199 relations: Absolute zero, Alpha process, Amount of substance, Atmospheric temperature, Atom vibrations, Avogadro constant, Belize, Big Bang, Biology, Black body, Boiling point, Boltzmann constant, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boyle's law, Brian Pippard, Calibration, Calorimetry, Carnot cycle, Carnot heat engine, Carnot's theorem (thermodynamics), Celsius, CERN, Charles's law, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Classical mechanics, Classical physics, Cold, Color temperature, Combustion, Constantin Carathéodory, Convective heat transfer, Conversion of units of temperature, Cosmic microwave background, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Density, Diatomic molecule, Differential coefficient, Dimensional analysis, Dry ice, Dry-bulb temperature, Earth science, Edward Arthur Milne, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronvolt, Empirical relationship, Entropy, ..., Equipartition theorem, Ergodicity, Fahrenheit, False precision, Far infrared, Fermi energy, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, FM broadcasting, Fundamental thermodynamic relation, Gamma ray, Gas, Gas constant, Gas thermometer, Grand canonical ensemble, Ground state, Heat capacity, Heat engine, Herbert Callen, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Ilya Prigogine, Incandescent light bulb, Infrared, Instrumental temperature record, Intensive and extensive properties, Internal energy, International System of Units, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Ion, Iron, ISO 1, J. R. Partington, James Clerk Maxwell, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Joule, Kelvin, Kilogram, Kinetic energy, Kinetic theory of gases, Laser schlieren deflectometry, Latent heat, Liberia, Lightning, Liquid, List of cities by temperature, List of thermodynamic properties, Ludwig Boltzmann, Manifold, Mass, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maxwell's demon, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Measurement, Medicine, Melting point, Mercury (element), Metric system, Mole (unit), Molecule, Monatomic gas, Monotonic function, Myanmar, Natural science, Natural units, Negative temperature, Neutron star, Noble gas, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Nuclear weapon, Ole Rømer, Orders of magnitude (length), Orders of magnitude (temperature), Outside air temperature, Partial derivative, Perfect gas, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Physical quantity, Physics, Planck length, Planck temperature, Planck time, Planck's law, Plasma (physics), Population inversion, Probability distribution, Proportionality (mathematics), QCD matter, Quantum dot, Quantum mechanics, Rankine scale, Ratio, Relativistic heat conduction, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Richard Feynman, Rotation, Satellite temperature measurements, Scale of temperature, Sea surface temperature, Second law of thermodynamics, SI base unit, Silicon-burning process, Singularity (mathematics), Solid, Solubility, Speed, Speed of sound, Stagnation temperature, State of matter, Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics), Statistical mechanics, Statistical physics, Sun, Supernova, Temperature measurement, Thermal conduction, Thermal energy, Thermal equilibrium, Thermal radiation, Thermoception, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic limit, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Thermography, Thermometer, Thermoregulation, Third law of thermodynamics, Triple point, Ultraviolet, Uncertainty principle, Unit of measurement, United States, Vapor pressure, Vibration, Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, Virtual temperature, Wavelength, Wet-bulb globe temperature, Wet-bulb temperature, Wien's displacement law, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, X-ray, Z Pulsed Power Facility, Zero-point energy, Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Expand index (149 more) »

## Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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## Alpha process

The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.

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## Amount of substance

Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.

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## Atmospheric temperature

Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earth's atmosphere.

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## Atom vibrations

The atoms and ions of a crystalline lattice, which are bonded with each other with considerable inter molecular forces, are not motionless.

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## Avogadro constant

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

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## Belize

Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.

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## Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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## Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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## Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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## Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boyle's law

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.

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## Brian Pippard

Sir Alfred Brian Pippard, FRS (7 September 1920 – 21 September 2008), was a British physicist.

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## Calibration

Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

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## Calorimetry

Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.

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## Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.

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## Carnot heat engine

A Carnot heat engine is a theoretical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle.

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## Carnot's theorem (thermodynamics)

Carnot's theorem, developed in 1824 by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, also called Carnot's rule, is a principle that specifies limits on the maximum efficiency any heat engine can obtain.

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## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Charles's law

Charles's law (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated.

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## Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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## Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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## Cold

Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.

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## Color temperature

The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.

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## Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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## Constantin Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.

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## Convective heat transfer

Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.

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## Conversion of units of temperature

This is a compendium of temperature conversion formulas and comparisons among eight different temperature scales, several of which have long been obsolete.

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## Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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## Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit FRS (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a Dutch-German-Polish physicist, inventor, and scientific instrument maker.

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## Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

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## Differential coefficient

In physics, the differential coefficient of a function f(x) is what is now called its derivative df(x)/dx, the (not necessarily constant) multiplicative factor or coefficient of the differential dx in the differential df(x).

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## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

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## Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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## Dry-bulb temperature

The dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air, but shielded from radiation and moisture.

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## Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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## Edward Arthur Milne

Edward Arthur Milne FRS (14 February 1896 – 21 September 1950) was a British astrophysicist and mathematician.

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## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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## Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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## Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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## Empirical relationship

In science, an empirical relationship or phenomenological relationship is a relationship or correlation that is supported by experiment and observation but not necessarily supported by theory.

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## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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## Equipartition theorem

In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.

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## Ergodicity

In probability theory, an ergodic dynamical system is one that, broadly speaking, has the same behavior averaged over time as averaged over the space of all the system's states in its phase space.

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## Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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## False precision

False precision (also called overprecision, fake precision, misplaced precision and spurious precision) occurs when numerical data are presented in a manner that implies better precision than is justified; since precision is a limit to accuracy, this often leads to overconfidence in the accuracy, named precision bias.

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## Far infrared

Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Fermi energy

The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.

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## Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.

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## Fundamental thermodynamic relation

In thermodynamics, the fundamental thermodynamic relation is generally expressed as a microscopic change in internal energy in terms of microscopic changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following way.

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## Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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## Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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## Gas constant

The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.

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## Gas thermometer

A gas thermometer measures temperature by the variation in volume or pressure of a gas.

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## Grand canonical ensemble

In statistical mechanics, a grand canonical ensemble is the statistical ensemble that is used to represent the possible states of a mechanical system of particles that are in thermodynamic equilibrium (thermal and chemical) with a reservoir.

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## Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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## Heat engine

In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.

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## Herbert Callen

Herbert Bernard Callen (1919 – May 22, 1993) was an American physicist best known as the author of the textbook Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, the most frequently cited thermodynamic reference in physics research literature.

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## Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.

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## Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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## Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

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## Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

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## Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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## Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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## Instrumental temperature record

The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.

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## Intensive and extensive properties

Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.

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## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## International Temperature Scale of 1990

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

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## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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## ISO 1

ISO 1 is an international standard set by the International Organization for Standardization that specifies the standard reference temperature for geometrical product specification and verification.

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## J. R. Partington

James Riddick Partington (30 June 1886 – 9 October 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry who published multiple books and articles in scientific magazines.

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## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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## Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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## Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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## Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.

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## Laser schlieren deflectometry

Laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD) is a method for a high-speed measurement of the gas temperature in microscopic dimensions, in particular for temperature peaks under dynamic conditions at atmospheric pressure.

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## Latent heat

Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.

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## Liberia

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.

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## Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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## Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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## List of cities by temperature

This is a list of cities by average temperature (monthly and yearly).

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## List of thermodynamic properties

Within thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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## Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

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## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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## Maxwell's demon

In the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics, Maxwell's demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violated.

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## Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.

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## Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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## Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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## Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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## Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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## Metric system

The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.

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## Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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## Monatomic gas

In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".

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## Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

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## Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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## Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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## Natural units

In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.

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## Negative temperature

In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.

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## Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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## Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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## Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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## Ole Rømer

Ole Christensen Rømer (25 September 1644 – 19 September 1710) was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

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## Orders of magnitude (length)

The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.

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## Orders of magnitude (temperature)

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.

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## Outside air temperature

In aviation terminology, the outside air temperature (OAT) or static air temperature (SAT) refers to the temperature of the air around an aircraft, but unaffected by the passage of the aircraft through it.

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## Partial derivative

In mathematics, a partial derivative of a function of several variables is its derivative with respect to one of those variables, with the others held constant (as opposed to the total derivative, in which all variables are allowed to vary).

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## Perfect gas

In physics, a perfect gas is a theoretical gas that differs from real gases in a way that makes certain calculations easier to handle.

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## Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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## Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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## Physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Planck length

In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.

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## Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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## Planck time

In quantum mechanics, the Planck time is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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## Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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## Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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## Population inversion

In science, specifically statistical mechanics, a population inversion occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states.

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## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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## Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

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## QCD matter

Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.

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## Quantum dot

Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Rankine scale

The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.

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## Ratio

In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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## Relativistic heat conduction

Relativistic heat conduction refers to the modelling of heat conduction (and similar diffusion processes) in a way not compatible with special relativity.

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## Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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## Satellite temperature measurements

Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and land surface temperatures obtained from radiometric measurements by satellites.

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## Scale of temperature

Scale of temperature is a way to measure temperature quantitatively.

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## Sea surface temperature

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.

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## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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## SI base unit

The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived.

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## Silicon-burning process

In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.

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## Singularity (mathematics)

In mathematics, a singularity is in general a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined, or a point of an exceptional set where it fails to be well-behaved in some particular way, such as differentiability.

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## Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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## Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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## Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

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## Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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## Stagnation temperature

In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, stagnation temperature is the temperature at a stagnation point in a fluid flow.

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## State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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## Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics)

In mathematical physics, especially as introduced into statistical mechanics and thermodynamics by J. Willard Gibbs in 1902, an ensemble (also statistical ensemble) is an idealization consisting of a large number of virtual copies (sometimes infinitely many) of a system, considered all at once, each of which represents a possible state that the real system might be in.

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## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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## Statistical physics

Statistical physics is a branch of physics that uses methods of probability theory and statistics, and particularly the mathematical tools for dealing with large populations and approximations, in solving physical problems.

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## Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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## Supernova

A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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## Temperature measurement

Temperature measurement, also known as thermometry, describes the process of measuring a current local temperature for immediate or later evaluation.

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## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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## Thermal energy

Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.

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## Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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## Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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## Thermoception

Thermoception or thermoreception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperature, or more accurately, temperature differences inferred from heat flux.

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## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic limit

The thermodynamic limit, or macroscopic limit, of a system in statistical mechanics is the limit for a large number N of particles (e.g., atoms or molecules) where the volume is taken to grow in proportion with the number of particles.

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## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

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## Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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## Thermography

Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.

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## Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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## Thermoregulation

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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## Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.

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## Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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## United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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## Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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## Vibration

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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## Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water

Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) is a water standard defining the isotopic composition of fresh water.

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## Virtual temperature

In atmospheric thermodynamics, the virtual temperature (T_v) of a moist air parcel is the temperature at which a theoretical dry air parcel would have a total pressure and density equal to the moist parcel of air.

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## Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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## Wet-bulb globe temperature

The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is a type of apparent temperature used to estimate the effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed (wind chill), and visible and infrared radiation (usually sunlight) on humans.

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## Wet-bulb temperature

The wet-bulb temperature is the temperature read by a thermometer covered in water-soaked cloth (wet-bulb thermometer) over which air is passed.

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## Wien's displacement law

Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature.

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## William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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## X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Z Pulsed Power Facility

The Z Pulsed Power Facility, informally known as the Z machine, is the largest high frequency electromagnetic wave generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure.

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## Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.

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## Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

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## Redirects here:

Absolute scale of temperature, Air temperature, Generalized temperature, Hottest, Outside temperature, Static temperature, Temparature, Temperature measure, Temperatures, Temperture, Temporature, Tempurature.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature