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Index Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim. [1]

298 relations: Adam and Eve, Afghanistan, African National Congress, Al-Qaeda, Alan Krueger, Alberto Fujimori, Algeria, American Political Science Review, Anti-terrorism legislation, Antisemitism, Aphorism, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Archives of Terror, Asia Times, Asymmetric warfare, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Boko Haram, Bombing of Dresden in World War II, British Israelism, Bruce Hoffman, C. A. J. Coady, Cain and Abel, Carleton University, Carlo Pisacane, Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, Charles Stewart Parnell, Christian Identity, Christian terrorism, Civil liberties, Clandestine cell system, Coercion, Coercion Act, Collateral damage, Combatant, Conventional warfare, Cornell University Press, Counter-terrorism, Courier, Crimes against humanity, Cyberterrorism, Cyprus, Dawson's Field hijackings, Definitions of terrorism, Democide, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Derrick Jensen, Domestic terrorism, Domestic terrorism in the United States, Edmund Burke, ..., ETA (separatist group), Ethnic group, Explosive material, Extrajudicial killing, Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, Fear, Fedayeen, Felice Orsini, Felony, Fenian dynamite campaign, Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, Foreign policy, France 24, Francisco Franco, French Directory, French Revolution, Genocide, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, George Mason University, George W. Bush, Germany, Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, Global Terrorism Database, Global Terrorism Index, Good Friday Agreement, Great Purge, Guerrilla warfare, Harvard University Press, Hate crime, Headline Publishing Group, Herodian dynasty, Hostage, House of Terror, Human Security Gateway, Ideology, India, Indonesia, Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966, Institute for Economics and Peace, Insurgency, International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, International community, International human rights law, International humanitarian law, International law, International Security (journal), Iran and state-sponsored terrorism, Iraq, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irregular military, Islamic extremism, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic terrorism, Israel, Israelites, Italian Fascism, Italy, Jacobin, James F. Pastor, Jewish religious terrorism, Jews, Jihad, Jihadi tourism, Jihadism, Joe Biden, Jonathan Friedman, Josephus, Judas of Galilee, Judea (Roman province), Julian Assange, Kenya, Khalistan movement, Kidnapping, Kilobyte, Kofi Annan, Ku Klux Klan, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Land War, Left-wing terrorism, Lehi (militant group), Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, List of causes of death by rate, List of designated terrorist groups, List of Islamist terrorist attacks, List of terrorist incidents, Loaded language, Luxor massacre, Lynching in the United States, Malayan Emergency, Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army, Malayan Races Liberation Army, Mandatory Palestine, Margaret Thatcher, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Maximilien Robespierre, Menachem Begin, Michael Walzer, Militia organizations in the United States, MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, MIT Press, Monthly Review, Mujahideen, Napoleon III, Narcoterrorism, Narodnaya Volya, National Convention, National Counter Terrorism Security Office, National Institute of Justice, National Liberation Army (Colombia), Nelson Mandela, Neo-Nazism, New People's Army, New Statesman, New World Order (conspiracy theory), Nigeria, Nobel Peace Prize, Non-combatant, Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Nuclear weapon, Operation Condor, Oppression, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Organized crime, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism, Palestine Liberation Organization, Paul James (academic), Paul Wilkinson (political scientist), Peace, Philippines, Poison, Police state, Political repression, Political science, Political spectrum, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Propaganda of the deed, Protection racket, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Queen's University Belfast, Rebellion, Red Terror, Reign of Terror, Religious denomination, Religious fanaticism, Resistance movement, Revolutionary, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Revolutionary tax, Revolutionary terror, Right-wing terrorism, Ronald Reagan, Routledge, Rules of engagement, Sadducees, Saffron terror, Sarah Palin, Secession, Second Polish Republic, Secretary (title), Secretary-General of the United Nations, Separatism, September 11 attacks, Sergey Nechayev, Serpent seed, Serpents in the Bible, Shem, Shining Path, Shock and awe, Sicarii, Smuggling, Southern Poverty Law Center, Sovereign citizen movement, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Spain, Spartacus Educational, State terrorism, State-sponsored terrorism, Stéphane Courtois, Strategic bombing, Suicide attack, Suspect, Syria, Taliban, Target hardening, Targeted killing, Telecommunication, Ten Lost Tribes, Terrorism and tourism in Egypt, Terrorism financing, Terrorism in Europe, Terrorism in Russia, Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment, Terrorist Screening Database, The Atlantic, The Black Book of Communism, The Blitz, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Pentagon, The Times, The Washington Post, Time (magazine), Timothy D. Snyder, Timothy McVeigh, Tocsearch, Turkey, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United States, United States and state terrorism, United States and state-sponsored terrorism, University of California Press, University of Maryland, College Park, Use of force by states, Utilitarianism, Value (ethics), Victims of Acts of Terror Memorial, Vigilante, Violence, Violent extremism, Violent non-state actor, War crime, War on Terror, Weapon of mass destruction, White House, White people, WikiLeaks, Wildlife smuggling, William Ewart Gladstone, William Gibson, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World War II, Worldwide Incidents Tracking System, Yigal Amir, Yitzhak Rabin, Zealots, 1975 Dutch train hostage crisis, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 2002 Bali bombings, 2008 Mumbai attacks, 7 July 2005 London bombings. Expand index (248 more) »

Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.

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Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Alan Krueger

Alan Bennett Krueger (born September 17, 1960) is an American economist who is the Bendheim Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University and Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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Alberto Fujimori

Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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American Political Science Review

The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.

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Anti-terrorism legislation

Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting terrorism.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.

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Arab states of the Persian Gulf

The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Archives of Terror

The "Archives of Terror" (Archivos del Terror) were found on December 22, 1992, by lawyer and human-rights activist Dr.

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Asia Times

Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".

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Asymmetric warfare

Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Boko Haram

The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.

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Bombing of Dresden in World War II

The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.

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British Israelism

British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a movement which holds the view that the people of England (or more broadly, the people of United Kingdom) are "genetically, racially, and linguistically the direct descendants" of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel.

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Bruce Hoffman

Bruce Hoffman (born 1954) is a political analyst specializing in the study of terrorism and counterterrorism and insurgency and counter-insurgency.

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C. A. J. Coady

Cecil Anthony John Coady, usually referred to as C. A. J. Coady or informally as Tony Coady (born 18 April 1936), is an Australian philosopher with an international reputation for his research in both epistemology and political and applied philosophy.

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Cain and Abel

In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.

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Carleton University

Carleton University is a comprehensive university located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

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Carlo Pisacane

Carlo Pisacane, Duke of San Giovanni (22 August 1818 – 2 July 1857) was an Italian patriot and one of the first Italian socialist thinkers.

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Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence

The Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) is a research centre at the School of International Relations at the University of St. Andrews, and is Europe's oldest terrorism research facility.

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Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.

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Christian Identity

Christian Identity (also known as Identity Christianity) is a racist, anti-Semitic, and white supremacist interpretation of Christianity which holds that only Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Nordic, Aryan people and those of kindred blood are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and hence the descendants of the ancient Israelites (primarily as a result of the Assyrian captivity).

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Christian terrorism

Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Clandestine cell system

A clandestine cell system is a method for organizing a group of people such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, or terrorists so that such people can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (such as law enforcement).

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Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.

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Coercion Act

The Coercion Acts, formally Protection of Person and Property Acts were British Acts of Parliament to respond with force to popular discontent and disorder.

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Collateral damage

Collateral damage is a general term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target.

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Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.

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Conventional warfare

Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.

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A courier is a company that delivers messages, packages, and mail.

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in, or threaten, loss of life or significant bodily harm, in order to achieve political gains through intimidation.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dawson's Field hijackings

In September 1970, four jet airliners bound for New York City and one for London were hijacked by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

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Definitions of terrorism

There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism.

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Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".

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Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine

The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist–Leninist–Maoist, secular political and militant organization.

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Derrick Jensen

Derrick Jensen (born December 19, 1960) is an American author and radical environmentalist (and prominent critic of mainstream environmentalism) living in Crescent City, California.

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Domestic terrorism

Domestic terrorism or homegrown terrorism is terrorism targeting victims "within a country by a perpetrator with the same citizenship" as the victims.

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Domestic terrorism in the United States

Domestic terrorism in the United States consists of incidents confirmed as terrorist acts.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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ETA (separatist group)

ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Explosive material

An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

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Extrajudicial killing

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.

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Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front

The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.

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Felice Orsini

Felice Orsini (10 December 1819 – 13 March 1858) was an Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

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The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.

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Fenian dynamite campaign

The Fenian dynamite campaign (or Fenian bombing campaign) was a bombing campaign orchestrated by Irish republicans against the British Empire, between the years 1881 and 1885.

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Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering

The Financial Action Task Force (on Money Laundering) (FATF), also known by its French name, Groupe d'action financière (GAFI), is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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French Directory

The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies

The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is a United States Department of Defense and Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany) security and defense studies institute.

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George Mason University

George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism

The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) is an international partnership of 88 nations and five official observers working to improve capacity on a national and international level for prevention, detection, and response to a nuclear terrorist event.

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Global Terrorism Database

The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is a database of incidents of terrorism from 1970 onward.

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Global Terrorism Index

The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) is a report published annually by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), and was developed by IT entrepreneur and IEP's founder Steve Killelea.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Great Purge

The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hate crime

A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership (or perceived membership) in a certain social group or race.

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Headline Publishing Group

Headline Publishing Group is a British publishing company.

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Herodian dynasty

The Herodian Dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire.

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A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.

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House of Terror

House of Terror is a museum located at Andrássy út 60 in Budapest, Hungary.

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Human Security Gateway

The Human Security Gateway is a database of research and information related to human security.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966

The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966 (also variously known as the Indonesian massacres, Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide, or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest which occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government.

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Institute for Economics and Peace

The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), is a global think tank headquartered in Sydney, Australia with branches in New York City, Mexico City and The Hague.

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An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).

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International Centre for Counter-Terrorism

The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT) is an independent think and do tank providing multidisciplinary policy advice and practical, solution-oriented implementation support on prevention and the rule of law, two vital pillars of effective counter-terrorism.

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International community

The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.

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International human rights law

International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.

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International humanitarian law

International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Security (journal)

International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.

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Iran and state-sponsored terrorism

Since the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the government of Iran has been accused by members of the international community of funding, providing equipment, weapons, training and giving sanctuary to terrorists.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irish Republican Brotherhood

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland between 1858 and 1924.

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Irregular military

Irregular military is any non-standard military component that is distinct from a country's national armed forces.

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Islamic extremism

Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamic terrorism

Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.

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James F. Pastor


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Jewish religious terrorism

Jewish religious terrorism is religious terrorism committed by extremists within Judaism motivated by religious rather than ethnic or nationalistic beliefs.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Jihadi tourism

Jihadi tourism, also referred to as jihad tourism or jihadist tourism, is a term sometimes used to describe travel to foreign destinations with the object of scouting for terrorist training.

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The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.

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Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

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Jonathan Friedman

Jonathan Friedman (born April 7, 1946) is an American anthropologist.

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Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

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Judas of Galilee

Judas of Galilee, or Judas of Gamala, was a Jewish leader who led resistance to the census imposed for Roman tax purposes by Quirinius in Iudaea Province around 6 CE.

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Judea (Roman province)

The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

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Julian Assange

Julian Paul Assange (born Hawkins; 3 July 1971) is an Australian computer programmer and the editor of WikiLeaks.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān (ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ, "The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs.

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In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will.

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Ku Klux Klan

The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.

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Kurdistan Workers' Party

The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.

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Land War

The Land War (Cogadh na Talún) in Irish history was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s.

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Left-wing terrorism

Left-wing terrorism (sometimes called Marxist–Leninist terrorism or revolutionary/left-wing terrorism) is terrorism meant to overthrow conservative or capitalist systems and replace them with Marxist–Leninist, socialist, or anarchist societies.

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Lehi (militant group)

Lehi (לח"י – לוחמי חרות ישראל Lohamei Herut Israel – Lehi, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel – Lehi"), often known pejoratively as the Stern Gang,"This group was known to its friends as LEHI and to its enemies as the Stern Gang." Blumberg, Arnold.

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Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.

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List of causes of death by rate

The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.

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List of designated terrorist groups

This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.

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List of Islamist terrorist attacks

Terrorist attacks by Islamist extremists to further a perceived Islamist religious or political cause have occurred globally.

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List of terrorist incidents

This list is incomplete.

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Loaded language

In rhetoric, loaded language (also known as loaded terms or emotive language) is wording that attempts to influence an audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes.

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Luxor massacre

The Luxor massacre was the killing of 62 people, mostly tourists, on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahri, an archaeological site and major tourist attraction across the Nile River from Luxor, Egypt.

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Lynching in the United States

Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action.

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Malayan Emergency

The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.

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Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

The Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (马来亚人民抗日军; abbreviated MPAJA) was a paramilitary group that was active during the Japanese occupation of Malaya from 1942 to 1945.

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Malayan Races Liberation Army

The Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), often mistranslated as the Malayan Races Liberation Army or MRLA, was a guerrilla army based in the Malayan peninsula and Singapore.

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers.

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Maximilien Robespierre

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

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Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.

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Michael Walzer

Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.

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Militia organizations in the United States

Militia organizations in the United States are private organizations that include paramilitary or similar elements.

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MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base

The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB) was an online portal containing information on terrorist incidents, leaders, groups, and related court cases.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Monthly Review

The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.

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Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nation's anti-narcotics police.

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Narodnaya Volya

Narodnaya Volya (Will) was a 19th-century revolutionary political organization in the Russian Empire which conducted targeted killing of government officials in attempt to promote reforms in the country.

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National Convention

The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.

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National Counter Terrorism Security Office

The National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) is a police unit.

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National Institute of Justice

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice.

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National Liberation Army (Colombia)

The National Liberation Army (Spanish: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict, Official Journal of the European Union.

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Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

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Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism.

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New People's Army

The New People's Army (NPA) (Bagong Hukbong Bayan) is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP).

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New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.

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New World Order (conspiracy theory)

The New World Order or NWO is claimed to be an emerging clandestine totalitarian world government by various conspiracy theories.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.

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Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies

The Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies (Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress, NKVTS) is a national, government-owned interdisciplinary research centre in Oslo, Norway.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Operation Condor

Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor,also known as Plan Cóndor, Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repression and state terror in Latin American countries involving intelligence operations and assassination of opponents, mainly civilians, originally planned by the CIA.

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Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.

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Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine (at the time part of interwar Poland).

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Organized crime

Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism

Pakistan has long been accused by its neighbours India and Afghanistan, and western nations like the United StatesInternational Terrorism: Threats and Responses: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary By United States Congress House Committee on the Judiciary,, 1996, pp.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Paul James (academic)

Paul James (born 1958, Melbourne), is Professor of Globalization and Cultural Diversity at Western Sydney University, and Director of the Institute for Culture and Society where he has been since 2014.

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Paul Wilkinson (political scientist)

Paul Wilkinson CBE (9 May 1937 – 11 August 2011) was a terrorism expert and an Emeritus Professor of International Relations and Director of the University of St Andrews Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV).

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Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Police state

Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.

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Political repression

Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Political spectrum

A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.

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Pre-emptive nuclear strike

In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.

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Presidency of Ronald Reagan

The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.

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Propaganda of the deed

Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others and serve as a catalyst for revolution.

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Protection racket

A protection racket is a scheme whereby a group provides protection to businesses or other groups through violence outside the sanction of the law—in other words, a racket that sells security, traditionally physical security but now also computer security.

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Provisional Irish Republican Army

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.

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Queen's University Belfast

Queen's University Belfast (informally Queen's or QUB) is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.

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Red Terror

The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

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Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Religious fanaticism

Religious fanaticism is uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to one's own, or one's group's, devotion to a religion – a form of human fanaticism which could otherwise be expressed in one's other involvements and participation, including employment, role, and partisan affinities.

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Resistance movement

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

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A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.

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Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.

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Revolutionary tax

Revolutionary tax is a major form of funding for violent non-state actors such as guerrilla and terrorist organizations.

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Revolutionary terror

Revolutionary terror (also referred to as revolutionary terrorism, or a reign of terror) refers to the institutionalized application of force to counterrevolutionaries, particularly during the French Revolution from the years 1793 to 1795 (see the Reign of Terror).

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Right-wing terrorism

Right-wing terrorism is terrorism motivated by a variety of ideologies and beliefs, including Islamophobia, anti-communism, neo-fascism and neo-Nazism, and a mindset against abortion.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rules of engagement

Rules of engagement (ROE) are the internal rules or directives among military forces (including individuals) that define the circumstances, conditions, degree, and manner in which the use of force, or actions which might be construed as provocative, may be applied.

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The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.

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Saffron terror

Saffron terror is a neologism used to describe acts of violence motivated by Hindu nationalism.

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Sarah Palin

Sarah Louise Palin (née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the ninth Governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009.

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Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Secretary (title)

Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Sergey Nechayev

Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (or Nyechayev; Серге́й Генна́диевич Неча́ев) (October 2, 1847 – November 21 or December 3, 1882) was a Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including terrorism.

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Serpent seed

Serpent seed, dual seed or two-seedline is a controversial religious belief which explains the biblical account of the fall of man by saying that the serpent in the Garden of Eden mated with Eve, and that the offspring of their union was Cain.

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Serpents in the Bible

Serpents (נחש nāḥāš) are referred to in both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.

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Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.

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Shining Path

The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.

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Shock and awe

Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a tactic based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.

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The Sicarii (Modern Hebrew: סיקריים siqari'im) were a splinter group of the Jewish Zealots who, in the decades preceding Jerusalem's destruction in 70 CE, heavily opposed the Roman occupation of Judea and attempted to expel them and their sympathizers from the area.

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Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.

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Southern Poverty Law Center

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation.

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Sovereign citizen movement

The sovereign citizen movement is a loose grouping of American, Canadian and Australian litigants, commentators, tax protesters, and financial-scheme promoters.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spartacus Educational

Spartacus Educational is a free online encyclopedia with essays and other educational material on a wide variety of historical subjects (including British History and the History of the USA, as well as other subjects including the First World War, Second World War, Russian Revolution, Slavery, Women's Suffrage, Nazi Germany, Spanish Civil War, and The Cold War).

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State terrorism

State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.

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State-sponsored terrorism

State-sponsored terrorism is government support of violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism.

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Stéphane Courtois

Stéphane Courtois (born 25 November 1947) is a French historian and university professor, a Director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Professor at the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies (ICES) in La Roche-sur-Yon, and Director of a collection specialized in the history of communist movements and regimes.

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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Suicide attack

A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.

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In law enforcement jargon, a suspect is a known person accused or suspected of committing a crime.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

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Target hardening

Target hardening, also referred to simply as hardening when made clear by the context, is a term used by police officers, those working in security, and the military referring to the strengthening of the security of a building or installation in order to protect it in the event of attack or reduce the risk of theft.

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Targeted killing

Targeted killing is defined as a form of assassination based on the presumption of criminal guilt.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Ten Lost Tribes

The ten lost tribes were the ten of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE.

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Terrorism and tourism in Egypt

Terrorism and tourism in Egypt is when terrorist attacks are specifically aimed at Egypt's tourists.

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Terrorism financing

Terrorism financing refers to activities that provide financing or financial support to individual terrorists or non state actors.

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Terrorism in Europe

There is a long history of terrorism in Europe.

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Terrorism in Russia

Terrorism in Russia has a long history starting from the time of the Russian Empire.

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Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment

The Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE) is the U.S. government's central database on known or suspected international terrorists, and contains classified information provided by members of the Intelligence Community such as CIA, DIA, FBI, NSA, and many others.

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Terrorist Screening Database

The Terrorist Screening Database or TSDB is the central terrorist watchlist consolidated by the FBI's Terrorist Screening Center and used by multiple agencies to compile their specific watchlists and for screening.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Black Book of Communism

The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timothy D. Snyder

Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.

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Timothy McVeigh

Timothy James McVeigh (April 23, 1968 – June 11, 2001) was an American domestic terrorist who perpetrated the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 people and injured over 680 others.

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The TOC search (Terrorist and Organized Criminal Search) is a dynamic data base which offers comprehensive information on global terrorist network and help researchers, analysts, students and others working to prevent terrorism.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States and state terrorism

Several scholars have accused the United States of conducting state terrorism.

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United States and state-sponsored terrorism

The United States has at various times in recent history provided support to terrorist and paramilitary organizations around the world.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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Use of force by states

The use of force by states is controlled by both customary international law and by treaty law.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Victims of Acts of Terror Memorial

The Victims of Acts of Terror Memorial in Israel (אנדרטת חללי פעולות האיבה, Andartat Halalei Pe'ulot HaEiva, lit. "Monument to the Victims of Hostile Acts") is a monument to civilian Jewish and non-Jewish victims of terrorism in modern Israel and the pre-state Land of Israel, from 1851 to the present.

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A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.

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Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.

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Violent extremism

Violent extremism refers to the beliefs and actions of people who support or use ideologically motivated violence to achieve radical ideological, religious or political views.

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Violent non-state actor

In international relations violent non-state actors (VNSA) (also known as non-state armed actors or non-state armed groups) are individuals and groups which are wholly or partly independent of state governments and which threaten or use violence to achieve their goals.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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War on Terror

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

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WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.

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Wildlife smuggling

Wildlife smuggling or trafficking involves the illegal gathering, transportation, and distribution of animals and their derivatives.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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William Gibson

William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Worldwide Incidents Tracking System

The Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) was a publicly accessible terrorism database operated by the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).

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Yigal Amir

Yigal Amir (יגאל עמיר; born May 23, 1970) is an Israeli who assassinated Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin.

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Yitzhak Rabin

Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.

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The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).

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1975 Dutch train hostage crisis

On December 2, 1975, seven South Moluccan terrorists seized a train with about 50 passengers on board in open countryside near the village of Wijster, halfway between Hoogeveen and Beilen in the northern part of the Netherlands.

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1983 Beirut barracks bombings

The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.

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2002 Bali bombings

The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali.

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2008 Mumbai attacks

The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a group of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai.

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7 July 2005 London bombings

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, United Kingdom, which targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism

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