale of Glamorgan.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Sir Francis Ronalds FRS (21 February 1788 – 8 August 1873) was an English scientist and inventor, and arguably the first electrical engineer.
Francisco Salva Campillo (Catalan: Francesc Salvà i Campillo, July 12, 1751 – February 13, 1828) was a Spanish Catalan prominent late-Enlightenment period scientist known for working as a physician, physicist, meteorologist.
Frederick Collier Bakewell (29 September 1800 – 26 September 1869) was an English physicist who improved on the concept of the facsimile machine introduced by Alexander Bain in 1842 and demonstrated a working laboratory version at the 1851 World's Fair in London.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.
A galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating electric current.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Göttingen Observatory (Universitätssternwarte Göttingen (Göttingen University Observatory) or königliche Sternwarte Göttingen (Royal Observatory Göttingen)) is a German astronomical observatory located in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.
The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.
GEnie (General Electric Network for Information Exchange) was an online service created by a General Electric business, GEIS (now GXS), that ran from 1985 through the end of 1999.
Gentex is an international standard (ITU F.20) for the transmission of telegrams over the Telex network.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Father Giovanni Caselli (8 June 1815 – 25 April 1891) was an Italian physicist, inventor and priest.
The Globotype is a colour display for telecommunications.
The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, and most of Wales.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
Gutta-percha refers to trees of the genus Palaquium in the family Sapotaceae and the rigid natural latex produced from the sap of these trees, particularly from Palaquium gutta.
Half Moon Bay is a coastal city in San Mateo County, California, United States.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
A heliograph (helios, meaning "sun", and graphein, meaning "write") is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror.
The Hellschreiber, Feldhellschreiber or Typenbildfeldfernschreiber (also Hell-Schreiber named after its inventor Rudolf Hell) is a facsimile-based teleprinter invented by Rudolf Hell.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Israel Postal Company (Do'ar Yisra'el), known as Israel Post, and formerly the Israel Postal Authority, is a government-owned corporation that handles postal services in Israel.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
International Telegram or iTelegram provides telegram, mailgram and telex service.
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
Sir James Anderson (1824–1893) captained SS ''Great Eastern'' on the laying of the Transatlantic telegraph cable in 1865 and 1866.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world, with about 70 syndication clients listed on its web site.
John Lewis Ricardo (1812 – 2 August 1862) was a British businessman and politician.
John Watkins Brett (1805–1863) was an English telegraph engineer.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
() is a Japanese telecommunications operator formed in October 1, 2000 through the merger of DDI Corp.
Kelmscott House is a Georgian brick mansion at 26 Upper Mall in Hammersmith, overlooking the River Thames.
Kevin Warwick FIET, FCGI, (born 9 February 1954) is a British engineer and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University in the United Kingdom.
In marketing terminology, a killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is any computer program that is so necessary or desirable that it proves the core value of some larger technology, such as computer hardware, a gaming console, software, a programming language, a software platform, or an operating system.
KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V., also Royal KPN N.V.) is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company.
Lavernock (Larnog) is a hamlet in the Vale of Glamorgan in Wales, lying on the coast south of Cardiff between Penarth and Sully, and overlooking the Bristol Channel.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Paddington, also known as London Paddington, is a Central London railway terminus and London Underground station complex, located on Praed Street in the Paddington area.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Magyar Posta Zrt. (Hungarian for "Hungarian Post JSC") or Hungary Post is the postal administration of Hungary.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Mark N. Gasson is a British scientist and visiting research fellow at the Cybernetics Research Group, University of Reading, UK.
Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
Morristown is a town and county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Natural-language user interfaces (LUI or NLUI) are a type of computer human interface where linguistic phenomena such as verbs, phrases and clauses act as UI controls for creating, selecting and modifying data in software applications.
Nepal Doorsanchar Company Ltd. (नेपाल दूरसञ्चार कम्पनी लिमिटेड), popularly known as Nepal Telecom (नेपाल टेलिकम) is state owned telecommunication service provider in Nepal with 91.49% of the government share.
New Zealand Post is a state-owned enterprise responsible for providing postal service in New Zealand.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
, commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder of key patents for, radio.
On-off keying (OOK) denotes the simplest form of amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation that represents digital data at the presence or absence of a carrier wave.
Optical Carrier transmission rates are a standardized set of specifications of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) fiber optic networks.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Palaquium gutta is a tree in the Sapotaceae family.
The pantelegraph (Italian: pantelegrafo; French: pantélégraphe) was an early form of facsimile machine transmitting over normal telegraph lines developed by Giovanni Caselli, used commercially in the 1860s, that was the first such device to enter practical service, It could transmit handwriting, signatures, or drawings within an area of up to 150 × 100 mm.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Baron Pavel L'vovitch Schilling, also known as Paul Schilling (5 April 1786, Reval (now, Tallinn), Russian empire – St. Petersburg, Russia, 25 July 1837), was a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.
Penarth is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg), Wales, approximately southwest of Cardiff city centre on the north shore of the Severn Estuary at the southern end of Cardiff Bay.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The petabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
Peter Kyberd is the Head of Department and Professor of Rehabilitation Cybernetics at The Department of Engineering Science at The University of Greenwich, England.
Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeons to carry messages.
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants.
Pošta Srbije (ЈП Пошта Србије Београд) is the national postal service of Serbia, with the headquarters in Belgrade.
Poczta Polska (Polish Post) is the state postal administration of Poland.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, and mail.
The Post of Slovenia (Pošta Slovenije; PS) is a state-owned company responsible for postal service in Slovenia.
Poste Italiane S.p.A. is an Italian postal services provider.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The printing telegraph was invented by Royal Earl House in 1846.
Procedure signs or prosigns are shorthand signals used in radio telegraphy procedures, for the purpose of simplifying and standardizing communications related to radio operating issues among two or more radio operators.
The Proximus Group (previously known as Belgacom Group) is the largest telecommunications company in Belgium, headquartered in Brussels.
The Prussian Semaphore System was a telegraphic communications system used between Berlin and the Rhine Province from 1832 to 1849.
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (پاکستان مخابرات), commonly known as ptcl, is the national telecommunication company in Pakistan.
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Richard Lovell Edgeworth (31 May 1744 – 13 June 1817) was an Anglo-Irish politician, writer and inventor.
Richard R. John, Jr. (born 1959) is an American historian who specializes in the history of business, technology, communications, and the state.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway and civil engineer.
Rostelecom (ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Rudolf Hell (19 December 1901 – 11 March 2002) was a German inventor.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salisbury Plain is a chalk plateau in the south western part of central southern England covering.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring (28 January 1755 – 2 March 1830) was a German physician, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
Shelford Bidwell FRS (6 March 1848 – 18 December 1909) was an English physicist and inventor.
The smoke signal is one of the oldest forms of long-distance communication.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
The South Eastern Railway (SER) was a railway company in south-eastern England from 1836 until 1922.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
A spark-gap transmitter is a device that generates radio frequency electromagnetic waves using a spark gap.
Speedwell Ironworks was an ironworks in Speedwell Village, on Speedwell Avenue (part of U.S. Route 202), just north of downtown Morristown, in Morris County, New Jersey, United States.
SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and built by J. Scott Russell & Co.
is a Liberty ship built during World War II and named for American Revolutionary War ship captain Jeremiah O'Brien (1744–1818).
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
The T-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories for digital transmission of multiplexed telephone calls.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunication Infrastructure Company (TIC) is the sole provider of telecommunication infrastructure to all private and public operators in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In many English-speaking countries a telegram messenger, more often known as a telegram delivery boy, telegraph boy or telegram boy was a young male employed to deliver telegrams, usually on bicycle.
Telegram style, telegraph style, telegraphic style or telegraphese is a clipped way of writing that attempts to abbreviate words and pack as much information into the smallest possible number of words or characters.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Telekom Malaysia Berhad DBA (TM) is a Malaysian telecommunications company, with a history dating back to 1946.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
Telia Company AB is a Swedish dominant telephone company and mobile network operator present in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Baltic States.
Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City that provides telecommunications products and services in Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Brazil (Embratel), Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and other countries in Latin America.
Teo LT was the largest Lithuanian broadband Internet access and voice telephony services operator, providing integrated telecommunication, IT, and TV services to residents and business.
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
Thailand Post (THP) (ไปรษณีย์ไทย), formerly part of the Communications Authority of Thailand until 2003, is a state enterprise that provides postal services in Thailand.
The AWA Review or The Antique Wireless Association Review is a series of annual softcover books of original research articles on the history of radio.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century's On-Line Pioneers is a 1998 book by Tom Standage.
The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link, normally shortened to The WELL, is one of the oldest virtual communities in continuous operation.
Tom Standage (born 1969) is a journalist and author from England.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.
In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The University of Reading is a public university located in Reading, Berkshire, England.
UUNET, founded in 1987, was one of the largest Internet service providers and one of the early Tier 1 networks.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.
West Drayton is a suburban town in the London Borough of Hillingdon, England with a station on the Great Western main line from London Paddington.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
Wilhelm Eduard Weber (24 October 1804 – 23 June 1891) was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.
Sir William Fothergill Cooke (4 May 1806 – 25 June 1879) was an English inventor.
Sir William Henry Preece KCB FRS (15 February 1834 – 6 November 1913) was a Welsh electrical engineer and inventor.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.
Women in telegraphy have been evident since the 1840s.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
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