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Telephone exchange

Index Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. [1]

150 relations: Alcatel-Lucent, Almon Brown Strowger, Antwerp, Automatic number identification, AXE telephone exchange, Bell Labs, Bell System, Bell Telephone Company, Berlin, Bo Leuf, Boston, Brittany, BT Group, Business telephone system, Called party, Calling party, Charles Jasper Glidden, Class-4 telephone switch, Class-5 telephone switch, Common battery, Common carrier, Common cause and special cause (statistics), Common-channel signaling, Community dial office, Concentrator, Conceptual model, Cord circuit, Crossbar switch, Crossover switch, Dial tone, Digital loop carrier, Digital subscriber line, DMS-100, Dry cell, Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling, E and M signaling, Electronic switching system, Ericsson, ETSI, EWSD, Falsing, Faraday Building, Fault tolerance, Federal Standard 1037C, FIFO (computing and electronics), France, Frequency-division multiplexing, Genband, General Post Office, Global Positioning System, ..., Heinrich von Stephan, History of telecommunication, Hungary, Inside plant, Integrated Services Digital Network, International Bell Telephone Company, Internet Protocol, Invention of the telephone, ITT System 12, ITU-T, Kansas City, Missouri, Limited availability, List of telephone switches, Local loop, London, Long-distance calling, Lucent, Main distribution frame, Manchester, Marconi Company, Marker (telecommunications), Microwave transmission, Multi-frequency signaling, Multiplexer, NEC, Network topology, New Haven, Connecticut, No. 4 Electronic Switching System, Nokia Networks, Nonblocking minimal spanning switch, Nortel, Number One Electronic Switching System, Off-hook, Ogg, On-hook, Optical fiber, Outside plant, Pair gain, Panel call indicator, Panel switch, Party line (telephony), Phone connector (audio), Plesiochronous digital hierarchy, PRX (telephony), Public switched telephone network, Pulse dialing, Pulse-code modulation, Punched card, Quaternary numeral system, Reed relay, Relay, Remote concentrator, Reorder tone, Ringdown, Ringtone, Robert Bosch GmbH, Rotary dial, Rotary system, Session Initiation Protocol, Siemens, Signalling System No. 7, Single point of failure, Softswitch, SP-1 switch, Stack (abstract data type), Stepping switch, Stored program control, Strowger switch, Subscriber loop carrier, Subscription business model, Switchboard operator, Switched fabric, System X (telephony), T-carrier, Telecommunication, Telephone, Telephone call, Telephone company, Telephone exchange, Telephone exchange names, Telephone line, Telephone magneto, Telephone number, Telephone numbering plan, Telephone switchboard, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Times, Thomas Edison, Time-division multiplexing, Tivadar Puskás, Toll-free telephone number, Trunking, TXE, V5 interface, Voice over IP, Western Electric, Wire spring relay, Woodstock, Maine, 5ESS Switching System, 9-1-1. Expand index (100 more) »


Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

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Almon Brown Strowger

Almon Brown Strowger (February 11, 1839 – May 26, 1902) was an American inventor who gave his name to the Strowger switch, an electromechanical telephone exchange technology that his invention and patent inspired.

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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Automatic number identification

Automatic number identification (ANI) is a feature of a telecommunications network for automatically determining the origination telephone number on toll calls for billing purposes.

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AXE telephone exchange

The AXE telephone exchange is a product line of circuit switched digital telephone exchanges manufactured by Ericsson, a Swedish telecom company.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bell System

The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.

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Bell Telephone Company

The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company — the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bo Leuf

Bo Arne Leuf (July 9, 1952 – April 24, 2009) was the author of the book The Wiki Way (2001), written in collaboration with wiki inventor Ward Cunningham.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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BT Group

BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.

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Business telephone system

A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges.

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Called party

The called party (in some contexts called the "B-Number") is a person who (or device that) answers a telephone call.

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Calling party

The calling party (in some contexts called the "A-Number") is a person who (or device that) initiates a telephone call.

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Charles Jasper Glidden

Charles Jasper Glidden (August 29, 1857 – September 11, 1927) was an American telephone pioneer, financier and supporter of the automobile in the United States.

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Class-4 telephone switch

A class-4, or tandem, telephone switch is a U.S. telephone company central office telephone exchange used to interconnect local exchange carrier offices for long distance communications in the public switched telephone network.

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Class-5 telephone switch

A Class-5 telephone switch is a telephone switch or telephone exchange in the public switched telephone network located at the local telephone company's central office, directly serving subscribers.

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Common battery

In telecommunication, a common battery is a single electrical power source used to energize more than one circuit, electronic component, equipment, or system.

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Common carrier

A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public carrier" from "carriage of goods" usually called simply a carrier) is a person or company that transports goods or people for any person or company and that is responsible for any possible loss of the goods during transport.

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Common cause and special cause (statistics)

Common and special causes are the two distinct origins of variation in a process, as defined in the statistical thinking and methods of Walter A. Shewhart and W. Edwards Deming.

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Common-channel signaling

In telephony, common-channel signaling (CCS), in the US also common-channel interoffice signaling (CCIS), is the transmission of signaling information (control information) on a separate channel than the data, and, more specifically, where that signaling channel controls multiple data channels.

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Community dial office

A "Community Dial Office" (CDO) was a small Class 5 telephone exchange in a rural area.

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In the evolution of modern telecommunications systems there was a requirement to connect large numbers of low-speed access devices with large telephone company 'central office' switches over common paths.

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Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

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Cord circuit

In telecommunication, a cord circuit is a switchboard circuit in which a plug-terminated cord is used to establish connections manually between user lines or between trunks and user lines.

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Crossbar switch

In electronics, a crossbar switch (cross-point switch, matrix switch) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration.

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Crossover switch

In electronics, a crossover switch or matrix switch is a switch connecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs using complex array matrices designed to switch any one input path to any one (or more) output path(s).

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Dial tone

A dial tone is a telephony signal sent by a telephone exchange or private branch exchange (PBX) to a terminating device, such as a telephone, when an off-hook condition is detected.

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Digital loop carrier

A digital loop carrier (DLC) is a system which uses digital transmission to extend the range of the local loop farther than would be possible using only twisted pair copper wires.

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Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.

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The DMS-100 Switch Digital Multiplex System (DMS) was a line of telephone exchange switches manufactured by Northern Telecom.

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Dry cell

A dry cell is a type of battery, commonly used for portable electrical devices.

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Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is an in-band telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.

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E and M signaling

E and M signaling is a type of supervisory line signaling that uses DC signals on separate leads, called the "E" lead and "M" lead, traditionally used in the telecommunications industry between telephone switches.

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Electronic switching system

In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses digital electronics and computerized control to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

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Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.

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The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, headquartered in Sophia-Antipolis, France, with worldwide projection.

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EWSD (Elektronisches Wählsystem Digital in German, Electronic Digital Switching System/Electronic World Switch Digital in English) is one of the most widely installed telephone exchange systems in the world.

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In telecommunications, falsing is when a decoder assumes that it is detecting a valid input even though one is not present.

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Faraday Building

The Faraday Building was the GPO's first telephone exchange in London.

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Fault tolerance

Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.

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Federal Standard 1037C

Federal Standard 1037C, titled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms, is a United States Federal Standard issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended.

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FIFO (computing and electronics)

FIFO is an acronym for first in, first out, a method for organizing and manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of the queue, is processed first.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frequency-division multiplexing

In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.

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GENBAND US LLC was a privately held company that makes IP-based real time communications software products for fixed wireline, mobile, and cable service providers as well as large enterprises.

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General Post Office

The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Heinrich von Stephan

Heinrich von Stephan (Born Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm Stephan, January 7, 1831 – April 8, 1897) was a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service.

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History of telecommunication

The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, the Americas and parts of Asia.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Inside plant

In telecommunication, the term inside plant has the following meanings.

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Integrated Services Digital Network

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.

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International Bell Telephone Company

The International Bell Telephone Company (IBTC) of Brussels, Belgium was created in 1879 by the Bell Telephone Company of Boston, Massachusetts, a precursor entity to AT&T, initially to sell imported telephones and switchboards in Continental Europe.

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Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

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Invention of the telephone

The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, and involved an array of lawsuits founded upon the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies.

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ITT System 12

System 1240 (later System 12) was an ambitious new Digital Telephone Exchange developed in 1977 by ITT Corporation.

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The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.

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Kansas City, Missouri

Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.

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Limited availability

When customers of a public switched telephone network make telephone calls, they utilize a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network.

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List of telephone switches

This list of telephone switches is a compilation of telephone switches used in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or in large enterprises.

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Local loop

In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long-distance calling

In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.

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Lucent Technologies, Inc., was an American multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the United States.

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Main distribution frame

In telephony, a main distribution frame (MDF or main frame) is a signal distribution frame for connecting equipment (inside plant) to cables and subscriber carrier equipment (outside plant).

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Marconi Company

The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.

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Marker (telecommunications)

A marker is a type of special purpose control system that was used in electromechanical telephone central office switches.

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Microwave transmission

Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.

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Multi-frequency signaling

In telephony, multi-frequency signaling (MF) is a signaling system that was introduced by the Bell System after World War II.

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In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.

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is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Network topology

Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.

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New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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No. 4 Electronic Switching System

The No.

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Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

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Nonblocking minimal spanning switch

A nonblocking minimal spanning switch is a device that can connect N inputs to N outputs in any combination.

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Nortel Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited, Northern Electric and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

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Number One Electronic Switching System

The Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) was the first large-scale stored program control (SPC) telephone exchange or electronic switching system in the Bell System.

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In telephony, the term off-hook has the following meanings.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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In telephony, the term on-hook has the following meanings.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Outside plant

In telecommunication, the term outside plant has the following meanings.

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Pair gain

In telephony, pair gain is the transmitting of multiple POTS signals over the twisted pairs traditionally used for a single traditional subscriber line in telephone systems.

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Panel call indicator

Panel Call Indicator, or PCI, is a form of signalling used between two telephone offices.

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Panel switch

The Panel Machine Switching System is an early type of automatic telephone exchange for urban service, introduced in the Bell System in the 1920s.

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Party line (telephony)

A party line (multiparty line, shared service line, party wire) is a local loop telephone circuit that is shared by multiple telephone service subscribers.

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Phone connector (audio)

A phone connector, also known as phone jack, audio jack, headphone jack or jack plug, is a family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals.

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Plesiochronous digital hierarchy

The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems.

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PRX (telephony)

The PRX205 (PRX/A) is a processor controlled reed relay telephone exchange developed by Philips Telecommunicatie Industrie BV (PTI) in Hilversum during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

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Public switched telephone network

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.

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Pulse dialing

Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.

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Pulse-code modulation

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.

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Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

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Quaternary numeral system

Quaternary is the base- numeral system.

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Reed relay

A reed relay is a type of relay that uses an electromagnet to control one or more reed switches.

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A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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Remote concentrator

In modern telephony a remote concentrator, remote concentrator unit (RCU), or remote line concentrator (RLC) is a concentrator at the lowest level in the telephone switch hierarchy.

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Reorder tone

The reorder tone, also known as the fast busy tone, or the congestion tone, or all trunks busy (ATB) tone is an audible call progress tone in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) that is returned to a calling party to indicate that the call cannot be processed through the network.

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In telephony, ringdown is a method of signaling an operator in which telephone ringing current is sent over the line to operate a lamp or cause the operation of a self-locking relay known as a drop.

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A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call or text message.

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Robert Bosch GmbH

Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.

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Rotary dial

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing.

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Rotary system

The rotary machine switching system, or most commonly known as the rotary system, was a type of automatic telephone exchange manufactured and used primarily in Europe from the 1910s.

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Session Initiation Protocol

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a communications protocol for signaling and controlling multimedia communication sessions in applications of Internet telephony for voice and video calls, in private IP telephone systems, as well as in instant messaging over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

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Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Signalling System No. 7

Signaling System No.

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Single point of failure

A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working.

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A softswitch (software switch) is a central device in a telecommunications network which connects telephone calls from one phone line to another, across a telecommunication network or the public Internet, entirely by means of software running on a general-purpose computer system.

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SP-1 switch

SP-1 (Stored Program 1) was the name of a computerized telephone exchange (a so-called switching office) manufactured by Northern Electric (later Northern Telecom and now Nortel Networks beginning in 1972) in Canada.

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Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.

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Stepping switch

In electrical controls, a stepping switch or stepping relay, also known as a uniselector, is an electromechanical device that switches an input signal path to one of several possible output paths, directed by a train of electrical pulses.

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Stored program control

Stored program control (SPC) was a telecommunications technology used for telephone exchanges controlled by a computer program stored in the memory of the switching system.

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Strowger switch

The Strowger switch is the first commercially successful electromechanical stepping switch telephone exchange system.

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Subscriber loop carrier

A subscriber loop carrier or subscriber line carrier (SLC) provides telephone exchange-like telephone interface functionality.

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Subscription business model

The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.

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Switchboard operator

In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.

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Switched fabric

Switched Fabric or switching fabric is a network topology in which network nodes interconnect via one or more network switches (particularly crossbar switches).

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System X (telephony)

System X was the 2nd national digital telephone exchange system to be used in the United Kingdom.

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The T-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories for digital transmission of multiplexed telephone calls.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone call

A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called party and the calling party.

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Telephone company

A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access.

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Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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Telephone exchange names

A telephone exchange name or central office name was a distinguishing and memorable name assigned to a central office.

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Telephone line

A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system.

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Telephone magneto

A telephone magneto is a hand-cranked electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce alternating current from the rotating armature.

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Telephone number

A telephone number is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed-line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line or to a wireless electronic telephony device, such as a radio telephone or a mobile telephone, or to other devices for data transmission via the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other private networks.

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Telephone numbering plan

A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.

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Telephone switchboard

A telephone switchboard is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges.

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The Sydney Morning Herald

The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Time-division multiplexing

Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.

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Tivadar Puskás

Tivadar Puskás de Ditró (English: Theodore Puskás b. 17 September 1844, Pest – d. 16 March 1893, Budapest) was a Hungarian inventor, telephone pioneer, and inventor of the telephone exchange.

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Toll-free telephone number

A toll-free telephone number or freephone number is a telephone number that is billed for all arriving calls instead of incurring charges to the originating telephone subscriber.

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In telecommunications, trunking is a method for a system to provide network access to many clients by sharing a set of lines or frequencies instead of providing them individually.

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TXE, which stands for telephone exchange electronic, was the designation given to a family of telephone exchanges developed by the British General Post Office (GPO), designed to replace the ageing Strowger systems.

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V5 interface

V5 is a family of telephone network protocols defined by ETSI which allow communications between the telephone exchange, also known in the specifications as the local exchange (LE), and the local loop.

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Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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Western Electric

Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.

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Wire spring relay

A wire spring relay is a type of relay, that has springs made from drawn wires of nickel silver, rather than cut from flat sheet metal as in the flat-spring relay.

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Woodstock, Maine

Woodstock is a town in Oxford County, Maine, United States.

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5ESS Switching System

The 5ESS Switching System is a Class 5 telephone electronic switching system developed by Western Electric for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) and the Bell System in the United States.

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9-1-1, also written 911, is an emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), one of eight N11 codes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_exchange

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