48 relations: Acupuncture, Alcoholic drink, Amitriptyline, Analgesic, Antihistamine, Aspirin, Barbiturate, Biofeedback, Botulinum toxin, Cerebral cortex, Cervicogenic headache, Chiropractic, Cochrane (organisation), Dehydration, Headache, Hunger, Hyperalgesia, Ibuprofen, International Classification of Headache Disorders, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manual therapy, Medication overuse headache, Mirtazapine, Muscle relaxant, Muscle tone, Myofascial release, Neck pain, Neurology, New daily persistent headache, Nitric oxide, Nociception, Nortriptyline, Over-the-counter drug, Pain, Paracetamol, Propranolol, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Sleep deprivation, Spinal manipulation, Stress management, Thalamus, The BMJ, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trigeminal nerve nuclei, Trismus, Venlafaxine, Vise.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cervicogenic headache is a type of headache characterised by chronic Hemicranial pain referred to the head from either the cervical spine or soft tissues within the neck.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, chiropractors, massage therapists, athletic trainers, osteopaths, and osteopathic physicians to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most commonly includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.
Medication overuse headache (MOH), also known as rebound headache usually occurs when analgesics are taken frequently to relieve headaches.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Myofascial release (MFR, self-myofascial release) is an alternative medicine therapy that claims to treat skeletal muscle immobility and pain by relaxing contracted muscles, improving blood and lymphatic circulation, and stimulating the stretch reflex in muscles.
Neck pain (or cervical Gia) is a common problem, with two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary headache syndrome which can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Spinal manipulation is an intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints, which is asserted to be therapeutic.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and into the high cervical spinal cord.
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
A vise (American English) or vice (British English) is a mechanical apparatus used to secure an object to allow work to be performed on it.
Chronic tension headache, Muscle contraction headache, Muscle contraction headaches, Muscle-tension headache, Stress headache, Tension Headache, Tension headaches, Tension type headache, Tension-type headache.