174 relations: Acquisition of sovereignty, Adélie Land, Admiralty, Alfred Ritscher, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctic, Antarctic Plate, Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, Antarctic Treaty System, Antártica (commune), Antártica Chilena Province, Arctic, Argentina, Argentine Antarctica, Argentines, Arms control, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Australian Antarctic Territory, Axis powers, Bouvet Island, Brazil, Brazilian Antarctica, British Antarctic Survey, British Antarctic Territory, British Empire, British Overseas Territories, Catholic Church, Charcot Island, Chile, Chilean Antarctic Expedition, Chilean Antarctic Territory, Circle of latitude, Circular sector, Coats Land, Cold War, Colonial Office, Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station, Commander-in-chief, Commemorative plaque, Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Continent, Customary international law, Deception Island, Departments of Argentina, Dependencies of Norway, Diplomacy, Dumont d'Urville Station, Earth, Electromagnetism, ..., Enderby Land, Esperanza Base, Falkland Islands, Falkland Islands Dependencies, Finn Lützow-Holm, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Franklin D. Roosevelt, French Navy, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Gabriel González Videla, Geology, Germany, Governor of the Falkland Islands, Graham Land, Halley Research Station, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, Hope Bay, Hydrography, Icebreaker, Inter caetera, International Court of Justice, International Geophysical Year, International law, International relations, Ionosphere, James Marr (biologist), Japan Coast Guard, Jules Dumont d'Urville, King Edward VII Land, Kriegsmarine, Land claim, Lars Christensen, Latin America, Latitude, Laurie Island, Leo Amery, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa, Little America (exploration base), Longitude, Marie Byrd Land, Maud of Wales, Meridian (geography), Meteorology, Military activity in the Antarctic, MV Carnarvon Castle, Nazi Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Norwegian Polar Institute, Operation Highjump, Operation Tabarin, Orcadas Base, Order in Council, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz, Peru, Peso, Peter I Island, Port Lockroy, Post office, Postage stamp, Prince Edward Islands, Queen Maud Land, Richard E. Byrd, Ross Dependency, Royal Navy, Royal Society, RRS William Scoresby, Russia, Sōya (icebreaker), Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, Scotia Plate, Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, Showa Station (Antarctica), South Africa, South American Plate, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia Island, South Orkney Islands, South Pole, South Shetland Islands, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Spanish Empire, Stanley, Falkland Islands, States and territories of Australia, Statute of Westminster 1931, Store norske leksikon, Strait of Magellan, Succession of states, Swastika, Terra Australis, Territorial claims in the Arctic, Tierra del Fuego, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Treaty of Tordesillas, U-boat, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Union Jack, United Kingdom, United States, United States Antarctic Service Expedition, University of Talca, Universum (journal), Uti possidetis juris, Vivian Fuchs, Whaling, William Speirs Bruce, World War II, 160th meridian east, 20th meridian west, 28th meridian west, 45th meridian east, 50th meridian west, 50th parallel south, 53rd meridian west, 58th parallel south, 60th parallel south, 80th meridian west, 84th meridian west, 90th meridian west, 95th meridian west. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
A number of methods of acquisition of sovereignty are or have been recognised by international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over territory.
Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Alfred Ritscher (23 May 1879 in Bad Lauterberg – 30 March 1963 in Hamburg) was a German polar explorer.
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is a United States scientific research station at the South Pole, the southernmost place on the Earth.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.
The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS) is an organization created in 2003 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
Antártica is a Chilean commune in Antártica Chilena Province, Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region, which covers all the Chilean Antarctic Territory, the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile.
Antártica Chilena Province (Provincia de la Antártica Chilena) is the southernmost and one of four provinces in Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region (XII).
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argentine Antarctica (Antártida Argentina, Sector Antártico Argentino or Argentártida) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by Argentina as part of its national territory consisting of the Antarctic Peninsula and a triangular section extending to the South Pole, delimited by the 25° West and 74° West meridians and the 60° South parallel.
Argentines, also known as Argentinians (argentinos; feminine argentinas), are the citizens of the Argentine Republic, or their descendants abroad.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilian Antarctica (Antártida Brasileira or Antártica Brasileira) is the name of the Antarctic territory south of 60°S, and from 28°W to 53°W, proposed as "Zone of Interest" by geopolitical scholar Therezinha de Castro.
The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.
The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charcot Island or Charcot Land is an island administered under the Antarctic Treaty System, long and wide, which is ice covered except for prominent mountains overlooking the north coast.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The First Chilean Antarctic Expedition (1947–1948) was an expedition to Antarctica mounted by the Chilean government and military to enforce its territorial claims against British challenges, namely Operation Tabarin.
The Chilean Antarctic Territory or Chilean Antarctica (Spanish: Territorio Chileno Antártico, Antártica Chilena) is the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile.
A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.
A circular sector or circle sector (symbol: ⌔), is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector.
Coats Land is a region in Antarctica which lies westward of Queen Maud Land and forms the eastern shore of the Weddell Sea, extending in a general northeast-southwest direction between 20º00´W and 36º00´W.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
The Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz) is a permanent Antarctic research station named after the Brazilian Navy Commander Luís Antônio de Carvalho Ferraz, who visited Antarctica many times with the British exploration team and managed to convince his government to create a self-guided Brazilian Antarctic Program.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.
The 1955–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was a Commonwealth-sponsored expedition that successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
Deception Island is an island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, with one of the safest harbours in Antarctica.
Departments (departamentos) form the second level of administrative division (below the provinces) in all of Argentina except for the Province of Buenos Aires and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the national capital, each of which has different administrative arrangements.
Norway has three dependent territories (biland), all uninhabited and located in the Southern Hemisphere.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Dumont d'Urville Station (Base Dumont d'Urville) is a French scientific station in Antarctica on Île des Pétrels, archipelago of Pointe Géologie in Adélie Land.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Enderby Land is a projecting land mass of Antarctica.
Esperanza base (Base Esperanza, "Hope Base") is a permanent, all year-round Argentine research station in Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula (Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula).
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
Falkland Islands Dependencies was the constitutional arrangement for administering the British territories in Sub-Antarctica and Antarctica from 1843 until 1985.
Finn Trond Lützow-Holm (28 May 1890 – 4 June 1950) was a Norwegian military officer, aviation pioneer and polar explorer.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.
Gabriel González Videla (November 22, 1898 – August 22, 1980) was a Chilean politician.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Governor of the Falkland Islands is the representative of the British Crown in the Falkland Islands, acting "in Her Majesty's name and on Her Majesty's behalf" as the islands' de facto head of state in the absence of the British monarch.
Graham Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula that lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz.
Halley Research Station, run by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), is a scientific research station on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.
The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 4 January 2009.
Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen (7 June 1890 – 3 June 1965) was a Norwegian aviation pioneer, military officer, polar explorer and businessman.
Hope Bay (Spanish: Bahía Esperanza) on Trinity Peninsula, is long and wide, indenting the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening on Antarctic Sound.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Inter caetera ("Among other ") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May (quarto nonas maii) 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
James William Slessor Marr (9 December 1902 – 30 April 1965) was a Scottish marine biologist and polar explorer, renowned for his role as the leader of Operation Tabarin.
The, formerly the Maritime Safety Agency, is the Japanese coast guard.
Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French explorer, naval officer and rear admiral, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica.
King Edward VII Land or King Edward VII Peninsula is a large, ice-covered peninsula which forms the northwestern extremity of Marie Byrd Land in Antarctica.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Land claim(s) are a legal declaration of desired control over areas of property including bodies of water.
Lars Christensen (6 April 1884 – 10 December 1965) was a Norwegian shipowner and whaling magnate.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Laurie Island is the second largest of the South Orkney Islands.
Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery CH (22 November 1873 – 16 September 1955), usually known as Leo Amery or L. S. Amery, was a British Conservative Party politician and journalist, noted for his interest in military preparedness, British India and the British Empire and for his opposition to appeasement.
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.
Little America was a series of Antarctic exploration bases from 1929 to 1958, located on the Ross Ice Shelf, south of the Bay of Whales.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Marie Byrd Land is the portion of West Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast.
Maud of Wales, (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria; 26 November 1869 – 20 November 1938) was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII.
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
As Antarctica has never been permanently settled by humans, there has historically been little military activity in the Antarctic.
MV Carnarvon Castle was an ocean liner of the Union-Castle Line.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Polar Institute (in Norwegian: Norsk Polarinstitutt) is Norway's central governmental institution for scientific research, mapping and environmental monitoring in the Arctic and the Antarctic.
Operation Highjump, officially titled The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program, 1946–1947, was a United States Navy operation organized by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr., USN (Ret), Officer in Charge, Task Force 68, and led by Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Officer, Task Force 68.
Operation Tabarin was a secret British Antarctic expedition.
Base Orcadas is an Argentine scientific station in Antarctica, and the oldest of the stations in Antarctica still in operation.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 – November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure.
Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz (Calahorra, La Rioja, 1514 – Santiago de Chile, 1547) was a Spanish merchant, conquistador and adelantado who served as secretary to Pizarro.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The peso (meaning weight in Spanish, or more loosely pound) was a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally.
Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.
Port Lockroy is a natural harbour on the north-western shore of Wiencke Island in the Palmer Archipelago in front of the Antarctic Peninsula.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa.
Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr., (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an American naval officer and explorer.
The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
RRS William Scoresby was British Royal Research Ship built for operations in Antarctic waters.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
is a Japanese icebreaker that serves as a museum ship in Tokyo after a long and storied service spanning some of the 20th century's historic events.
The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (Îles Éparses or Îles Éparses de l'océan Indien) consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) since February 2007.
The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean.
The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE), 1902–04, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh.
, sometimes alternately spelled Syowa Station, is a Japanese permanent research station on East Ongul Island in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Stanley (also known as Port Stanley) is the capital of the Falkland Islands.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language (bokmål) encyclopedia.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.
The Arctic consists of land, internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and high seas.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire";; officially Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur) is an Argentine province.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies was a junior Ministerial post in the United Kingdom government, subordinate to the Secretary of State for the Colonies and, from 1948, also to a Minister of State.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Antarctic Service Expedition (1939–1941), often referred to as Byrd’s Third Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition jointly sponsored by the United States Navy, State Department, Department of the Interior and The Treasury.
The University of Talca (Universidad de Talca) is a Chilean university located in the cities of Talca, Curicó, Linares, Santa Cruz and Santiago.
Universum is a peer-reviewed academic journal specialising in social sciences and humanities of Latin America.
Uti possidetis juris or uti possidetis iuris (Latin for "as you possess under law") is a principle of international law which provides that newly formed sovereign states should have the same borders that their preceding dependent area had before their independence.
Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs FRS (11 February 1908 – 11 November 1999) was an English explorer whose expeditionary team completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica in 1958.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
William Speirs Bruce (1 August 1867 – 28 October 1921) was a Scottish naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE, 1902–04) to the South Orkney Islands and the Weddell Sea.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The meridian 160° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 20° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 28° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Azores, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 45° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 50° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 50th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 53° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Newfoundland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 58th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 58 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 80° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 84° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 90° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 95° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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