316 relations: ABNXcess, Ad valorem tax, Advertising, Africa, Albania, Albanian lek, All India Radio, Americas, An Post, Aníbal Cavaco Silva, ARD (broadcaster), Arte, Asia, Astro (television), ATV Home, ATV World, Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australian dollar, Australian Labor Party, Australian pound, Austria, BBC, BBC Alba, BBC Arabic Television, BBC iPlayer, BBC One, BBC Studios, BBC World Service, Beitragsservice von ARD, ZDF und Deutschlandradio, Belgischer Rundfunk, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian War, British Overseas Territories, Broadcast license, Broadcast relay station, Broadcasting Authority of Ireland, Brussels, Budget, Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Radio, Bulgarian National Television, Burgenland, Cable television, Cable television franchise fee, Carinthia, Channel 4, Chicago, China, ..., China Central Television, Citizenship, City of license, Commercial off-the-shelf, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Corsica, Council of Europe, Croatia, Croatian Radiotelevision, Crown colony, Cyprus, Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation, Czech Republic, Danish krone, Denmark, Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, Deutsche Welle, Deutschlandradio, Direct debit, Donald Tusk, Doordarshan, DR (broadcaster), Duna TV, Eastern Bloc, Economy of Bulgaria, Educational Broadcasting System, Educational institution, Educational television, Eesti Televisioon, Estonia, Euro, Europe, European Broadcasting Union, European Union, Evasion (law), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Flemish people, Flemish Region, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, France, France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5, France Ô, France Télévisions, Free-to-air, Freedom of information laws by country, French language, Fundraising, German language, Germany, Ghana, Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, Gibraltar, Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation, Gough Whitlam, Government of Hong Kong, Grant (money), Grant-in-aid, Great Recession, Greece, Green paper, Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation, Hong Kong, Hong Kong dollar, Hungary, Hypothecated tax, Iceland, Icelandic króna, Income tax, India, Institute for Public Policy Research, Internet, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Isle of Man Courier, Israel, Israel Broadcasting Authority, Israeli new shekel, Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation, Italy, Japan, Japanese yen, Kommersant, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Korean Broadcasting System, La Première (France), Latvia, Latvijas Televīzija, Liechtenstein, Lien, Lithuania, Lower Austria, Luxembourg, Macedonian Radio Television, Magyar Televízió, Mail carrier, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritian rupee, Mauritius, Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation, Metropolitan France, MG Alba, Monaco, Montenegro, Museum of Broadcast Communications, Namibia, Namibia Economist, Namibian Broadcasting Corporation, Namibian dollar, Narodne novine, National Assembly (Bulgaria), National Bank of Poland, National Iranian Radio & Television, Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (organization), New York City, New Zealand, New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation, New Zealand dollar, New Zealand Treasury, NHK, Nigerian Television Authority, Non-commercial, Non-commercial educational, Nonprofit organization, North Vietnam, Norway, Norwegian krone, NPR, NRK, NZ on Air, Okinawa Prefecture, Opt-in, Opt-out, ORF (broadcaster), Overseas collectivity, Overseas department, Pakistan, Pakistan Television Corporation, Pakistani rupee, PBS, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Pledge drive, Poczta Polska, Poland, Polish Radio External Service, Polish złoty, Politics of Poland, Poll tax, Polskie Radio, Post office, President of Bulgaria, Property tax, Public broadcasting, Public Broadcasting Services, Public, educational, and government access, Public-access television, Punched card, Radio, Radio advertisement, Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Radio and Television of Portugal, Radio and Television of Slovakia, Radio France, Radio France Internationale, Radio Televisyen Malaysia, Radio Televizija Republike Srpske, Radio Televizioni Shqiptar, Radio-Television of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Radiotelevizija Slovenija, Radiotjänst i Kiruna, RAI, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RÚV, Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra, Rediffusion Television, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Macedonia, Republika Srpska, Romania, Romanian leu, Romanian Television, Royal charter, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ Aertel, RTÉ.ie, RTBF, RTHK, RTL Group, RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg, RTP2, RTVE, S4C, Salzburg (state), Satellite, Satellite television, Scottish Government, Serbia, Serbian dinar, Singapore dollar, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South African Broadcasting Corporation, South African rand, South Korea, South Korean won, South Tyrol, South Vietnam, States of Austria, Student financial aid (Germany), Styria, Sveriges Radio, Sveriges Television, Sveriges Utbildningsradio, Sweden, Swedish krona, Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, Swiss franc, Swisscom, Switzerland, Telecommunication, Telephone, Telethon, Television, Television advertisement, Television in France, Television Malta, Telewizja Polska, Terrestrial television, TG4, The Namibian, TMC (TV channel), Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, TV 2 (Denmark), TV Alhijrah, TVB Jade, TVB Pearl, Tyrol (state), U.S. state, Underwriting spot, Unifi TV, United Kingdom, United States dollar, Upper Austria, USA Today, Vienna, Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie, Vorarlberg, Voting in Switzerland, Wales, Wallonia, Warsaw, Wigan Evening Post, Wireless Telegraphy Acts, WNYC, Worldview Broadcasting Channel, Yle, ZDF, 1 FL TV, 2RN (RTÉ Networks), 3sat. 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Asian Broadcasting Network (M) Sdn Bhd, DBA ABNxcess, was the sole digital cable television operator in Malaysia, launched on 8 June 2013.
An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The lek (plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
An Post (English literal translation: "The Post") is the state-owned provider of postal services in the Republic of Ireland.
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC, GColL (born 15 July 1939), is an economist who was the 19th President of Portugal, in office from 9 March 2006 to 9 March 2016.
ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters.
ARTE (Association relative à la télévision européenne) is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
All-Asian Satellite Television and Radio Operator (or better known as Astro) is a Malaysian direct broadcast satellite (DBS) Pay TV service.
ATV Home was a free-to-air Cantonese television channel in Hong Kong, owned and operated by Asia Television.
ATV World (國際台), was one of two free-to-air English language television channels in Hong Kong, the other being its arch-rival TVB Pearl.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
The Australian pound (symbol £) was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Alba is a Scottish Gaelic language digital television channel jointly owned by the BBC and MG Alba.
BBC Arabic Television is a television news channel broadcast to the Arab World by the BBC.
BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming, catchup, television and radio service from the BBC.
BBC One is the flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
BBC Studios is a British television production and distribution company.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
The Beitragsservice von ARD, ZDF und Deutschlandradio (fee collection service of ARD, ZDF and Deutschlandradio)(commonly referred to simply as Beitragsservice), is a joint organization of Germany's public broadcasting institutions ZDF, Deutschlandradio and the ARD state broadcasting institutions that is located in Cologne.
Belgischer Rundfunk (BRF) (Belgian Broadcasting) is the public-service broadcasting organization serving the German-speaking Community of Belgium.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
A broadcast license is a type of spectrum license granting the licensee permission to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes.
A broadcast relay station, satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator (U.S.), rebroadcaster (Canada), repeater (two-way radio), or complementary station (Mexico) is a broadcast transmitter which repeats, or transponds, the signal of another radio station or television station usually to an area not covered by the signal of the originating station.
The Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (BAI) (Údarás Craolacháin na hÉireann) was established on 1 October 2009 effectively replacing the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland (BCI) (Coimisiún Craolacháin na hÉireann).
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarian National Radio (Българско национално радио, Bŭlgarsko natsionalno radio; abbreviated to БНР, BNR) is Bulgaria's national radio broadcasting organization.
Bulgarian National Television (Българска национална телевизия, Bŭlgarska natsionalna televiziya) or BNT (БНТ) is the public broadcaster of Bulgaria.
Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
In the United States cable television industry, a cable television franchise fee is an annual fee charged by a local government to a private cable television company as compensation for using public property it owns as right-of-way for its cable.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
In American, Canadian and Philippine broadcasting, a city of license or community of license is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator.
Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) is an American privately owned non-profit corporation created in 1967 by an act of the United States Congress and funded by the federal government to promote and help support public broadcasting.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatian Radiotelevision (Hrvatska radiotelevizija or HRT) is a Croatian public broadcasting company.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (Ραδιοφωνικό Ίδρυμα Κύπρου, Kıbrıs Radyo Yayın Kurumu), or CyBC (ΡΙΚ, KRYK), is Cyprus' public broadcasting service.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Deutschlandradio (DLR or DRadio) is a national German public radio broadcaster.
A direct debit or direct withdrawal is a financial transaction in which one person withdraws funds from another person's bank account.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
DR (Danmarks Radio), officially Danish Broadcasting Corporation in English, is a Danish public-service radio and television broadcasting company.
Duna (English: Duna Channel, formerly: Duna Televízió) is one of public television channels in Hungary.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The economy of Bulgaria functions on the principles of the free market, having a large private sector and a smaller public one.
Korea Educational Broadcasting System (한국교육방송공사) or EBS is a children's educational television and radio network covering South Korean territory, and the only major South Korean radio and television network without a separate regional service.
An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education.
Educational television or learning television is the use of television programs in the field of distance education.
Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television) is the free-to-air national public television station of Estonia.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evasion in law, is a fundamental public policy doctrine, which exists also in the conflict of laws.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest,; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France 2 is a French public national television channel.
France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.
France 4 is a French public channel owned by France Télévisions, dedicated to entertainment.
France 5 is a public television network in France, part of the France Télévisions group.
France Ô is a French public television network featuring programming from the French overseas departments and collectivities in Metropolitan France.
France Télévisions (stylized as France.tv) is the French public national television broadcaster.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).
Freedom of Information laws (FOI laws) allow access by the general public to data held by national governments.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fundraising or fund raising (also known as "development") is the process of gathering voluntary contributions of money or other resources, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies (see also crowd funding).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) is the public broadcaster in Ghana.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) is Gibraltar's public service broadcaster.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
A grant-in-aid is money coming from central government for a specific project.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
In the European Union, the Commonwealth countries, Hong Kong and the United States, a green paper is a tentative government report and consultation document of policy proposals for debate and discussion.
The Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi or ERT (ΕΡΤ) is the state-owned public radio and television broadcaster for Greece.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong dollar (sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The hypothecation of a tax (also known as the ring-fencing or earmarking of a tax) is the dedication of the revenue from a specific tax for a particular expenditure purpose.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) is a left-wing think tank based in London.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
The Isle of Man Courier is a free weekly newspaper on the Isle of Man.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was Israel's state broadcasting organization from 1948 until May 2017.
The Israeli new shekel (שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ; شيقل جديد; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel and formerly known as the New Israeli Sheqel (NIS), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
The Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation (IPBC; lit), doing business as Kan (lit), is an Israeli statutory public corporation founded in 2014, based on the Public Broadcasting Law 2014.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Korea Electric Power Corporation, better known as KEPCO (Hangul: 켑코) or Hanjeon (Hangul: 한전), is the largest electric utility in South Korea, responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and the development of electric power projects including those in nuclear power, wind power and coal.
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) is the national public broadcaster of South Korea.
La Première is a network of radio and television stations operating in France's overseas departments and territories around the world.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvijas Televīzija (Latvian Television, LTV) is the state-owned public service television company in Latvia.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
A lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Macedonian Radio Television (Македонска радио телевизија, transliteration: Makedonska radio televizija) (or MRT) is the public broadcasting organization of the Republic of Macedonia.
Magyar Televízió (Hungarian Television) or MTV is a nationwide public television broadcasting organization in Hungary.
A mail carrier, mailman, mailwoman, postal carrier, postman, postwoman, or letter carrier (in American English), sometimes colloquially known as a postie (in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, and other parts of the United Kingdom), is an employee of a post office or postal service, who delivers mail and parcel post to residences and businesses.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The rupee (sign: ₨; ISO 4217 code: MUR) is the currency of Mauritius.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) is the national public broadcaster of the Republic of Mauritius, that is the islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agaléga.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
MG Alba is the operating name of the Gaelic Media Service (Seirbheis nam Meadhanan Gàidhlig).
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Museum of Broadcast Communications (MBC) is an American museum, the stated mission of which is "to collect, preserve, and present historic and contemporary radio and television content as well as educate, inform and entertain through our archives, public programs, screenings, exhibits, publications and online access to our resources." It is located in Chicago, Illinois.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Namibia Economist is an online newspaper in Namibia covering mainly economic topics.
The Namibian Broadcasting Corporation is the public broadcaster of Namibia.
The Namibian dollar (symbol: $; code: NAD; Namibiese dollar) has been the currency of Namibia since 1993.
Narodne novine (The People's Newspaper) is the official gazette (or newspaper of public record) of the Republic of Croatia which publishes laws, regulations, appointments and official decisions and releases them in the public domain.
The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
National Iranian Radio and Television, or NIRT for short,(رادیو تلویزیون ملی ایران) was the first Iranian radio and television organization which started its work on October 26, 1966, and operated up until the Iranian Revolution in 1979, after which NIRT became the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The foundation (literally "Dutch Public Broadcasting", abbr. NPO; in English: Dutch Public Broadcasting or Dutch Foundation for Public Broadcasting) is a Dutch public broadcasting organization that administers the public broadcasting service in the Netherlands.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation was established by the New Zealand government in 1962.
The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD, also abbreviated NZ$) (Tāra o Aotearoa) is the currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands.
The New Zealand Treasury (Kaitohutohu Kaupapa Rawa) is the central public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the Government on economic policy, assisting with improving the performance of New Zealand's economy, and managing financial resources.
is Japan's national public broadcasting organization.
The Nigerian Television Authority - also known as NTA is a Nigerian government-owned and partly commercial broadcaster that was inaugurated in 1977. At inauguration it had monopoly on television broadcasting in the country. The NTA runs the biggest television network in Nigeria with stations in several parts of Nigeria. Formerly known as Nigerian Television (NTV), the network began with a takeover of regional television stations in 1976 by the then Nigerian military authorities, and is widely viewed as the authentic voice of the Nigerian government. NTA's monopoly was broken in the 1990s.
Non-commercial (also spelled noncommercial) refers to an activity or entity that does not, in some sense, involve commerce, at least relative to similar activities that do have a commercial objective or emphasis.
The term non-commercial educational (NCE) applies to a radio station or TV station that does not accept on-air advertisements (TV ads or radio ads), as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway.
NZ on Air (or the Broadcasting Commission) (in Maori: Irirangi te Motu) is an independent New Zealand broadcast funding agency.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
The term opt-out refers to several methods by which individuals can avoid receiving unsolicited product or service information.
Österreichischer Rundfunk (Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, ORF) is the Austrian national public service broadcaster.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Television Corporation (پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, with headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
A pledge drive is an extended period of fundraising activities, generally used by public broadcasting stations to increase contributions.
Poczta Polska (Polish Post) is the state postal administration of Poland.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Radio Poland (till January 2007 as Radio Polonia, later "Polish Radio External Service", in Polish legislation also named as Polskie Radio Program V) (Polskie Radio dla Zagranicy) is the official international broadcasting station of Poland.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Politics of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
The President of the Republic of Bulgaria is the head of state of Bulgaria and the commander-in-chief of the Military of Bulgaria.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
Public Broadcasting Services Limited (PBS) is the public broadcaster of Malta.
Public, educational, and government access television (also PEG-TV, PEG channel, PEGA, Local-access television) refers to three different cable television narrowcasting and specialty channels.
Public-access television is traditionally a form of non-commercial mass media where the general public can create content television programming which is narrowcast through cable TV specialty channels.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
In the United States, commercial radio stations make most of their revenue by selling airtime to be used for running radio advertisements.
BHRT (Bosnian-Herzegovinian Radio Television; Serbo-Croatian: Bosanskohercegovačka radiotelevizija (BHRT) / Босанскохерцеговачка радиотелевизија (БХРТ)), formerly known as PBSBiH (Public Broadcasting Service of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Serbo-Croatian: Javni radiotelevizijski servis Bosne i Hercegovine / Јавни радиотелевизијски сервис Босне и Херцеговине), is an umbrella broadcasting organization and the only member of the European Broadcasting Union from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal.
Radio and Television of Slovakia (Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska) or RTVS is a state-owned nationwide public broadcasting organization in Slovakia.
Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia is a Malaysian public broadcaster.
Radio Televizija Republike Srpske (Cyrillic: Радио Телевизија Републике Српске, "Radio Television of Republika Srpska"), locally known as RTRS (РТРС) for short, is entity level public broadcaster which operates own radio and television services in the Bosnian entity Republika Srpska.
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (English: Albanian Radio and Television – RTSH) is the public broadcaster of Albania, founded in 1938 in Tirana.
The Radio-Television of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (locally known as Radiotelevizija Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine or RTVFBiH for short) is entity level public broadcaster which operates own radio and television services in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity.
Radiotelevizija Slovenija (Radio-Television of Slovenia) – usually abbreviated to RTV Slovenija (or simply RTV within Slovenia) – is Slovenia's national public broadcasting organization.
Radiotjänst i Kiruna AB (literally, "Radio Service in Kiruna") is Sweden's TV licensing body.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.
Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV) (pronounced or) ('The Icelandic National Broadcasting Service') is Iceland's national public-service broadcasting organization.
Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra, S.A. (RTVA) (meaning "Radio and Television of Andorra, PLC" in English), is the public service television and radio broadcaster in the Principality of Andorra.
Rediffusion Television (RTV) was the first television station in Hong Kong, making it both the first British colony and the first predominantly Chinese city to have television.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
Televiziunea Română, more commonly referred to as TVR, is the short name for Societatea Românǎ de Televiziune (Romanian Television Corporation), or SRTV—Romanian public television.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
RTÉ 2fm, or 2FM as it is more commonly referred to, is an Irish radio station operated by RTÉ.
RTÉ Aertel Digital is an interactive service broadcast on RTÉ One and RTÉ Two in Ireland, and also available in its entirety on the Internet.
RTÉ.ie is the brand name and home of RTÉ's online activities, located at the URL http://rte.ie.
Radio Télévision Belge Francophone (RTBF) is the public broadcasting organization of the French Community of Belgium, the southern, French-speaking part of Belgium.
Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) is the public broadcasting service of Hong Kong.
RTL Group is a leader across broadcast, content and digital.
RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg is the main television channel in Luxembourg, broadcasting in Luxembourgish.
RTP2 is the second television channel of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, the Portuguese public broadcasting corporation.
The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S.A. (Spanish Radio and Television Corporation) is the state-owned public corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service formerly called Ente Público Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE Public Entity) in 2007.
S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel 4 Wales") is a Welsh-language British public-service TV channel broadcast throughout the UK and Republic of Ireland.
Salzburg (literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The dinar (динар,; paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia.
The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state broadcaster in South Africa, and provides 19 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 5 television broadcasts to the general public.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The won (원,; symbol: ₩; code: KRW) or the Korean Republic Won is the currency of South Korea.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder.
German public universities are usually free for students.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
Sveriges Radio AB ("Swedish Radio") is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster.
SVT is the Swedish national public TV broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets, and set by the Riksdag.
Sveriges Utbildningsradio or Utbildningsradion (UR) — the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company — is a public-service corporation dedicated to serving the needs of the Swedish general public by providing educational programming on radio and television.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR; Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft, Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision, Società svizzera di radiotelevisione, '''S'''ocietad '''S'''vizra da '''R'''adio e Televisiun.) is the Swiss public broadcasting association, founded in 1931.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Swisscom AG is a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A telethon (a portmanteau of "television" and "marathon") is a televised fundraising event that lasts many hours or even days, the purpose of which is to raise money for a charitable, political or other purportedly worthy cause.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
Television in France was introduced in 1931, when the first experimental broadcasts began.
Television Malta (Televixin Malta; TVM) is a terrestrial television network in Malta operated by the national broadcaster, Public Broadcasting Services.
Telewizja Polska S.A. (TVP S.A., or Polish Television) is a public broadcasting corporation, the only public TV broadcaster in the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
TG4 (TG Ceathair; or) is an Irish public service broadcaster for Irish-language speakers.
The Namibian is the largest daily newspaper in Namibia.
TMC is a Franco-Monégasque general entertainment television channel, owned by the French media holding company TF1 Group.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.
TV 2 is a government-owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense, Funen.
TV Alhijrah (stylized in the logo as TV ALHIJRAH) is a state-owned free-to-air television network in Malaysia, which is owned and operated by Al Hijrah Media Corporation, a government owned company.
TVB Jade, or simply Jade, is a Cantonese-language free-to-air television channel in Hong Kong.
TVB Pearl is one of the two free television services in Hong Kong that mainly broadcast in the English language, the other being ATV World.
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding.
Unifi TV (stylized as unifi tv, formerly known as HyppTV before January 2018) is an IPTV service operated by Telekom Malaysia (TM).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie (Flemish Radio and Television Broadcasting Organization), or VRT, is the national public-service broadcaster for the Flemish Region and Community of Belgium.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
Voting in Switzerland (called votation) is the process by which Swiss citizens make decisions about governance and elect officials.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Wigan Evening Post (formerly Wigan Evening Post and Chronicle) is a daily (morning) British regional newspaper for the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan in Greater Manchester.
Wireless Telegraphy Act is (with its variations) a stock short title used for legislation in the Republic of Ireland, South Africa and the United Kingdom relating to wireless telegraphy.
WNYC is the trademark, and a set of call letters shared by a pair of non-profit, noncommercial, public radio stations located in New York City and owned by New York Public Radio, a nonprofit organization that did business as WNYC RADIO until March 2013.
Worldwide Broadcasting Channel is a free news channel, owned by Worldview Broadcasting Channel (M) Sdn Bhd.
Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate.
1FLTV (1 Fürstentum Liechtenstein Television) is Liechtenstein's first television broadcaster.
2RN is the trading name of RTÉ Transmission Network Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Raidió Teilifís Éireann, formerly trading as RTÉNL, which runs Ireland's principal digital terrestrial television and radio broadcast networks.
3sat is a public, advertising-free, German-language television network.
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